Florida's History Through Its Places
St. Johns County
St. Augustine ABBOTT TRACT HISTORIC DISTRICT 1838-1930. 124 historic buildings within 17 blocks. Predominant style: Frame Vernacular with open or screened porches, gabled roofs. Some Revival structures as well as others with Victorian elements. Notable structure: Castle Warden (1887), Moorish Revival style. The district has the highest percentage of pre-1930 buildings in the city. First real estate development outside the colonial city. N.R. 1983.
St. Augustine CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS NATIONAL MONUMENT 1 Castillo Dr. 1672-1696. Built on the site of several earlier wooden forts. Present stone fort, moat, and outworks built to protect Spanish territory in Florida as well as Spanish shipping along the coast. Oldest masonry fortification in continental U.S. Between 1680 and 1759 it was the hub of turmoil in the Southeast between the Spanish and English. Served as military prison in 19th century. Museum. Public. N.R. 1966.
St. Augustine GONZALEZ-ALVAREZ HOUSE (Oldest House) 14 St. Francis St. c. 1723, 1775-1786, 1790. Stone Vernacular. Originally 2 stories, with frame porch, frame 2nd floor added later. Oldest house in city, an excellent example of the area's 18th-century vernacular architectural evolution. Greatly altered over time. Private. N.R. 1970.
St. Augustine HOTEL PONCE DE LEON King and Cordova Sts. 1887-1888. Spanish Renaissance Revival with Moorish Revival elements. John M. Carrere and Thomas Hastings, architects. 3 and a half to 4 and a half stories, modified U-shaped, central dome flanked by square towers. Interior decorated with Tiffany glass, murals, and mosaic tiles. The premier of 3 Flagler hotels in the city. Considered one of the finest examples of its architectural style in the U.S. and the first large building to be made of poured concrete. Now Flagler College. Private. N.R. 1975.
St. Augustine LINCOLNVILLE HISTORIC DISTRICT 1870-1930. 688 buildings, 548 of historical interest. Wood Vernacular, Mediterranean Revival, and Bungalow styles predominate. All contributing structures built before 1930. District grew from a small black settlement founded there after the Civil War. Coquina used for foundations, wood for the buildings. Black builders designed and built many of the buildings. Public and Private. N.R. 1991.
St. Augustine MODEL LAND COMPANY HISTORIC DISTRICT 1839-1930. 20 blocks. Predominant styles: Frame Vernacular and various Revival styles. Hotel Ponce de Leon and Grace United Methodist Church are notable structures. Residential neighborhood developed mainly during the Flagler era and in which many of Flagler's administrators lived. The city's most outstanding examples of late 19th century buildings found within it. N.R. 1983.
St. Augustine OLD ST. JOHNS COUNTY JAIL (Authentic Old Jail) 167 San Marcos Ave. c. 1891. Romanesque Revival. 2 and a half stories, masonry. Built by P.J. Pauly and Brothers Jail Building and Manufacturing Company for the city with money advanced by Henry F. Flagler, the city's leading developer. Now a tourist attraction. Private. N.R. 1987.
St. Augustine SOLLA-CARCABA CIGAR FACTORY (Pamies and Arango Cigar Factory) 88 Riberia St. 1909. Masonry Vernacular with Mediterranean Revival elements. Fred A. Henderich, architect. 4 stories. Barrel-tile roof. Oldest surviving industrial building in St. Augustine. Presently a warehouse. Private. N.R. 1993.
St. Augustine ST. AUGUSTINE HISTORIC DISTRICT 1600-1900. 31 known houses in the district pre-date 1821. Stone and tabby vernacular buildings with Spanish and Colonial American elements predominate. Founded in 1565, St. Augustine is the oldest European settlement within the United States. Typical Spanish colonial town, with a number of reconstructed buildings, a central marketplace, and narrow streets. N.R. 1986.
St. Augustine VILLA ZORAYDA (Zorayda Castle) 83 King St. 1883. Moorish Revival. Franklin W. Smith, architect. 2 stories. Liberal use of ornamentation and unusual window shapes. Irregular shape, built of reinforced concrete. The earliest Moorish Revival style residence in Florida. Served as winter residence of Bostonian Smith, an amateur architect who traveled widely in Spain. Now a museum. Private. N.R. 1993.
