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Alachua

WILLIAM BARTRAM (1739-1823)
Location:N.E.Cholokka Blvd. County Road 25-A at N.E. Semin
County: Alachua
City: Micanopy
Description: The great quaker naturalist of Philadelphia made a long journey through the southeastern states in the 1770's collecting botanical specimens. In May, 1774, he visited the Seminole Chief, Cowkeeper, at the Indian village of Cuscowilla located near this spot. His book, "TRAVELS...", provided the earliest reliable account of North Florida landscape, flora, fauna and Indian life and his vivid images of local scenes inspired Coleridge, Wordsworth and Emerson.
DICKISON AND HIS MEN / JEFFERSON DAVIS' BAGGAGE
Location:S.R. 24. in Waldo on front of caboose in City Park
County: Alachua
City: Waldo
Description: Side 1: John Jackson Dickison (1816-1902), Florida's famous Civil War guerrilla leader, bivouacked at Camp Baker, south of here, during the closing weeks of the conflict. Dickison and his men became legendary figures. As Company H, Second Florida Cavalry, they engaged in skirmishes, raids, battles, scouting expeditions, and forced marches from the time of organization at Flotard's Pond, Marion County, in 1862, until the force was mustered out at Waldo on May 20, 1865. Side 2: On June 15, 1865, a detachment of Union soldiers under Captain O.E. Bryant seized personal baggage belonging to Confederate President Jefferson Davis and some of the Confederate government's records in a house near this site. The trunks and papers were hidden first at Senator David Levy Yulee's plantation, "Cottonwood" between Archer and Gainesville. The baggage was moved to Waldo and placed in care of the railroad agent.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Seaboard Air Line Railroad Company
CITY OF GAINESVILLE
Location:200 East University Avenue, between 1st St.NE & 3rd St.NE, Gainesville City Hall
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Designated the County Seat in 1854, and incorporated as a City in 1869, Gainesville takes its name from General Edmund Gaines, captor of Aaron Burr and commander of U.S. Army troops in Florida during the Second Seminole War. The town was the fourth Alachua County Seat of government. The University of Florida and its educational predecessors have been located in Gainesville since the 1850's.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
FIRST GAINESVILLE SKIRMISH / BATTLE OF GAINESVILLE
Location:200 East University Avenue, between 1st St.NE & 3rd St.NE, Gainesville City Hall
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Side 1: The first Civil War gunfire in Gainesville's streets came on February 15, 1864, when a raiding party of 50 men from the 40th Massachusetts Cavalry entered the City to attempt the capture of two trains. The raid was unproductive, for the Federal troops were met and repulsed by the Second Florida Cavalry at what is now Main Street at University Avenue. Five days later, the main Federal force was defeated at the battle of Olustee, 50 miles to the north. Side 2: A Civil War battle was fought in Gainesville on August 17, 1864, when about 300 occupying Federal Troops were attacked by Florida Cavalry under Captain J.J. Dickison, called "Florida's most conspicuous soldier." The Federals were driven from the City after a brisk fight and suffered severe casualties during hard pursuit, which ended in victory for the Confederate force.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
SPANISH CATTLE RANCHING
Location:E. University Ave near Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Garden
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Present-day Gainesville was the center of a large Spanish cattle ranching industry, founded on the labor of native Timuqua Indians, during the 1600s. LaChua, largest of the ranches, was a Spanish corruption of an Indian word, and in turn was corrupted into "Alachua County." English raids destroyed the Indian civilization and Spanish ranches, although large wild herds of cattle were not uncommon during Seminole War years (1835-1842).
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
EAST FLORIDA SEMINARY
Location:200 East University Avenue, between 1st St.NE & 3rd St.NE, Gainesville City Hall
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Founded as the Gainesville Academy before the Civil War and later renamed, the East Florida Seminary served Gainesville's need for higher education until the University of Florida was created bythe Florida Legislature in 1905. The Seminary school building, erected after an earlier structure burned in 1833, was converted to use as a fellowship hall by the First Methodist Church, at 419 N.E. 1st Avenue.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
ALACHUA COUNTY COURTHOUSE
Location:Corner of Main (SR 329) & SE 1st St.
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: The Alachua County Commission, by authority of the Florida Legislature, selected this site for a courthouse in 1854, moving the county seat from Newnansville. The first courthouse was a frame building completed in 1856. It was demolished on the completion of a red brick courthouse in 1886. The current building, completed in 1958, and its 1962 addition, were erected in response to the continuing expansion of governmental needs in Alachua County.
Sponsors: Alachua County Historical Commission, Authorized by the Board of County Commissioners in Cooperation with Department of State
FORT CLARKE
Location:W. of city on S.R. 26, on grounds of Ft. Clark Chu
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Near this site was located Fort Clarke, originally a U.S. Army post during the Seminole War, and afterwards a settlement. The name is preserved in nearby Fort Clarke Church. At this site crossed the early settlement and military road connecting the old county seats at Newnansville (near present-day Alachua) and Spring Grove with Micanopy. Fort Clarke was named for a U.S. Army officer.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Alachua County Historical Commission, Authorized by The Board of County Commissioners In Cooperation With Department of State
ARCHER, FLORIDA
Location:16870 SW 134th Ave City Hall grounds
County: Alachua
City: Archer
Description: Side 1: When Europeans first arrived in this area in the 16th century, the inhabitants were Timucuan Indians. In 1774, traveling botanist William Bartram visited Seminole Indians nearby. In the 1850's a town called Deer Hammock was established here, probably in anticipation of the construction of the Florida Railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Key. Upon completion of the railroad to Deer Hammock in 1859, the name of the town was changed in honor of James T. Archer, Florida's Secretary of State 1845-49 and advocate of internal improvements. The Archer post office was established the same year. In May, 1865, the remnants of the Confederate treasury, removed from captured Richmond and conveyed by baggage train into Florida, were hidden at Cotton Wood, the Archer plantation of David Yulee, just prior to Union seizure at Waldo. Side 2: In the contested presidential election of 1876, the votes of the Archer precinct for the Republican candidate were among those challenged but allowed to stand, thus securing the victory of Rutherford B. Hayes over Samuel J. Tilden. The town of Archer was incorporated in 1878. Among new arrivals in the 1880's were Quakers who planted extensive orange groves using avenues of oaks as windbreaks. The freezes of 1886 and 1894-95 killed the orange trees, but the oaks survived to shade the city streets. Archer's oldest surviving industry is the Maddox Foundry, established in 1905 by H. Maddox and operated by his descendants.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Alachua County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
CITY OF ALACHUA
Location:15100 NW 142nd Terrace
County: Alachua
City: Alachua
Description: Upon completion to Gainesville of the Savannah, Florida and Western Railway in May 1884, citizens from the former county seat at Newnansville were among those who moved to the present site of Alachua which was near the railroad. The city is located in a productive farming area. The Bellamy Road, a national highway from St. Augustine to Pensacola authorized in 1824, originally passed near the northeast city boundary. The post office was established April 30, 1887. The city was incorporated April 12, 1905.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Alachua County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
NEWBERRY, FLORIDA
Location:25440 W Newberry Road
County: Alachua
City: Newberry
Description: Side 1: Only after about 1870 did phosphates become an important world industry. In Alachua County, phosphates were discovered late in the 1870's, but as in other regions of Florida, the major developments in phosphate mining and processing began about 1889. The western part of Alachua County contained the major local deposits of rock phosphates Mines began to spring up after 1890, and by 1893, the Savannah, Florida, and Western Railway, already active in the area, extended its tracks southward from High Springs through the phosphate producing territory. Side 2: As a result of the mining activity and the appearance of the railroad, a new settlement appeared. A post office was established on March 19, 1894, under the name of Newtown; on August 1, the name was changed to Newberry. Most probably the new name was intended to honor Newberry, South Carolina, as many people had moved to North Florida from that town in the nineteenth century. The town of Newberry was incorporated in 1895. Phosphates continued to be the area's most important industry until the events of World War I reduced the market for the mineral. The region was later noted for its watermelon production and for other agricultural crops.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Alachua County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
HAWTHORNE, FLORIDA
Location:N. Johnston St. between 65th Ave and SE 66th Ave
County: Alachua
City: Hawthorne
Description: Side 1: In 1774, noted botanist William Bartram travelled across what is now the southeastern corner of Alachua County following an old Indian and trading trail. In Florida's territorial period, English-speaking settlers used the same route as a frontier road. By 1840, another road from the north crossed that trail near present day Hawthorne. In 1848, Morrison had begun to operate a mill there on what Bartram had described as a "rapid brook." A United States post office called Morrison's Mills was established at that site in 1853 in order to serve the increasing population of the area. Side 2: In 1879, the Peninsular Railroad was completed from Waldo to Ocala, bypassing Morrison's Mills. In that year, a new town grew up nearer the railroad. This village was at first called Jamestown, but in 1880, the name was changed to Hawthorne. Both names were in honor of James M. Hawthorne, a local landowner. In 1881, the Florida Southern Railway was completed from Palatka to Gainesville, crossing the Peninsular Railroad at Hawthorne. In the 1880's the community there was also known unofficially as Wait's Crossing in reference to another family living in the area. In 1883, a stone quarry near Hawthorne became the site of Florida's earliest phosphate mill. The mill was operated for two years by Dr. C. A. Simmons, who in 1879 had been the first person to recognize phosphate in Florida. However, the most important resources of the Hawthorne area have been its agricultural and forestry products such as sea island cotton and turpentine.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Alachua County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
WALDO
Location:S.W. 5th Blvd.(east bound SR24) at S.W. 2nd Way in
County: Alachua
City: Waldo
Description: The first permanent English-speaking settlers came to the northeast portion of Alachua County in the 1820's. In 1837, during the Second Seminole War, an army post, Fort Harlee, was established on the Santa Fe River about three miles north of this spot. Abandoned as a military installation in 1838, the settlement at Fort Harlee served as a postal center for the surrounding community until 1858. In that year a post office was established at a town being founded at the point where the Florida Railroad (then under construction) would cross the Bellamy Road. This new town was named Waldo in honor of Dr. Benjamin Waldo. The name was probably selected by David Levy Yulee, president of the Florida Railroad. By February 1, 1859, the Florida Railroad was completed through Waldo to Gainesville. The Peninsular Railroad, planned as early as 1859 to run from Waldo to Tampa, was completed to Ocala in 1881. Both roads were part of the Florida Transit Railway. Waldo had become an important rail junction and continued to be until the shops and headquarters were moved beginning in 1929. Another transportation link was established in 1879 when the Santa Fe Canal Company completed construction of two canals from Waldo to Melrose via Lake Alto and Lake Santa Fe. In the late 19th century the steamboat "F.S. Lewis" and later the "Alert" carried passengers and freight. Commercial use of the canals declined around 1920, but they continue to be used by pleasure craft. Waldo citizens met in 1876 and organized a municipal government. The town was incorporated August 1, 1907. Many settlers and tourists came to Waldo in the 1880's, reflecting the growth of the citrus industry in North Florida. The freezes of 1886 and 1894-95 ruined the citrus groves in the Waldo area, but the region has remained an agriculturally productive one.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Alachua County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
HIGH SPRINGS, FLORIDA
Location:110 Northwest 1st Avenue
County: Alachua
City: High Springs
Description: The northwest region of Alachua County was probably first settled on a permanent basis by English speaking people during the late 1830's. One of the earliest settlements `in the vicinity was a Crockett Springs, located about three miles east of present day High Springs. Settlers who were living there during the 1840's included Fernando Underwood and Marshal Blanton. No town developed in the area before the latter part of the nineteenth century. In 1884, the Savannah, Florida, and Western Railroad was extended from Live Oak to Gainesville. A post office and station were established here in that year under the name of Santaffey, which was a common spelling of the name of the nearby Santa Fe River. The town was also known unofficially as Orion before the name was changed in 1880 to High Springs. In the next few years, High Springs boomed as a result of the development of phosphate mining in the area. In 1892, the town was incorporated. During the next year, the Savannah, Florida, and Western Railroad completed its South Florida Division which connected High Springs with Port Tampa. By the beginning of the twentieth century, High Springs was known as an important railroad center. In later years, High Springs has been the focus for the surrounding agricultural region.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Alachua County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
HAWTHORNE, FLORIDA
Location:218th Street near Gainesville Hawthorn Trail
County: Alachua
City: Hawthorne
Description: Side 1: In 1774, noted botanist William Bartram travelled across what is now the southeastern corner of Alachua County following an old Indian and trading trail. In Florida's territorial period, English-speaking settlers used the same route as a frontier road. By 1840, another road from the north crossed that trail near present day Hawthorne. In 1848, Morrison had begun to operate a mill there on what Bartram had described as a "rapid brook." A United States post office called Morrison's Mills was established at that site in 1853 in order to serve the increasing population of the area. Side 2: In 1879, the Peninsular Railroad was completed from Waldo to Ocala, bypassing Morrison's Mills. In that year, a new town grew up nearer the railroad. This village was at first called Jamestown, but in 1880, the name was changed to Hawthorne. Both names were in honor of James M. Hawthorn, a local landowner. In 1881, the Florida Southern Railway was completed from Palatka to Gainesville, crossing the Peninsular Railroad at Hawthorne. In the 1880's the community there was also known unofficially as Wait's Crossing in reference to another family living in the area. In 1883, a stone quarry near Hawthorne became the site of Florida's earliest phosphate mill. The mill was operated for two years by Dr. C. A. Simmons, who in 1879 had been the first person to recognize phosphate in Florida. However, the most important resources of the Hawthorne area have been its agricultural and forestry products such as sea island cotton and turpentine.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Alachua County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
HOGTOWN SETTLEMENT / FORT HOGTOWN
Location:West Side park on corner of 34th St. and 8th Ave.
