Midships framing is composed of alternating floor timbers (varengas) and first futtocks (genoles), which represent the “ribs” (ligaçon) of the ship’s skeleton. Floors are laid at intervals across the top of the keel. Central waterways, or limber holes (groeras), were cut through the bottom edge of the floors and run parallel to the keel. The waterways allowed circulation of bilge water through the hull to the pump sump; they measure 6 cm in width and 1.5 cm in height. The waterway of the floor forward of the pump well appears to be blocked by a concretion.
Outboard, and between each floor are fastened futtocks to form an interlocking and alternating band of timbers that curve outwards and upwards from the keel to form the framework of the hull. On-center spacing of floor timbers is 36 cm to 38 cm, and floor dimensions are 18 cm to 20 cm in sided width, and 18 cm of molded thickness at the wrong head and 25 cm at the keel. Each wrong head (palmejar, the outboard end of the floor timber) was notched out where small iron fasteners were driven into the first futtock. The main connection point between floors and futtocks, however, was obscured by ceiling and bottom planking. Interlocking dovetail scarphs were a common method of connecting floors and futtocks on ships of the 16th century (Oertling 1989c:102); although their presence is suspected here, dovetail scarphs could not be confirmed without disassembling the ceiling planking. A treenail hole on the forward molded face of the master couple frame extends horizontally to connect the first futtock.
Fig. 14. Port wrong heads. The left wrong head represents the master couple frame.
Based on a point at which the direction of the notches in the wrong heads changed (from facing aft to facing forward), the ship’s main frame (quaderna maestre) was determined. Located at the broadest part of the hull (below the forward end of the mainmast step mortise), the main frame is distinguished by a master couple, where the main floor has two futtocks attached to it, instead of one. At this point, futtock placement changes, i.e., forward of the main frame, futtocks are fastened to the forward edge of each floor, and abaft the main frame, they are attached to the after edge of each floor. In this way, the ship’s interlocking framework was given uniform integrity and strength. Deadrise (the amount of elevation above the horizontal plane) in the midship floor, from centerline to the outboard edge of the port footwale, is flat, rising at around one degree. Beyond the footwale, the floor curved upwards to begin the turn of the bilge.
Fig. 15. Midships cross section of the port side of the hull.
First futtocks are placed approximately 65 cm away from the center of the keel. Futtock sided widths are between 16 cm and 18 cm, and their molded thicknesses are 19 cm. The aft futtock of the master couple extends for a length of 87 cm, from its tapered inboard heel to a splintered outboard end that terminated abruptly, along with the ceiling planking. At this point, continued outboard excavations for some two meters, following a one-meter wide trench, encountered no additional ship’s hull structure. Instead, only loose ballast stones, ceramic sherds, and a single length of heavy rope, running parallel to the hull, were found. Below, only sterile sand was found. Apparently, the ship suffered from a violent pounding on the sand bar, which caused severe damage to this portion of the hull.
Fig. 16. A large length of hemp line was found lying outboard of the port hull structure.