Elkton SANCHEZ FARMSTEAD 7270 Old State Road 207. 1883. Frame vernacular. Two stories. The Sanchez Farmstead is one of the earliest and best examples of a small farm complex in rural St. Johns County. Located on approximately 8 acres, the farmstead includes the main house, detached kitchen, two-story barn, and other associated structures. The main house is an excellent example of vernacular architecture, built by John Henry Sanchez in the Georgian four-square form. The second story was added circa 1900. John Henry Sanchez became one of the pioneer farmers in St. Johns County and the Sanchez farm was a major agricultural producer in the early twentieth century. Private. NR 2001.
Ponte Vedra Beach SHELL BLUFF LANDING Guana River State Park. 3000 B.C.-A.D. 1300. Middle Archaic, Deptford, and St. Johns periods. An oyster-shell midden, which extends approximately 450 meters N/S on the bluff above the river, and from 150 to 250 meters E/W. Site was occupied for over 5000 years and includes artifacts from the colonial period as well as from Pre-Columbian periods. Public. N.R. 1991.
St. Augustine ALCAZAR HOTEL 79 King St. 1887-1889. Spanish Renaissance and Moorish. John M. Carrere and Thomas Hastings, architects. 4 stories, central courtyard, main entrance flanked by 2 tall towers. The hotel was built by Henry M. Flagler as part of a complex of 3 buildings in his quest to create a "Riviera" of the city and its surroundings. The architects were young graduates of L'Ecole des Beaux-Arts of Paris sent by Flagler to Spain to study Spanish and Moorish architecture. Hotel is now the Lightner Museum and City Hall. Private-Public. N.R. 1971.
St. Augustine AVERO HOUSE 39 St. George St. Early 18th century. Spanish colonial elements. 2 stories, stuccoed, 1st-floor windows have rejas (bars). 4 vigas (roof beams) on front facade. Among the oldest houses in the district, once used as a private oratory by Catholic Minorcans and as a place of worship for Greeks who migrated from the failed New Smyrna colony. Private. N.R. 1972.
St. Augustine CATHEDRAL OF ST. AUGUSTINE Cathedral St. 1797, restored 1887-1888, remodeled 1965-66. Spanish Colonial and Renaissance Revival. 1 story, coquina, concrete, twin Doric columns at main entrance. The parish of St. Augustine, established in 1594, is the oldest in the U.S. An early 18th-century church on site was largely destroyed in 1887. Restored structure retains only the facade and portions of side walls from the older one. Private. N.R. 1970.
St. Augustine FORT MOSE SITE (Second) Fort Mose, a free Black military and residential community, officially known as Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, was the first legally sanctioned free Black community within the present boundaries of the United States. The Spanish Governors of Florida established Fort Mose in 1738 and abandoned it in 1740, but reestablished it at a second site nearby in 1752. It was occupied by the free Black community until 1763, when Spain ceded control of Florida to Great Britain and the community immigrated to Cuba. Through archeological investigation, investigators were able to locate the site of the fort and discover numerous intact prehistoric and historic archeological components dating from before and after the occupation of Fort Mose by free Blacks. Public-State. NR 1994.
St. Augustine GRACE UNITED METHODIST CHURCH 8 Carrera St. 1887. Spanish Renaissance Revival with Moorish elements. John M. Carrere and Thomas Hastings, architects. 2 stories, masonry with salmon-colored brick, square turret, with conical roof, terra-cotta trim, and ornamentation. Built by Henry M. Flagler and is an excellent example of early use of poured concrete in construction. Private. N.R. 1979.
St. Augustine HORACE WALKER HOUSE 33 Old Mission Road. ca. 1888. Masonry Vernacular. Two stories. The residence was built using custom mold-formed concrete blocks known at the time as “artificial stone.” Concrete block construction was in a developmental stage in the late 19th century, and the Walker Blocks exhibit typical characteristics of smooth/rough opposite surfaces, and iron rod reinforcement. The home was built along eclectic lines, reflecting contemporary Moorish Revival buildings within St. Augustine. The house is rare for both its style and material. Private. NR 1998
St. Augustine MARKLAND (Andrew Anderson House) 102 King St. 1893, 1899, 1901. Classical Revival. 2 and a half stories, coquina block, 2-story gallery on the south and east facades. Veranda features large Ionic columns. Built by Dr. Andrew Anderson, Sr., from New York, a leader in the community. He and his son influenced Henry Flagler in his decision to make the city a winter resort. Presently part of Flagler College. Private. N.R. 1978.