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Side 1: Near this site was located Hogtown, one of the earliest settlements in Alachua County. It was originally an Indian village which in 1824 had fourteen inhabitants. Hogtown settlement is also mentioned in documents of the early nineteenth century which discuss land grants issued by the Spanish crown during the Second Spanish Period in Florida's history (1783-1821). In the late 1820's Hogtown became a white settlement as American pioneers occupied Indian land from which the Seminoles had been removed by the terms of the Treaty of Moultrie Creek. In 1854, the town of Gainesville was founded on a site located a few miles east of Hogtown. Side 2: During the Second Seminole War (1835-42), a settler's fort was built at the Hogtown settlement near this site. Shortly before the onset of that war, men from the Hogtown settlement and from Spring Grove, a community located about four miles to the west, organized a volunteer company of mounted riflemen, the Spring Grove Guards. Spring Grove was at that time the seat of justice in Alachua county (1832-1839). For several months, members of the Guards periodically paraded and patrolled the countryside to protect the inhabitants against Indians. The fort at Hogtown was one of more than a dozen Second Seminole War forts located in or near present-day Alachua County.
Sponsors: sponsored by alachua county historical commission in cooperation with department of state
NEWNANSVILLE TOWN SITE
Location:Northeast of Alachua on S.R. 235. between Hipp Way and NW 12st Terrace
County: Alachua
City: Alachua
Description: At the end of 1824, Alachua County was organized as a political unit of the new Territory of Florida. The Seminole inhabitants of the Alachua region had recently been ordered to a reservation, and land was available there for white settlers. Early in 1826, a post office was established in this area called "Dell's P.O." It derived its name from the Dell brothers, who had first visited the Alachua region during the "Patriot War" (1812-14) and had later returned to settle there. In 1828, the settlement near Dell's P.O. was officially made the Alachua County seat and named "Newnansville" in honor of a Patriot War hero, Daniel Newnan. Newnansville became the junction of several important trails through frontier Florida. This marker stands on the site of the Bellamy Road, a cross-Florida route authorized by Congress in 1824 as the first federal road in the new territory. During the Second Seminole War (1835-42), hundreds of displaced refugee settlers were sheltered at Newnansville and also at Ft. Gilleland, a nearby military post built in 1836. After the hostilities were concluded, Newnansville prospered as a commercial center for the expanding Middle Florida frontier. The chief products of the area were corn, cotton, and after the Civil War, citrus. Except for a few years between 1832 and 1839, Newnansville served as the Alachua County seat until 1854. In that year, the political center of the county was moved to the new railroad town of Gainesville. During the next three decades, Newnansville slowly declined in population and importance. The community was dealt a final blow in 1884 when the Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad bypassed it. A new town, Alachua, grew up near that railroad. As the years passed, the residents of Newnansville moved there or elsewhere. By the 1970's only a few traces remained of the former community. In 1974, the Newnansville Town Site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places as an historic district in recognition of the importance of that nineteenth century community.
Sponsors: sponsored by alachua county historical commission in cooperation with department of state
LaCROSSE, FLORIDA
Location:Near junction of S.R. 121 & S.R. 235.
County: Alachua
City: LaCrosse
Description: The LaCrosse area was settled before the Civil War. Cotton was the chief crop. John Eli Futch was a cotton buyer who built a warehouse for cotton, a store to serve the growers, and his home near the store. This store became the first post office and Mrs. Futch named the town LaCrosse. The post office was established April 22, 1881, and the town incorporated December 17, 1897. Before the boll weevil ended the cotton era, LaCrosse had two cotton gins and grist mills. Naval stores was also a prominent industry until this activity ended in the 1940s. The town was a shipping point for potatoes for many years and had a large cooper's shed which built barrels for shipping the potatoes by rail from a depot here. It is still an important farming area, producing corn, vegetables, tobacco and livestock.
Sponsors: sponsored by alachua county historical commission in cooperation with department of state
THE BAILEY HOUSE
Location:1121 NW 6th Street
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: This is one of the oldest houses in the city of Gainesville. It was constructed about 1850 by Major James B. Bailey, a prominent citizen of Alachua County. Bailey was a leading proponent of moving the county seat away from Newnansville to a new place, later known as Gainesville, part of which was to be located on his own plantation. The Bailey House was entered in the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. Although it has been slightly altered during its existence, Major Bailey's house survives as a good example of the Antebellum domestic architecture of this area.
Sponsors: sponsored by the bailey house in cooperation with department of state
MADISON STARKE PERRY
Location:C.R. 234, on grounds of Oak Ridge Cemetery
County: Alachua
City: Alachua City: Hague
Description: Madison Starke Perry, born in Lancaster County, S.C., moved to Alachua County, Florida and became a prosperous planter. His plantation was located about six miles east of Gainesville in the area of present-day Rochelle. Perry was elected to the Florida House of Representatives in 1849 and to the Florida Senate in 1850, where he gained a wide reputation as an orator. A Democrat, he was elected fourth Governor of Florida, serving from 1857 through 1861. While Perry was Governor, major developments occurred in Florida. The Florida Railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Key was completed. A long-standing border dispute with Georgia was settled. Expansion of slavery brought related unrest, and in response, Governor Perry called for a strong state militia and the upgrading of military resources. As the Presidential election of 1860 neared, Governor Perry warned that secession might be Florida's only option, should the Republican Party be victorious. On November 27, 1860, Governor Perry recommended that a convention by called to consider secession. The Florida Convention adopted the Ordinance of Secession on January 10, 1861. The Governor quickly ordered evacuation of all United States troops from Florida military installations, and their replacement by State militia troops. At the expiration of his term as Governor in October, 1861, Perry joined the Confederate army. He was soon elected Colonel of the newly organized Seventh Regiment of the Florida infantry. Illness forced his resignation in 1863. Returning to his plantation in Alachua County, he died in 1865. Perry is buried here at Oak Ridge Cemetery on land he set aside in 1854 for the community. Buried here with him are his wife, Martha Starke Perry; a daughter Sallie Perry; and a son, Madison Starke Perry, Jr., also a Confederate veteran.
Sponsors: sponsored by the alachua county historical commissionin cooperation with the department of state
THE LAW SCHOOL MOUND
Location:University of Florida Law School grounds, near the interestion of SW 25th St. and 2nd Ave
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: 100 yards west is an aboriginal burial mound built ca. A.D. 1000 by Alachua tradition peoples, ancestors of the Potano Indians who lived in Alachua County in the 16th and 17th centuries. Initially several individuals were buried in a central grave, and a small earthen mound was raised over them. Through time additional burials were laid on the mound's surface and covered with earth. The villagers who built the mound probably lived along the shore of Lake Alice. Well before the mound was built, people of the Deptford Culture, 500 B.C. to A.D. 100, camped on this same location. The remains of their campsite were covered by the mound. First dug in 1881 by a local Gainesville resident, the mound and earlier campsite were excavated by Florida State Museum archaeologists and students in 1976.
Sponsors: sponsored by the university of florida law center association in cooperation with the department of state
HISTORY OF EVINSTON, FLORIDA / EVINSTON COMMUNITY STORE AND POST OFFICE
Location:18320 Southeast County Road 225
County: Alachua
City: Evinston
Description: The community of Evinston, Florida, situated on the Alachua-Marion County border, is part of the Spanish Arredondo Grant of 1817. A grant for this land was received from Arrendondo by N. Brush who later sold two sections to the Evins family of South Carolina. Captain W. D. Evins, of this family, had large land holdings here west of Orange Lake, and gave the right of way for the narrow gauge Florida Southern Railroad in 1882. The station was given the name Evinston and the depot was built in 1884. At that time the present country store and post office were established. The community once consisted of two other stores, a schoolhouse, 3 churches, a blacksmith shop, 2 packing houses and a grist mill. This area was known for orange groves until the 1890's freezes. Agricultural crops and cattle were and are still raised here. In 1956, the depot was moved and the railroad discontinued passenger service. Freight service continued until the tracks were removed in 1982. The community park was established in 1909 by J.L. Wolfenden, W.P. Shettleworth and F.B. Hester and continues to serve as a pleasure to the residents, many of whom are direct descendants of the original families. The Evinston community store, originally a warehouse, was built of heart pine in 1884 by W.P. Shettleworth. it was bought by Joseph Wolfenden, who first operated it as a store. The post office, established in 1882 was later moved into the building. The present store sits 100 feet south of its original location. It was moved in 1956 because of road paving. Located across from the railroad depot, it was a meeting place then as now. Numerous owners managed the store through the turn of the century. In 1909 H.D. Wood and Robert Evins bought the store. The later partnership of Wood and Swink, in 1934, is still indicated on the store front. Fred Wood became postmaster of Evinston in 1934 and served for 44 years, longer than any other postmaster in Florida. Still containing original post office boxes and equipment, this is one of the few remaining country store-post offices. In 1977, the country store was used as a set for the movie adaptation of Marjorie Rawlings' short story Gal Young'un.
