All ship timbers examined to date, except for stern Frame 6, are exclusively oak (Quercus sp.) (see Table IX.). According to Newsom (1995:1), the cellular structure of the samples is consistent with the white oak anatomical group. White-type oaks are found on both sides of the Atlantic and are often difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish. The use of white oak in ship construction, including 16th-century practices, has been well documented.