St. Augustine PENA-PECK HOUSE 143 St. George Street. ca 1750. Two stories, coquina stone and wood construction. The Pena-Peck House was built for the Spanish Royal Treasurer Juan Esteban de Pena. During the British Period, the structure was home to Acting Governor John Moultrie and later Patrick Tonyn, the last governor of British East Florida. In 1837, Dr. Seth Peck bought the house and constructed the second story of the home. Members of the Peck family lived in the house until 1931, when the structure was willed to the City of St. Augustine to be used as a house museum. Public-local. NR 1970.
St. Augustine RODRIQUEZ-AVERO-SANCHEZ HOUSE 52 St. George St. 18th and 19th centuries. Spanish and Colonial American elements. 2 and a half stories, coquina, frame, clapboarding, gable roof. Illustrates the evolution of a Spanish residence from a small 1-room dwelling into the extant 2 and a half-story structure. Frame upper story is 19th century. Private. N.R. 1971.
St. Augustine ST. AUGUSTINE CIVIC CENTER 10 Castillo Drive. 1935. Mission Revival. One story. Designed by locally prominent architect Frederick Henderich, the building was constructed using funds granted by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). The structure is a good example of the Mission Revival Style applied to a civic building and developed during the New Deal. The 1935 civic enter has the distinction of being the last major coquina building constructed in St. Augustine. Public-local. NR 2005
St. Augustine ST. AUGUSTINE LIGHTHOUSE AND KEEPER'S QUARTERS Old Beach Rd. 1871-1874. Conical tower. Brick, 165 feet tall. Keeper's quarters: 2 stories, Vernacular, red brick, partially destroyed by fire in 1970. The oldest surviving brick structure in St. Augustine, it is near the site of a wooden watchtower built by Spanish in the 16th century and a later stone tower converted to a lighthouse in 1824. Rebuilt between 1871 and 1874. Public. N.R. 1981.
St. Augustine ST. AUGUSTINE OSTRICH AND ALLIGATOR FARM 999 Anastasia Blvd. 1921, 1937. Vernacular. 30-acre complex of buildings that form one of Florida's oldest continuously operating tourist attractions. The building complex dates from 1937. One of the 2 buildings, the 3-story tower, is an excellent example of Mission style. Private. N.R. 1992.
St. Augustine XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE 20 Aviles St. 1797-1802. Spanish and American Colonial elements. 2 and a half stories, frame with plastering, wooden-frame balconies, roof with gabled dormers. Built for Andres Ximenez, Spanish merchant, the building has served as a store, public billiard parlor, and boardinghouse. Museum. Private. N.R. 1973.
St. Augustine Beach SPANISH COQUINA QUARRIES Fl. A1A on Anastasia Island. 17th and 18th centuries. Quarries on island opened in late 17th century. Coquina stone consists of ground shells held loosely together by a calcareous cement formed by the reaction of water, sand, and calcium. Coquina hardens when dried. Stone transported to St. Augustine, where it was used in the construction of many buildings including Castillo de San Marcos. Public. N.R. 1972.
Vicinity of St. Augustine FISH ISLAND SITE Matanzas River S of St. Augustine. 18th and 19th centuries. Site of one of Florida's earliest groves. Established by Jesse Fisher, from New York, who acquired the property in 1763. Plantation produced oranges, figs, peaches, pomegranates and limes. Plantation declined in the early territorial period. Private. N.R. 1972.
Vicinity of St. Augustine FORT MATANZAS NATIONAL MONUMENT 14 mi. S of St. Augustine on Fl. A1A. 16th to 19th century. Stone tower built as part of the defense system of St. Augustine. Site of much fighting among French, Spanish, and British for area supremacy. On this site, in 1565, the Spaniard Pedro MenŽndez de AvilŽs had executed over 300 captured members of a French Huguenot military expedition sent to colonize Florida. First watchtower built by Spanish to warn the town of approaching ships (late 16th century). Fort abandoned when U.S. acquired Florida. Public. N.R. 1966.