Sponsors: sponsored by the alachua county historical commissionin cooperation with the department of state
DAVID YULEE and COTTON WOOD PLANTATION
Location:16994 SW 134th Ave
County: Alachua
City: Archer
Description: David Levy Yulee was born at St. Thomas, West Indies, in 1810. He attended school in Virginia from 1819 until 1827 when he went to Micanopy to work on one of the plantations of his father, Moses Elias Levy. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1836. His time was divided between the practice of law and agriculture. Yulee was elected to the Florida Constitutional Convention at St. Joseph in 1838. He was a delegate to Congress from the Territory of Florida from 1841-45 and spearheaded the drive for statehood. In 1845, he was chosen as the first U.S. Senator from Florida and was the first Jew, in the United States, to be elected to the U.S. Senate. Defeated for reelection in 1851, Yulee was again elected to the Senate in 1855. In the Senate he served as chairman of the committees on naval affairs and on post offices and post roads. Yulee served in the U.S. Senate until he resigned upon the secession of Florida in 1861. While serving as territorial delegate, Yulee obtained a railroad survey of Florida and was one of the first railroad promoters in the South. In 1853 he incorporated the Florida Railroad which, when completed in 1860, passed through Archer, connecting Fernandina and Cedar Key. Long an advocate of the Southern movement and secession, Yulee supported Florida's entry into the Confederacy. However, he chose not to pursue elective office and devoted time to his plantations and his railroad. He was at odds with Confederate authorities who wanted to use materials from his railroad for more vital lines. Cotton Wood Plantation, located about one mile northeast of this site, was the home of Yulee during the War Between the States. Upon the fall of the Confederacy, personal baggage of President Jefferson Davis and part of the Confederate treasury, reached Cotton Wood, under armed guard, on May 22, 1865. Following the war, Yulee was imprisoned at Ft. Pulaski, at Savannah, until Gen. U.S. Grant intervened for his release in March of 1866. Yulee sold his holdings in Florida and moved to Washington, D.C. in 1880. He died in 1886 and was buried at New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C. Originally known as David Levy, he had his name changed by an act of the Florida Legislature in 1845.
Sponsors: sponsored by the alachua county historical commission in cooperation with the florida department of state
JOSIAH T. WALLS
Location:University Avenue, between NW 1st Street and NW 2nd St.
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Born in 1842 to slave parents in Winchester, Va., little is known of Josiah T. Walls' early life. After a short term of Confederate service, he enlisted in the Third Regiment, U.S. Colored Troops in 1863. Transferred to Picolata on the St. Johns River in 1864, he married Helen Ferguson of Newnansville and in 1865 moved to Alachua County after he was mustered out. After passage of the U.S. Military Reconstruction Act of 1867, Walls entered into Florida politics; as a delegate to the 1868 State constitutional convention, followed by election as a State representative and later senator from Alachua County. The 1870 nominee of the Republican Party for Florida's only seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, Walls defeated Silas Niblack after a bitter contest, riddled with charges of fraud and intimidation. Josiah T. Walls thus became the State's first black congressman. Although unseated by the House near the end of his term, Walls was re-elected in 1872. In another contested election in 1874, Walls defeated J.J. Finley, a former Confederate General, but, in 1876, was again removed from office. Walls was elected to the Florida Senate that year. After 1879, Josiah Walls concentrated on his farming activities. He had first acquired land near Newnansville in 1868 but in 1870 had moved to Gainesville. In 1871 Walls bought for their home the western half of the block now bounded by University Avenue on the south and N.W. 2nd Street on the west. In 1873 he purchased a 1175 acre plantation on the west edge of Paynes Prairie. In that year he acquired the weekly newspaper, THE NEW ERA, and was admitted to the Florida Bar. Remaining active in local politics, Walls served at various times as mayor of Gainesville, a member of the Board of Public Instruction, and County Commissioner. A highly successful and prosperous farmer through the 1880's, he suffered financial ruin as a result of the severe freeze of the winter of 1894-95. Walls moved to Tallahassee to become the farm director at the school that is now Florida A. and M. University. He died in Tallahassee in 1905.
Sponsors: sponsored by the alachua county historical commissionin cooperation with the florida department of state
SANTA FE DE TOLOCA
Location:Northern Alachua County C. R. 241 just after NW 294 Ave.
County: Alachua
City: Bland
Description: A Spanish Mission was established near here within sight of the Santa Fe River about A.D. 1606 by Franciscan missionaries. The river took its name from the mission, as did the modern town of Santa Fe. At one time, Santa Fe de Toloca was said to be the principal Timucuan Indian mission in a chain that stretched across the interior of la Florida from St. Augustine on the east coast. during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, la Florida was a battleground where England, France, and Spain fought for control of the New World. This was part of a greater struggle between Old and New World cultures that began with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. Archaeological investigations between 1986 and 1989, by the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida, have revealed traces of a Spanish-style church, a cemetery with Indian burial in Christian fashion, traces of Indian village life, and fragments of seventeenth century Spanish and Indian pottery. The Indians at Santa Fe provisioned the Castillo de San Marcos and the town of St. Augustine with their crops of corn, wheat, and probably peaches, which they carried in baskets strapped to their backs along the Old Spanish Trail. Produce and cattle were also boated down the Santa Fe and Suwannee Rivers to Cuba. Several generations of Timucuans were born and died at this site. Everyday life centered on tending their gardens and studying Roman Catholic doctrine. Their routines were broken by visitations by the Bishop of Cuba, the Indian Rebellion of 1656, epidemics of disease introduced by Europeans, and the influx of other Indian groups. The mission church and village were attacked and burned in 1702 by invading English soldiers and their Indian allies from the Carolinas. The destruction of Santa Fe de Toloca, and the other missions of la Florida, weakened Spain's control and led, ultimately to Florida becoming a United States' possession in 1821. Santa Fe de Toloca was located at an existing Indian village. This may have been the same village visited by Hernando de Soto's army in 1539; a village called Cholupaha. This area was called "Bland" by its first and only postmaster, J.L. Matthews, who named it for his son in 1903.
Sponsors: The Alachua County Historical Commission in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
MELROSE
Location:On S.R. 26 between Quail & Trout Sts.
County: Alachua
City: Melrose
Description: Side 1: The region south of Santa Fe Lake was not settled until after the Seminole War in 1842, although it was on the Spanish mission trail from St. Augustine from about 1600 to 1763 and, during the English (1763-1784) and second Spanish (1784-1821) periods, on the overland route to Pensacola. Florida's first Federal highway, the 1826 Bellamy road, followed about the same path. Many of the early landowners came from South Carolina and Georgia. After the decade of Reconstruction following the Civil War, an influx of new families came to the region, many to engage in planting orange groves, a few of which had been started in the 1850's. Because the route of the Florida Railroad, completed in 1861 and reorganized after the War, passed west of the region, the Santa Fe Canal Company was chartered in March of 1877 to open a waterway from the railroad in Waldo through Lake Alto to Santa Fe Lake. In May of 1877 Alexander Goodson, Isaac Weston, and Meridth Granger, platted a 30-block town site south of the little bay on the southeast side of Santa Fe Lake. The old Bellamy Road was the main east-west axis, with Centre Street, straddling the Alachua, Putnam, and Clay county border, as the north-south axis. Side 2: The origin of the town name, Melrose, is shrouded in conflicting legends. The canal linking Waldo to Santa Fe Lake was completed in March of 1881. The stern-wheel steamer, F.S. Lewis, built in Waldo, made its maiden voyage in April 1881. Northern visitors, who came to improve their health and invest in orange groves, built winter cottages or stayed at the boarding houses or the several hotels that catered to the winter tourists. The town soon had a number of general stores, a sawmill, cotton gin, livery stables, several churches, and a high school. The Western Railroad reached Melrose from Green Cove Springs in 1890. The town was then a thriving waterfront resort, lake port, and a horticultural and agricultural center. Devastated by the freezes of 1894-95, the citrus groves never recovered. Melrose became a quiet lakeside retreat for seasonal and week-end residents, with a small permanent population. In 1901 Melrose was incorporated but gave up its charter in 1917. Many of the nineteenth century homes and buildings still survive. The Melrose Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.
Sponsors: The Alachua County Historical Commission in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
MATHESON HOUSE
Location:528 S.W. First Street, Matheson House grounds
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Side 1: The Matheson homestead dates from 1857, when Alexander Matheson brought his family from Camden, South Carolina to establish a home on the Sweetwater Branch at the eastern edge of the new town of Gainesville. The present one and a half story Matheson House is believed to incorporate much of the original one story home. Alexander moved his family back to South Carolina in the early years of the Civil War. After the war and settlement of a mortgage foreclosure, the property was acquired by his younger brother, James D. Matheson, who had served as an officer in the Seventh South Carolina Cavalry and surrendered at Appomatox. He moved into the home in 1867 with his new bride, Augusta Florida Steele, daughter of Judge Augustus Steele, founder of Cedar Key, and an influential Florida pioneer during the territorial and early statehood period. James, a prominent businessman and merchant, ran a successful dry goods store and engaged in other commercial enterprises. He was also a trustee of the East Florida Seminary and served on the Alachua County Commission from 1895 to 1899. Elected County Treasurer in 1909, he held that office until his death in 1911. Side 2: By 1907, James and Augusta had enlarged their home, adding the second floor bedrooms, the distinctive gambrel roof and gabled dormers, a first floor sitting room, and enclosing part of the back porch. Their son, Christopher, born in 1874, continued to live here after completing his education at the East Florida Seminary and the Citadel. He established a law practice in 1900, and served as mayor of Gainesville from 1910 to 1917 and in the Florida Legislature in 1917 and 1919. Ordained a Presbyterian minister in 1919, he left his law practice to serve the ministry in Oklahoma for the next 26 years. During this time the house was rented to various tenants. On his retirement in 1946, he returned home with his wife, Sarah Hamilton Matheson. She maintained her residence here after his death in 1952, and in 1989 donated the property to the Matheson Historical Center, Inc. The evolution of the Matheson House from a modest, mid-19th century farm house to its early 20th century appearance reflects the increasing prosperity of its owners in a growing community. It is preserved today as a reminder of their accomplishments and of those other early residents of Gainesville.
Sponsors: The Alachua County Historical Commission in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
ROCHELLE VICINITY
Location:CR 234 and CR 2082 along the Hawthorne/Gainesville Trail
County: Alachua
City: Rochelle
Description: Side 1: Colonel Daniel Newnan led a troop of the Georgia militia on a raid into the area in September 1812 in an attempt to annex Florida to the United States in the War of 1812. The raiders engaged a force of Seminole Indians under the command of Seminole chief King Payne. Several soldiers and Indians were killed in the fierce battle, including King Payne. Ft. Crane, named for Lt. Colonel Ichabod Crane, Commander of the U.S. Army District of Northeast Florida, was built in January 1837 during the Second Seminole War. It was located just south of Rochelle and was commanded by Lt. John H. Winder, who later served in the Mexican War. By the 1840s settlers had moved into the area from South Carolina and Georgia. The Perry, Rochelle, Tillman and Zetrouer families were among the earliest arrivals. Early roads in the area were heavily travelled by settlers and the military. One important route linked St. Augustine with Newnansville, located about 16 miles northwest of this marker. Union troops passed near this site in August 1864 enroute to Gainesville, where they were defeated by Confederate cavalry led by Capt. J.J. Dickison. Side 2: The community of Rochelle, located about one mile south of this marker, was first called Perry Junction and grew up around the site of the plantation of Madison Starke Perry, Governor of Florida 1857-61. In 1854, Perry had donated land for Oak Ridge Cemetery, located between Rochelle and Micanopy. Perry and many pioneer families from the area are buried there. The town was renamed Gruelle in 1881 and changed to Rochelle in 1884 in honor of the parents of Gov. Perry's wife, Martha Perry. Rochelle became a hub of the Florida Southern Railway in 1882 and later lay on the main line of the Plant Railway System, being a daily stopover between Jacksonville and St. Petersburg. By 1888 twenty-four trains a day passed through the community of about 100 residents. Rochelle became a citrus center, but the Great Freeze of 1894-95 destroyed the citrus crop, causing many of the inhabitants to leave. Today only a few buildings remain as reminders of the once thriving settlement. One of these is the Rochelle School (Martha Perry Institute), constructed in 1885, which served the community until 1935. The building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.
Sponsors: THE ALACHUA COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
RAILROADING IN HIGH SPRINGS
Location:20 NW Railroad Ave., in front of High Springs
County: Alachua
City: High Springs
Description: This old passenger depot, built c. 1910, is all that remains of the vast railroad complex located southwest of downtown that made High Springs a bustling railroad center for nearly 50 years. In 1895 the Plant Railroad System chose the town as the site of its divisional headquarters. Rail yards, workshops, and a roundhouse serviced hundreds of steam engines and cars sent to High Springs to be cleaned and repaired. The importance of High Springs as a rail center declined as diesel engines replaced the old steam locomotives after World War II. Gradually, all of the railroad buildings disappeared, except the depot, which was moved to this site and renovated as a railroad museum in 1994.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Florida Department of State
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA HISTORIC CAMPUS
Location:Near corner of University & 13th
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: The University of Florida Campus Historic District and two individual campus buildings were listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1989 and 1990 in recognition of their architectural and cultural significance and the coherence of the campus plan. The buildings were designed by architects William A. Edwards from 1905 to 1924 and Rudolph Weaver from 1925 to 1939 in the Collegiate Gothic style. The landscape plan was developed in 1926 by Olmsted Brothers, the firm that designed New York's Central Park. The historic campus reflects the university's rich heritage and the significant place it holds in Florida's educational history.
Sponsors: The Florida Department of State
CITY OF NEWBERRY HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:25440 W Newberry Road
County: Alachua
City: Newberry
Description: The discovery of hard rock phosphate in Alachua County in 1889 sparked the appearance of boom towns wherever large deposits of the mineral were found. Incorporated in 1894, Newberry thrived until 1914 when the onset of World War I forced the mines to close. The mines did not reopen after the war, causing the economy of the town to collapse and forcing many residents to leave. The buildings in Newberry's historic district reflect the boom town atmosphere of small mining communities founded in Florida at end of the 19th century. The district was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1987.
Sponsors: The Florida Department of State
JESSE JOHNSON FINLEY
Location:401 Se 21st Ave, Evergreen Cemetery
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Jesse Johnson Finley was born in Wilson County, Tennessee, November 18, 1812 and educated in Lebanon, Tennessee. After service as a captain in the Seminole War of 1836, he studied law and was admitted to the bar. During a ten year period he served in the Florida and Mississippi legislatures and as mayor of Memphis, Tennessee. He was elevated to the Florida bench in 1853 and was appointed Confederate district judge for the state in 1861 but soon promoted to colonel of the 6th Florida Infantry, where he participated in the Kentucky campaign under General Kirby-Smith and at Chickamauga. Commissioned as brigadier general in November 1863, he was assigned to command of Florida infantry regiments in the Army of Tennessee, where he led his brigade with great credit in the Chattanooga and Atlanta campaigns. Twice severely wounded, he was incapacitated for further field duty after the battle of Jonesboro. After the war, he served parts of three contested terms in the U.S. House of Representatives, and in 1887 was appointed by the governor to serve in the U.S. Senate in anticipation of a resignation which did not occur. He had served in all three branches of government, with service at the local, state, and national level. This service was rendered in three states. He dies in Lake City on November 6, 1904 and is buried in Evergreen Cemetery. His son, Samuel Y. Finley, elected as Gainesville's first mayor in 1869, is also buried here.
THOMAS GILBERT PEARSON 1873-1943
Location:Corner of US 41 and SW 137th Ave
County: Alachua
City: Archer
Description: Thomas Gilbert Pearson was an ornithologist, college professor, and world leader of the bird preservation movement. Pearson grew up in Archer, where he collected bird skins and eggs and taught himself ornithology to pay for his schooling at Guilford College in North Carolina. Pearson donated his collection to the college museum and served as curator. He taught at Guilford and the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. He joined the American Orinthologists' Union, which initiated the Audubon movement to protect the nation's rapidly declining bird populations. He founded and directed the Audubon Society of North Carolina, the South's first state wildlife commission. He served successively as secretary and president of what is now the National Audubon Society. The Audubon movement changed public attitudes toward birds, and was instrumental in obtaining government action that saved millions of birds and brought several species back from the verge of extinction. The movement also helped lay the foundation for a global effort to save the earth's diverse biological systems. Pearson is buried in Greensboro, North Carolina. His parents and brother are buried in Archer.
Sponsors: Alachua County Historical Commission, City of Archer Alachua Historical Society, and Alachua County Commission and the Florida Department of State
GAINESVILLE'S RAILROADS
Location:Corner NW 3rd Ave. & 6th St.
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: The coming of the Florida Railroad opened up the interior of Florida for both settlement and trading and helped establish Gainesville. On February 1, 1859 the Florida Railroad entered town and connected Fernandina Beach with Cedar Key by 1861. Built from the northeast along what is now Waldo Road, the rails crossed 13th Street at Archer Road, and continued southwest along Archer Road to Cedar Key. The 19th century Florida roads were sandy, swampy and nearly impassible, so early rail access to two ports dramatically increased Gainesville's prosperity. Railroads provided transportation for outgoing agricultural products and brought in the region's first tourists, creating a demand for hotels, restaurants and other services. As the demand for North Central Florida agriculture grew at the turn of the 20th century, more railroads crisscrossed the region. The last railroad passenger service in Gainesville ended in 1971. The Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) Railroad built a modern depot in 1948 rerouting its trains from Main Street downtown to tracks on Northwest 6th Street. The ACL depot is presently part of the downtown campus of Santa Fe Community College. Gainesville's first railroad, the Florida Railroad, was started in 1859. In 1881, the Florida Southern Railroad reached town from Palatka, Hawthorne and Rochelle, entering at South Main Street from Hawthorne Road and running the length of Main Street to 8th Aveenue. A route from Rochelle provided service to Ocala. Three years later, the Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad linked to these tracks, providing service through Alachua to Waycross, Georgia. The two lines merged in 1902, becoming the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, providing service from Tampa Bay to New York. ACL trains ran in the middle of Main Street stopping for passengers to use the city's hotels. In 1895, the Gainesville and Gulf Railroad built a line to Micanopy along NW 6th Street. By 1899, the rails reached south past Fairfield to Emathala and north to Sampson City. The Gainesville and Gulf was sold in 1906 and renamed the Tampa and Jacksonville or T&J. In 1900, the Seaboard Air Line Railroad (SAL) was established and acquired the old Florida Railroad right-of-way through Gainesville. When the SAL bought the T&J in 1926, it was renamed the Jacksonville, Gainesville & Gulf. This line was abandoned in 1943.
Sponsors: ALACHUA COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION ANDD THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ROPER PARK/OLD CITY PARK
Location:No. of NE 4th Ave, W o fNE 2nd
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Roper Park is the original site of the parade grounds (in front of this site) and barracks (behind this site) for the East Florida Seminary, a non-sectarian educational institute and a forerunner of the University of Florida. James H. Roper (1835-1883) moved to Gainesville in 1856 and founded the first school, the Gainesville Academy. The Gainesville Academy moved to this site in 1857. Roper, a member of the State Senate in 1865-66 and the Board of Education, engineered the relocation of the East Florida Seminary to Gainesville by donating his school’s building and site in 1866. He was the president for the first two years. The barracks for the East Florida Seminary were built on this site in 1886. The two-story frame building had a double veranda along the south side, and a two-story porch surrounded an open courtyard in its center. Out-of-town students lived in 45 rooms that contained two iron beds with moss mattresses and feather pillows, a study table, a washstand, and a stove. The City of Gainesville purchased the block in 1906. In 1907, Gainesville’s mayor bought the barracks and added them to the nearby White House Hotel.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF GAINESVILLE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
TURPENTINE INDUSTRY
Location:SR 24, No. Fairbanks
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Side 1: The naval stores industry was important to maritime power worldwide. Pine tar and pitch were used to seal wooden ships and protect sails and rigging. When settlers came to America - in Florida (1565), in Virginia (1607) and in Massachusetts (1620) - they found vast pine forests with resinous tar and pitch, a scarce commodity for European competitors with wooden fleets. Settlers at first produced pine pitch and tar by distilling resin-soaked fat pine wood from dead tree logs, limbs and knots, covering them with soil and burning them to yield tar and charcoal. After fat pine wood became scarce, pitch was made by chopping deep cavities or boxes near the base of living trees to collect gum. Only crude gum was exported until simple distillation techniques separated volatile turpentine from the residual rosin poured hot into barrels for domestic use or export. During the next three hundred years, with little change, this forest product industry prospered, first in the Carolinas, then Georgia and Florida to become a major U.S. industry. Production of gum was greatly accelerated and tree life protected when the Herty clay cups, introduced in early 1900’s, replaced cut boxes. Side 2: From 1909 until 1923, Florida led the nation in pine gum production. In 1909, the peak year in the U.S.A. gum yielded 750,000 barrels of turpentine and 2.5 million barrels of rosin. The 1910 census listed 27,2ll men and 3l6 women, mostly blacks, working in the industry with 65 percent in Florida. Fairbanks, Florida was a turpentine still town with the Mize family operation processing ten 50-gallon barrels of crude gum at a time. This still required six crops of 10,000 faces (an area where streaks of bark are removed) and each crop covered 400 acres. As recently as 1951, 105 fire stills operated around Gainesville. The Mize family operated the Fairbanks still until 1950. Many of the buildings (the cooper’s shed, machine shop and worker homes) still stand. Ellis Mize (1882-1967) donated land with a lake bearing his name to the University of Florida’s forestry education program. In 1948, they deeded this private cemetery on that property to the Fairbanks Baptist Church. Because of his love for the pine tree industry, Mize had his granite tombstone carved to resemble a working face pine tree. This marker is dedicated to all who toiled to provide an income for families and communities and resinous products worldwide.
Sponsors: FLORIDA SOCIETY OF AMERICAN FORESTERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HISTORIC HAILE HOMESTEAD AT KANAPAHA PLANTATION
Location:Intersection of SW Archer Rd. and SW 85th St.
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: One of the oldest houses in Alachua County, the Historic Haile Homestead was the home of Thomas Evans Haile, his wife Esther Serena Chesnut Haile and 14 of their children. The Hailes came here from Camden, South Carolina in 1854 to establish a 1,500-acre Sea Island Cotton plantation which they named Kanapaha. Enslaved black craftsmen completed the 6,200-square-foot manse in 1856. The 1860 census showed 66 slaves living here. The Hailes survived bankruptcy in 1868 and turned the property into a productive farm, growing a variety of fruits and vegetables including oranges. Serena Haile died in 1895; Thomas in 1896. The Homestead, which passed to son Evans, a prominent defense attorney, became the site of house parties attended by some of Gainesville’s most distinguished citizens. The Hailes had the unusual habit of writing on the walls; all together over 12,500 words with the oldest writing dating to the 1850’s. The Homestead was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. A restoration was completed in 1996. Still partly owned by descendants of Evans Haile, the Homestead is one of the few remaining homesteads built by Sea Island cotton planters in this part of Florida.
Sponsors: THE HISTORIC HAILE HOMESTEAD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MT. PLEASANT CEMETERY
Location:2837 NW 13th St. (MLK, Jr. Blvd.)
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: The Mt. Pleasant Cemetery was established c. 1883 by the Mt. Pleasant Methodist Episcopal Church as a final resting place for its members and other African Americans in the city of Gainesville. Founded in 1867, the church purchased the 5.38-acre property for $125 in 1886. Among the earliest graves are those of Helen H. Wall (1847-1883) and Jefferson Garrison (1871-1884). Some headstones are of marble or granite carved with symbolic designs, others are simple vaults of stuccoed brick or concrete. Early African American community members and their descendents are buried in individual and family plots here. Among them are civic and religious leaders, educators, physicians, dentists, craftsmen, servicemen, and business owners, some of whom began life as enslaved people. Buried here are the Reverend Alexander DeBose, pastor of the Mt. Pleasant church in the 1870s; Dr. R. B. Ayer and Dr. Julius Parker, the city’s first black physicians; Dr. E. H. DeBose, Sr., Gainesville’s first black dentist; and Lance Corporal Vernon T. Carter, Jr., Gainesville’s first Vietnam War casualty. The cemetery is still maintained by the Mt. Pleasant United Methodist Church, located in Gainesville’s Pleasant Street Historic District.
Sponsors: THE MT. PLEASANT UNITED METHODIST CHURCH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MOUNT PLEASANT UNITED METHODIST CHURCH
Location:620 NW Second St.
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Mount Pleasant Methodist Episcopal Church was founded on July 16, 1867, with the Reverend Isaac Davis serving as the first pastor. The Board of Trustees of the oldest black congregation in Gainesville purchased the lot on which the present church still stands for $160 from Charles W. Brush. He sold lots after the Civil War mainly to African American individuals and institutions in what is now the Pleasant Street Historic District. The founding trustees were Lojurn Davis, Alexander Hamilton, Ethan Daniels, Henry Roberts, William Anderson, Adam Dancy, Shadrach Abendnego, Robert McDuffie and Dr. McDowell. Mount Pleasant soon became a social and religious center for the neighborhood. The first Florida Annual Conference that brought together Methodist churches with black congregations was held at Mount Pleasant in 1874, while the Reverend Alexander DeBose was pastor. The original wood frame building was replaced in 1887 with a brick structure, which was destroyed by fire in 1903. The present church, built of red brick in the stately Romanesque revival style, was completed in 1906 and is noted for its beautiful stained glass windows. In 1968, the congregation was renamed the Mount Pleasant United Methodist Church.
Sponsors: THE MOUNT PLEASANT UNITED METHODIST CHURCH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
BLAND COMMUNITY
Location:1801 Gulf Breeze Parkway
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Settled in the 1840s by cotton planters from Georgia and South Carolina, Bland became a diverse agrarian area where farmers and sharecroppers raised cattle and grew cotton and a variety of fruits and vegetables. Joseph “Fate” Lafayette Matthews (1868-1934) was the town’s most prominent citizen who moved to the area from Bradford County in 1899. He and Thomas A. Doke initially purchased 720 acres of land which was once part of the Samuel R. Pyles plantation. Matthews built a large home and general merchandise store just under a mile south of here. With cotton gins and a grist mill, the store served as the center of commerce for the area. In May 1903 Matthews opened a post office which was named for his son, Blan C. Matthews (1902-1927). Fate Matthews served as the only postmaster until the closing of the post office in July 1906. By the late 1920s he was one of the county’s largest land owners. On December 1, 1934, Matthews, then president of the Bank of Alachua, was murdered in his home by a man upon whose house he had foreclosed. William and Elsie Washington successfully homesteaded 104 acres in this area in 1879. Among their many descendants is actress, comedienne, and humanitarian Whoopi Goldberg.
Sponsors: ALACHUA COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
EARLETON, FLORIDA
Location:NE 77th Ln and SR 200 A
County: Alachua
City: Earleton
Description: Side 1: Earleton is named for General Elias B. Earle (1821-1893) who received government land grants in Florida for his service in the U.S./Mexican War (1846-48). Born into a prominent South Carolina family, Gen. Earle fought in the Palmetto Regiment, enlisted as a private, and at war's end received the honorary commission of General from the Governor of South Carolina. He moved to the western shore of Lake Santa Fe with his wife and four children between 1856 and 1860. When the Civil War began, Gen. Earle owned a 2000-acre cotton plantation north of here and had 50 slaves, making him one of the largest slave holders in Alachua County. A colonel of the Seventh Florida Regiment, Earle joined Capt. J.J. Dickison's Company H for the 1864 Battle of Gainesville, leading an infantry of ninety men down what is now E. University Ave. After the war, Earle became a director for the canal company connecting Lake Santa Fe to Lake Alto and president of the Green Cove Springs to Melrose Railroad. His son-in-law, German botanist Baron Hans von Luttichau (1845-1926) created the "Collins-Belvedere Azalea Gardens" in Earleton, introducing Formosa azaleas to Florida. Earle is buried in the family plot at Eliam Cemetery in Melrose. Side 2: St. John's Episcopal Church and Cemetery were established at this site in the late 1870s by English settlers. Completed in 1880, the church was one of the first carpenter gothic chapels in Florida. It was at the time known as the mission at Balmoral and the Lake Santa Fe Mission. When Trinity Episcopal Church (still standing) was completed in Melrose in 1886, this smaller church was sold for $15 and torn down. The cemetery was established in 1878 and held between 60-70 graves at the turn of the 20th Century. Little is known about who is buried there because the records were lost when the Diocesan headquarters burned during the Jacksonville fire of 1901. The only legible headstone belongs to Emma Lucy Hilton, who was born in England in 1827, and died in Earleton in 1884. On the banks of Lake Santa Fe (east of here) sat the Balmoral Hotel, which catered to northern tourists who came by train to Waldo and then by steamboat through the Lake Alto canal. Balmoral was an impressive two-story, U-shaped structure and a popular resort through the 1880s, until the 1894-95 freezes ruined the local economy. The hotel was turned into a private residence and eventually burned. No trace is left.
Sponsors: Historic Melrose, Inc. and the Florida Department of State
GAINESVILLE SERVICEMEN'S CENTER
Location:516 Northeast 2nd Avenue
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: The City of Gainesville purchased the Servicemen’s Center lot on December. 7th 1942. The Federal Works Agency constructed a $37,000 building with a ballroom, stage, dressing rooms, second floor reading room, three showers, three telephone booths for long distance calls, a coat check room, a 20-foot-long snack bar, and a kitchen with a ten-burner stove. The FWA provided sofas and easy chairs, a baby grand piano, a fiddle, trombone, radio, juke box, and a victrola. The city paid for kitchen equipment, flowered drapes, the mantle mirror, ping pong and snooker tables. They also paved NE 2nd Avenue and laid sidewalks. The Garden Club supplied and installed plants. Senator Claude Pepper dedicated the building on July 23rd 1943. Servicemen from Camp Blanding, the Alachua Army Air Base, the Officer Candidate School and the 62nd College Training Detachment attended events organized by program director Thelma Boltin (1904-1992) seven days a week from 10:00 AM to 11:00 PM that included dances, plays, variety shows, sing alongs, chess, pinochle and bingo. Outdoor activities included badminton, barbeque and shuffleboard. Civic clubs provided funds and hostesses for meals including 400 dinners on Thanksgiving. The city bought the building for $12,500 in 1946 and retained Miss Boltin as Director. A 1928 graduate of Emerson College, she returned to Gainesville after teaching in Polk County 1930-32 and taught English, Speech and directed plays at Gainesville High School. The School Board employed her until 1956 when she moved to White Springs to direct the Florida Folk Festival. She was a founder, actor and director at the Gainesville Little Theater (Community Playhouse), chair of the Florida and National Federation of Music Clubs, received an award from the American Assoc. for State and Local History, was WGGG Radio's “Story Hour Lady,” artist in residence at schools, and assisted folklife programs in Dade City, Apopka, Cocoa, and Fernandina. She was known as “Cousin Thelma,” and “Queen of Florida Folklore.” In 1946 she organized the teen club at the “Rec Center” which continued through the 1960s. Local bands with Stephen Stills, Don Felder and Bernie Leadon played Friday night dances which Tom Petty attended. All four are now in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The building became a senior center in the 1970s and is also used for dances, wedding receptions and civic events. A $420,000 renovation took place in 2000.
Sponsors: The Alachua County Historical Commission and the Florida Department of State
THE HOME OF A. QUINN JONES, SR., EDUCATOR
Location:1013 N.W. 7th Avenu
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: A. Quinn Jones, Sr. (1893-1997), teacher, educational leader, and prominent African-American advocate, lived here from 1925 to 1997. The home, built ca. 1920, is a one-story frame bungalow set on brick piers. Jones' career, spanning the segregation era, was marked by his determination to provide quality education to all African-American children. Jones served as teacher and principal at two of Alachua County's most important African-American schools, Union Academy (1921-1923) and Lincoln High School (1923-1957). He taught English, Latin, math, and science, and held fundraisers to ensure materials and salaries to his students and staff. In 1924-25, Jones extended Lincoln's grades to the 12th so that students could earn a full high school diploma. The Florida Department of Education noted Jones' leadership and in 1926, Lincoln High School became Florida's second accredited African-American High School. In 1956, Lincoln High School moved to the southeast area of Gainesville and the original building became an elementary school bearing Jones' name. The A. Quinn Jones Center stands as a memorial to his extraordinary contributions to the African-American community, the people of Alachua County, and the State of Florida.
Sponsors: The City of Gainesville and the Florida Department of State
MICANOPY HISTORIC CEMETERY
Location:West Smith Avenue
County: Alachua
City: Micanopy
Description: The Micanopy Historic Cemetery was founded by Dr. H. Lucious Montgomery Sr., a physician in the Township of Micanopy during the 1800's. Dr. Montgomery and his wife, Lucinda Jane Montgomery, the owners of the cemetery land, deeded lot No. 30 to the Cemetery Trustees in 1897 for one dollar. The Township was given the cemetery in 1905 and the Micanopy Cemetery Association was established that year. Thomas McCredie, J.D. Watkins and E.C. Chitty were the first board members. Lot No. 29 was deeded to the Trustee Board and Micanopy Cemetery Association in 1911. It cost $300. Members of the Trustee Board were O.L. Feaster, J.B. Simonton, J.D. Merry, W.D. Merry, W.D. Bobbitt, W.C. Barnett. B.O. Franklin and H.L. Montgomery Sr. Thje cemetery has had over 2,000 butials in it's 181-year history. it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. The first recorded burial dated from 1826 and the cemetery is still picturesque and a wonderful example of American history preserved.
Sponsors: The Town of Micanopy and The Florida Department of State
OLD STAGE ROAD
Location:SW 24th Ave at SW 69th Terrace
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: The Old Stage Road, one of Alachua County’s original highways, passed near here. Dating from the 1820s, it connected the county’s two major towns, Newnansville (once the county seat near present day Alachua) and Micanopy to the south. The road served as a major commerce, transportation and military artery. Forts built for protection from Seminole Indians near Micanopy and Newnansville were linked by the road. During the Second Seminole War of 1835 to 1842, Fort Clarke, a U.S. Army post, was built along the road northwest of here. By the early 1860s, local farmers relied on the road to transport crops to the railroad depot in Arredondo. From 1866 to 1876, a stage line used the road, carrying mail and passengers to Ocala and Newnansville, and to Tampa by 1869. Use of the road diminished after steamer service across Alachua Lake (now Payne’s Prairie) began in 1876. Railroad service was expanded to Micanopy in the early 1880s. Newnansville had been deserted by 1900. In the 20th century, sections of the road were abandoned in favor of newer and better roads. Original sections of the Old Stage Road still exist.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY INFINITE PROPERTIES, LLC., THE ALACHUA COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SHADY GROVE PRIMITIVE BAPTIST CHURCH AND PORTER'S QUARTERS
Location: 804 Southwest 5th Street
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Shady Grove Primitive Baptist Church is a landmark in Porters Quarters, one of Gainesville's oldest and most historic African-American neighborhoods. Dr. Watson Porter, a Canadian physican, established Porters Addition to Gainesville in 1884 and sold lots exclusively to African Americans, many of whom worked in the nearby railroad yards and industrial sites. The Shady Grove congregation was organized in 1894, under the leadership of the Reverend Mose Edwards and Reverend Cobb. Deacons serving were Brothers Mickins, Sweat, Festen, and Clay. Amelia Carter and Penny Brightman served as the first Deconesses. In 1900 the Deacons of the church, Thomas T. Sweat and Jackson Stanley, purchased the corner lot from Dr. Watson Porter and his wife for $30 as a site for the congregation's origianl wood frame church, which was shaded by large oak trees. In the mid-1930s, the wood church was replaced by the present masonry building, constructed of coquina blocks purchased in St. Augestine. During the Civil Rights era, the local NAACP committee met at the Shady Grove Primitive Baptist Church to plan for the integration of Gainesville's public schools. The Church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005
Sponsors: Shady Grove Primitive Baptist Church Board of Deacons and the Florida Department of State
SERENOLA PLANTATION
Location:Squirrel Park
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: Side 1: In 1857, David Rogerson Williams II (1822-1907) of Darlington Co., SC, purchased 1,000 acres, including this site bordering Payne’s Prairie, and developed them as a plantation known as “Serenola.” The 1860 census shows 120 slaves lived in 24 houses on the plantation, where cotton, sugar cane, and corn were grown. By 1870, the plantation’s land and tenements were owned by Capt. Garth W. James (1845-1883), a Union veteran of the 54th Regiment Massachusetts Colored Infantry, and William R. Robeson (1845-1922), an attorney from Boston, MA. In 1875, Robeson began selling some of his Serenola land. Among the grantees in 1880 was industrialist Andrew Carnegie. More remarkable were the 250 acres that Robeson sold from 1875 through 1885 to five black families, most of whom had once served as slaves of Williams, the original owner of the plantation. The freedmen and their families included: Harrison Lynch (1835-1916), with his wife Hannah and their four children; Mack Williams (1825-1898), with his wife Sally and their four children; minister Washington West (1853-1942), with his wife Nelly and their two children; Jerry Gregg (1845-1920), with his wife Jane and their five children; and Bina Gregg, a widow (1805-1896). Side 2: At that time, farming was the mainstay of Alachua County. Between 1872 and 1892, the location of the former plantation near the Payne’s Prairie waterways gave the farmers easy access to ship produce north by steamboat. By 1891, the Gainesville, Rocky Point & Micanopy Railroad ran through the property, providing further access to markets. Serenola had a lasting impact on Alachua County’s economy until the 1950s, when farming declined as the farmers passed away. The last of the former Serenola slaves who farmed the land died in 1942. The main house and the slave quarters no longer exist, but the surroundings remain much as they appeared in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A dirt road once known as Rocky Point Road, with its canopy of oak trees, still runs through what was the plantation. It became a public highway in 1889, and is now S.W. 17th Terrace. During the early 1900s, West family members established Minnie Hill Baptist Church, located on the old road. After Washington West retired as pastor of Serenola Baptist Church, which he helped found in 1885, he attended the Minnie Hill Church until his death. That church was renamed Trinity Missionary Baptist Church in 1992
Sponsors: The Serenola Community Cemetery, Inc. and the Florida Department of State
MICANOPY
Location:NE. Cholokka Blvd. at N.E. Peach Ave. in front of gazebo.
County: Alachua
City: Micanopy
Description: Side 1: Founded after Spain relinquished Florida to the United States in 1821, Micanopy became the first distinct American town founded in the new US territory. Originally an Indian trading post, Micanopy was built under the auspices of the Florida Association of New York. A leading member of this company, Moses E. Levy, along with Edward Wanton, a former Anglo-Spanish Indian trader, played important roles here. In 1822, a select group of settlers and skilled craftsmen departed New York harbor and set sail for Florida. After disembarking on the banks of the St. Johns River (at the site of present-day Palatka), and with the added labor of 15 slaves, these men forged a 45-mile road with eight bridges to Micanopy--a vital new pathway into the interior. These first settlers arrived on February 12, 1823, and were in close contact with both Seminole and Miccosukee Indians, as well as the black descendants of runaway slaves who resided among them. This initial period was one of relative peace. Micanopy means "head chief," a title awarded to the leader of the Alachua Seminoles. For a time, this frontier hamlet was also known informally as "Wantons." Side 2: The onset of the Second Seminole War in December 1835 caused great devastation. Nearby sugar plantations and homesteads were burned and entire families sought the safety of Micanopy, which had been barricaded with log pickets and renamed Fort Defiance by the military. During the summer of 1836, the Battle of Micanopy and the Battle of Welika Pond took place here. On August 24, with most soldiers sick or wounded, the US Army evacuated the fort and town and all buildings were intentionally burned. Afterward, Fort Micanopy was erected in 1837. The town was rebuilt after the Seminole War, with few of the original inhabitants returning. Cotton replaced sugar cane as a staple crop and cattle production assumed new importance. Following the Civil War and with the advent of the railroad, the Micanopy area became known as the "leading orange and vegetable growing section of Florida." After a freeze in 1894-95, orange cultivation was curtailed, but farmers continued to flourish by growing winter vegetables for northern markets. By the 1920s, truck farming was largely displaced by the lumber and turpentine industries. Many of the town’s larger surviving homes reflect the previous era of agricultural prosperity.
Sponsors: The Micanopy Historical Society and the Florida Department of State
KANAPAHA PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
Location:6221 Southwest 75th Terrace
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: In 1857, a group of Sea Island cotton planters from South Carolina who steeled near here called an organizational meeting to establish Kanapaha Presbyterian Church. The Reverend William J. McCormick (1821-1883) was recruited from South Carolina to be its first pastor. The first sanctuary was erected in 1859 on land donated by Moses Ramsey on the old military road now known as S.W. 63rd Boulevard. In April 1859, McCormick conducted the first servives and the church was formally organized. During the Civil War, Kanapaha Church fell into disrepair. A new sanctuary designed in the Gothic Revival Style was built in 1886 near the train depot in South Arrendondo, later called Kanapaha. Beginning in 1961, services were held in a building closer to Gainesville but the congregation returned to the church here in 1970, after restoration was completed. Kanapaha Presbyterian Church is one of the oldest churches in Alachua County, and still retains the original pews, kerosene chandelier, stained glass windows, and bell. The churches original Steeple, badly damaged by hurricanes in the 1940s, was restored in 2001.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Kanapaha Presbyterian Church and the Florida Department of State
THE BALLPARK
Location:512 SW 2nd Terrace
County: Alachua
City: Gainesville
Description: This site, known locally as the ballpark, was the center of recreational activities in Gainesville for more than 60 years. From 1883-1910 Gainesville's Oak Hall baseball team played here against teams from Florida and the Southeast. The Oak Halls played the first night baseball game in Alachua County here in 1909. The Central City Giants, an African-American team, also played baseball here. When the University of Florida (UF) opened its doors in the fall of 1906, there was no suitable location on campus for playing football. From 1906-10 UF played 15 football games here with a 14-0-1 record. Opponents included the Gainesville Athletic Association (UF's first opponent at the ballpark), Rollins College, Stetson College, Georgia A&M, Gainesville Guards, and the College of Charleston. In 1911, UF began playing games on campus at a location now known as Fleming Field. East Florida Seminary (1902-04) and Gainesville High School (1906-07) also played football here. After 1910, the ballpark was used for tent shows, community fairs, and by traveling circuses, including Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus and the King Brothers Circus, which put on the last performance held at the ballpark on November 17, 1946.
Sponsors: Porters Community Neighborhood Organization and the Florida Department of State

Baker

CAMP AT SANDERSON
Location:U.S. Hwy. 90 between C.R. 229 and Thomas Sweat Rd.
County: Baker
City: Sanderson
Description: This site was used by both Union and Confederate soldiers as a camp during the campaign of 1864. The camp was used as a Confederate supply depot but it was abandoned on February 9, 1864. From the 9th to the 13th, it was held by Federals and used as a base for raids on Lake City and Gainesville. On February 20 the site was by Federals attacking Olustee. In retreat from Olustee the camp again fell into Confederate hands.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials

Bay

ST. ANDREWS BAY SKIRMISH
Location:On U.S. 98 between Fairland & Friendship Aves.
County: Bay
City: Panama City
Description: The U.S. bark Roebuck, commanded by John Sherrill, was sent to St. Andrews Bay to prevent blockade running. On March 20, 1863, an 11-man scouting party landed in this vicinity to secure fresh drinking water. They were attacked by Confederates commanded by Captain W. J. Robinson. When ordered to surrender, the Union crew refused and two were killed and six wounded in the ensuing skirmish. The rest escaped to their ship. The Confederates had no casualties.
Sponsors: Florida board of parks and historic memorials
PANAMA CITY AIRPORT
Location:3173 Airport Rd., In front of main terminal.
County: Bay
City: Panama City
Description: Established 1945 on Fannin Field, Panama City-Bay County Airport 1964 Panama City-Bay County Airport and Industrial District 1967 Developed and controlled by Representative Airport Authorities in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Agency Control Tower Erected by Federal Aviation Agency 1967
Sponsors: Bay County-Panama City in Cooperation with Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
ROBERT LEE MCKENZIE'S HOME AND OFFICE
Location:On 3rd Court at Park Street.
County: Bay
City: Panama City
Description: The McKenzie House is a large two-story clapboard frame dwelling built in the Dutch Colonial style typical of the turn of the century houses still standing in Northern Michigan. It was built in 1909 by Belle Booth who married R.L. McKenzie in 1912; after which time the house came to be known as the McKenzie House. It stands today as it was enlarged in 1925. This house is significant because it was one of the first houses in a virtually unsettled area of Northwest Florida and because it was the home and office of Robert Lee McKenzie. McKenzie was born in Macon County, Georgia in 1870. He moved to the Florida Panhandle in 1902 where he became joint owner of a large naval stores business. After acquiring some waterfront property here he organized the Gulf Coast Development Company. The purpose of the company was to buy more land and develop it into a town site and to secure more waterfront property for a railroad terminal. In 1906 this purpose was realized when McKenzie persuaded J.B. Steele of Atlanta to choose Gulf Coast Development Company land for his new railroad which would continue south from Dothan with connections to Atlanta. Steele said "I want this to be Atlanta's outlet to the Panama Canal;" which suggested the new city's name. In February 1909 Robert Lee McKenzie was elected Mayor of Panama City. He also served two consecutive terms as State Representative from Washington county in the Florida Legislature (1909-11, 1911-13). McKenzie was a leader in the formation of Bay County. He was instrumental in getting a highway constructed to Pensacola. His work and dedication resulted in Panama City being the location of the International Paper Company. The "Drummond Cut," completed in 1938 opened the intercoastal waterway to the west and McKenzie was a leader in this project. During the war years McKenzie was Chairman of the Bay County chapter of the Red Cross (1941-44) and a member of the Selective Services Board (1940-47). On December 4, 1964, the park across the street was renamed McKenzie Park in honor of his devoted service to the community. R.L. McKenzie's place in the development of Panama City is secure. Most of the important events of the town's development for a period of over 50 years (1902-1956) are linked with his name and efforts. For 45 years (1912-1956) the office/library of the McKenzie House was the center of his activities and as such, gives real historic importance to the house and its place in Panama City history.
Sponsors: sponsored by the descendants of robert lee mckenzie in cooperation with the department of state
ST. ANDREW(S) SCHOOL
Location:3001 W. 15th St. Panama
County: Bay
City: Panama City
Description: The first school in St. Andrews, a community established ca.1827, was built in 1850. That building burned down. The second school was a two-story wooden structure with two large rooms on each floor. The school had four teachers and 100 students. In 1925, that school burned, six weeks before the summer recess. On July 7, 1926, voters overwhelmingly approved the issuance of bonds totaling $60,000 to build the present school. E.D. Fitchner, a Tallahassee architect, drew the plans for the 12 classrooms and an auditorium. J.R. Asbell of Panama City was the contractor. St. Andrew(s) School has a Mediterranean Revival Style with classical motifs, and is most noted for its arched windows, red tile roof, and impressive auditorium. During World War II (1941-1945), due to the Wainwright Shipyard and Tyndall Air Force Base, the area grew so rapidly that the school had to go to double sessions. Through the years the building has been used for community events, such as plays, public service forums and educational films. St. Andrew(s) School was completely renovated in 1999-2002, and is the oldest continuously functioning school in Bay County.
Sponsors: ST. ANDREW(S) SCHOOL AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE ST. ANDREW BAY SALTWORKS
Location:At the intersection of West Beach Drive and East Caroline Boulevard
County: Bay
City: Panama City
Description: Between 1861 and 1865, the St. Andrew Bay Saltworks, one of the largest producers of salt in the South, contributed to the Confederate cause by providing salt, fish and cattle for southern troops and citizens. A necessary preservative in those times, salt sold for as much as $50 per bushel, and was produced in wood-fired saltworks on the perimeter of the West Bay, East Bay and North Bay and Lake Powell (a.k.a. Lake Ocala). An estimated 2,500 men, primarily from Florida, Georgia and Alabama, were exempted from combat duty in order to labor in the saltworks. The salt was transported to Eufaula, Alabama, then to Montgomery, for distribution throughout the Confederate states. Because of the importance of St. Andrew Bay Saltworks to the Confederacy, acting Master W.R. Browne, commander of the U.S. Restless, was instructed to commence a series of assaults beginning in August 1862. In December 1863, additional Union attacks occurred, which Confederate home guards could not resist. The attacks resulted in the destruction of more than 290 saltworks, valued by Master Browne at more than $3,000,000. The St. Andrew Bay Saltworks employees promptly rebuilt them, and they remained in operation through February 1865.
Sponsors: THE SONS OF CONFEDERATE VETERANS, CAMP 1319 AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE GIDEON VERSUS WAINWRIGHT CASE
Location:300 E. 4th St.
County: Bay
City: Panama City
Description: This is the site of the landmark Gideon case, after which the Public Defender system was established in Florida and throughout the nation. In 1961, Clarence Earl Gideon (1910-1972) stood trial in this courthouse for the felony of burglary. Lacking funds to hire a lawyer, Gideon requested that a lawyer be appointed to represent him at trial. Gideon’s request was denied, because at that time, a person accused of a non-capital felony did not have a constitutional right to a free lawyer. Gideon represented himself at his trial and was convicted. While serving his five-year prison sentence, Gideon petitioned the United States Supreme Court to review his case. The Supreme Court issued its decision in 1963 in Gideon v. Wainwright, ruling that every poor person charged with a serious crime in this country must be provided a lawyer for his defense at public expense. Panama City attorney, W. Fred Turner (b. 1922) represented Gideon at his retrial and won an acquittal. Built in 1914, this building is one of only a few original courthouses in Florida still being used for its original purpose. A fire in 1920 gutted the building, but it was immediately rebuilt in its Classic Revival architectural style.
Sponsors: THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF BAY COUNTY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SITE OF LOFTIN'S FERRY
Location:Pitts Avenue 0.1 miles south of Aster Street
County: Bay
City: Parker
Description: This site, originally known as Riviere’s Landing, was named for the early settler, Henry L. Riviere and is commemorating the founding of the City of Parker. In 1836, William M. Loftin became custom’s officer for the St. Andrews Bay and operator of a ferry from this point to Ferry point across St. Andrews Bay. This endeavor was part of the road system constructed from 1834 to 1838 under the supervision of Major J.D. Graham. The “Old Military Road” as it was known ran from Apalachicola to Marianna and beyond, and was the major land route through the bay area. Loftin’s Ferry was the beginning of the community that Loftin, Riviere and U.S. Representative Joseph M. White developed and named “Austerlitz.” This is significant for in 1886 the name was changed to “Parker” honoring the two separate families of Peter Parker and William Henry Parker. The City of Parker was established in September 1967, by charter and has remained a thriving, growing community ever since.
Sponsors: City of Parker
ST. ANDREW SKIRMISH
Location:On Business 98 between Fairland and Friendship Ave.
County: Bay
City: Panama City
Description: Near this site on March 20, 1863, Confederate soldiers commanded by Captain Walter J. Robinson repelled a landing by Union sailors led by Acting Master James Folger of the blockading vessel U.S.S. Roebuck. The 11-man scouting party of Union sailors was seeking to locate a southern civilian vessel near the "Old Town" spring, when they were reportedly ordered to surrender by Captain Robinson. During the ensuing skirmish, several Union sailors were killed and wounded as they fled to their launch boat. Quarter, or safe passage, was requested by the remaining Union sailors to retrieve their dead and wounded. Total Union casualties were six dead and three wounded. Union sailors buried four of the deceased on nearby Hurricane Island, and a fifth sailor was interred by the Confederate soldiers. No casualties were recorded by the Confederate unit, which later became Company A of the 11th Florida Infantry Regiment. After the conclusion of the Civil War, the remains of the Union sailors were removed to the national cemetery at Fort Barrancas.
Sponsors: Sons of Confederate Vetrans, Camp 1319 and the Florida Department of State
OLD CALLAWAY ONE ROOM SCHOOL HOUSE
Location:522 Beulah Avenue
County: Bay
City: Callaway
Description: The Callaway School House was built in 1911 (two years prior to the creation of Bay County in 1913) on the SW corner of Beulah Avenue and Letohattchee Street. Callaway had been surveyed and platted in 1908 by Pitt Milner Callaway for whom the community is named. AT that time students had to walk several miles through woods and across a small stream to Parker for instruction. “Grandma” Hettina Ettie Fox, who believed every child should have the opportunity to learn to read, spearheaded the drive to build a community school. Ella Callaway Carlisle donated the school’s land. The Washington County School Board, assisted by donations from the community, constructed the school. The first teacher was Kate McMillan. Although serving primarily as a school, it became a social center for the community, hosting church services, socials, Christmas parties, and as a polling place. After the school closed in 1936, the building was used as a church and later as a residence. In 1984, the school was sold to the City of Callaway for one dollar with the stipulation that it be preserved. The building was moved a short distance to John B. Gore Park and was restored by the Callaway Historical Society, Inc.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Callaway Historical Society, Inc. and the Florida Department of State.
JOHN CHRISTO, SENIOR
Location:W. Beach Dr. near Balboa Ave.
County: Bay
City: Panama City
Description: Built in 1927 by A. A. Payne, a banker, and bought by John Christo, Sr., the house is significant in architecture, a mixture of styles typical of the late 19th and early 20th centuries which includes Neo-Colonial Revival and Italianate Villa influences and the accomplishments of John Christo, Sr., 1885 – 1973. He was born to a Greek family on a farm near the village of Kirte, Turkey. As war between Turkey and Bulgaria drew near, he left Turkey and came to America in 1912 at the age of 27. He had $50, which he borrowed from a relative in Turkey. His ship sailed to New York where he knew no one and was advised to travel by steamer to Jacksonville, Florida and from there to Tarpon Springs where he could communicate in Greek and get a job. He overcame the language barrier by obtaining a Greek-to-English dictionary. He got a job at a restaurant peeling onions, then was advised to go to Quincy, Florida where he was able to work, save and borrow enough to realize his dream to own and operate a five and dime store. Christo became so successful that he eventually owned 42 stores named Christo’s 5 Cents, 10 Cents and $1.00 Stores in Florida, Alabama and Georgia. He founded four successful corporations: Christo’s, Inc., Christo’s Stores, Inc., F & T Investments, Inc. and Christo Realty Company, Inc. The main office and warehouse for the five and dime stores was located at 437 Grace Ave., Panama City. The warehouse was the main merchandise supplier for the stores. He was successful in department store retailing, commercial real-estate investments, commercial building, organizing corporations, architectural design and draftsmanship, land surveying and helping others with their financial endeavors. He opened and operated 36 of the five and dime stores while residing at 940 West Beach Drive. He built three homes. The first was built in 1926 at 100 Allen Ave. He donated property to the State of Florida in 1951, doubling the size of Florida Wayside Park, Panama City Beach. The house is the birthplace of Jimmy and George Christo, twins, born on July 31, 1936 during an unnamed hurricane. The A. A. Payne – John Christo, Senior House is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: The Christo Family and the Florida Department of State

Bradford

WOMAN'S CLUB OF STARKE
Location:201 N. Walnut St., Starke, Florida
County: Bradford
City: Starke
Description: The Woman’s Club of Starke, formerly known as the Mother’s Club, was founded in the late 19th century and held its meetings in the Bradford County High School. Their purpose was to assist the Bradford County High School. Only mothers were accepted as active members with teachers as honorary members. One of their earliest projects was furnishing a room in the school or a library and a study for the principal. They also provided students with books and clothing and hired a janitor to do maintenance. In 1913, the Mother’s Club reorganized and changed its name to the Woman’s Club of Starke. One year later, after the school moved to a different site, the Woman’s Club began using the school building as its headquarters. In 1917, with the approach of World War I, the building was turned over to the Red Cross. Club women made hospital blankets, Christmas kits for troops and shipped clothing to allies. In 1921, the Board of Education gave the school building to the Woman’s Club, at which time it was remodeled. Some of the lumber from the original structure was used in the new construction. The new craftsman/bungalow building opened on November 3, 1922. Projects undertaken in the 1920s by the Woman’s Club included a drive to remove cows from the streets, development of a city park and municipal suffrage. The Bradford County Library used portions of the building and in 1936 was the first county library in Florida allowed to borrow books from the State Library in Tallahassee. Throughout World War II, the United Service Organization (USO) used the building as a clubhouse where the Army YMCA entertained soldiers who were stationed at nearby Camp Blanding. Opening in April 1941 they provided minstrels, radio programs, quiz games, card games, dances and vaudeville shows for the soldiers. Throughout its history, the Clubhouse has continued to serve as the community’s primary facility for social and cultural events. On April 18,1997, the Clubhouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and continues to serve as the Woman’s Club of Starke headquarters.
Sponsors: Little Woman's Club of Starke
CAPTAIN RICHARD G. BRADFORD
Location:S.R. 230. Corner of Base and Range
County: Bradford
City: Starke
Description: On December 6, 1861, Gov. John Milton signed a law changing the name of New River County to Bradford County. The Legislature has passed the law in honor of Captain Richard G. Bradford of Madison who was killed October 9, 1861, in the Battle of Santa Rosa Island. This battle was fought in an attempt to capture Fort Pickens which protected Pensacola Harbor. Bradford was the first Confederate officer from Florida to die in the War Between the States.

Brevard

TITUS HOUSE
Location:Indian River Ave between Main St. and Stephen House Way
County: Brevard
City: Titusville
Description: Located on the Indian River, the hotel was built (circa 1869) and operated by Henry T. Titus, founder of Titusville. The building, constructed of wood, was U-shaped with each room opening on a veranda facing a tropical garden. In the days of steam boat travel, the hotel, with its elaborate salon, was considered one of the best in Florida. After the death of Titus, the property became part of the Dixie Hotel.
HERNANDEZ TRAIL
Location:U.S. 1 at King Street
County: Brevard
City: Cocoa
Description: One half mile to the west ran the Hernandez Trail used during the Seminole War. It connected forts along the East Coast to Ft. Dallas in Miami and across from Ft. Pierce and Ft. Capron to Ft. Brooke near Tampa. Brig. General Joseph M. Hernandez, born 1792 in St. Augustine, served as the first delegate to Congress and held a number of positions of importance in the Territory of East Florida. In 1837 under orders from General Thomas S. Jesup, he captured Indian Chief Osceola.
Sponsors: The Brevard County Historical Commission, The Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and The Florida Department of State
DOUGLAS DUMMETT - DUMMETT GROVE
Location:In Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, on Courtenay Pkwy N. after the Haulover canal
County: Brevard
City: Merritt Island
Description: Indian River oranges, one of Florida's most outstanding products were developed in the 19th century by Douglas Dummett. The Dummett family immigrated from the Barbados in 1807. By 1825, Thomas Dummett had acquired sugar plantations on the east coast of Florida. His son Douglas (B. 1806) established his plantation in this part of Merritt Island and began to grow oranges. Dummett used a new grafting technique later widely adopted in Floirda. He grafted buds from sweet orange trees onto his sour orange trees. This method produced frost-resistant trees and was called top-grafting because budding began several feet above ground. Unlike many coastal planters, Dummett did not abandon his property during the Second Seminole War (1835-42). He served as captain in the "Mosquito Roarers," a Floirda Militia company formed to protect property in this area from Indian raids. Dummett continued to cultivate what were regarded as East Florida's most valuable orange groves until his death in 1873. He also held elective and appointive political offices. The Dummett groves were damaged beyond recovery in the 1893 hurricane and the freeze of 1894-95. The property became part of Kennedy Space Center in 1963.
Sponsors: sponsored by the brevard county historical commission in cooperation with department of state
ST. GABRIEL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:South Palm Avenue between Pine St. and Julia st.
County: Brevard
City: Titusville
Description: In 1887, construction of a church was begun on land donated to the Titusville Episcopal mission by Mary Titus, wife of the town's founder, and J. Dunlin Perkinson, lay reader of the mission. The name of the church was changed from St. John's to St. Gabriels's with the gift in 1888 of a stained glass window depicting St. Gabriel. The neo-Gothic style reflects a trend in Episcopal Church architecture in central Florida during the late 1800's. This style was spread through the efforts of Edwin G. Weed, third bishop of Florida. The church, which is on the National Register of Historic Places, contains a fine collection of Victorian stained glass.
Sponsors: Sponsored by St. Gabriel's Episcopal Church in cooperation with department of state
NAVAL AIR STATION MELBOURNE
Location:1205 Eddie Allen Road,
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne
Description: This site was the 129-building Naval Air Station constructed at the Melbourne Municipal Airport at the beginning of World War II. It was commissioned as Operational Training Unit #2 on October 20, 1942 and closed on February 15, 1946. The Station was used for training newly commissioned Navy and Marine pilots. There were over 2,200 pilots who trained in Grumman F4F Wildcat and F6F Hellcat fighter planes. Of the pilots trained there, 63 died in aerial accidents and two enlisted men died in ground-related accidents. The location served more than 310 officers and 1,355 enlisted personnel. Today the area is operated by the City of Melbourne Airport Authority.
Sponsors: Melbourne Airport Authority Property Manager and the Florida Department of State
WINDOVER ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE
Location:8006 Thru 8026 Windover Way
County: Brevard
City: Titusville
Description: Discovered by accident in 1982, the Windover site is a burial place of Early Native Americans who inhabited this region 7,000 to 8,000 years ago. The burials were placed underwater in the peat of the shallow pond. This peat helped to preserve normally perishable artifacts and human tissues. The site contains the largest skeletal sample in the New World and the oldest bottle gourd found north of Mexico, two features that add to its significance. It also includes the largest and most complex sample of early textiles in the New World, a pollen record from the end of the Pleistocene to Recent Eras and recovery of some of the oldest DNA from brain tissue and bone. The remarkable state of preservation has allowed archaeologists to reconstruct some of the earliest New World diets based on contents from their stomachs and on scientific analysis. The site has produced the largest and most complex textile collection ever recovered from an Early Archaic period site. It also yielded a remarkable organic artifact inventory including wood and fibers. Archaeologists from Florida State University were among those who explored the Windover site.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WINTER-TIME AIS INDIAN TOWN OF PENTOAYA
Location:2055 So. Patrick Dr.
County: Brevard
City: Eau Gallie
Description: In 1605 Florida’s Spanish Governor Pedro de Ybarra sent Lt. Alvaro Mexia on a diplomatic mission to the Ais Indians. Mexia recorded his passage from St. Augustine down the coast to the principal Ais Indian town near present-day Vero Beach. At the confluence of Ulumay Lagoon (Banana River Lagoon) and the Great Bay of Ais (Indian River Lagoon) Mexia reported the location of the winter-time Ais Indian Town of Pentoaya. He recorded that the 17th century town of Pentoaya was located directly opposite on the western mainland, near the confluence of the Eau Gallie and the Indian Rivers. The Winter-Time Town of Pentoaya was located between this park and the Banana River Lagoon, to the west. It consisted of a complex of shell middens, mounds and a causeway, which divided the small lake seen from this marker. Little remains of these mounds, as the shells found in them were used as roadbed material early in the 20th century.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
LaGRANGE COMMUNITY CEMETERY
Location:1575 North Dixie Highway
County: Brevard
City: Mims
Description: Established in 1869, this is the oldest cemetery on Florida’s lower East Coast. The oldest portion is located in the front center section, evidenced by the southeasterly positioning of the tombstones. Tom Johnson Cockshutt (1841-1917), who arrived here in 1868 and made barrels nearby, donated this parcel to be used, in part as a community cemetery. In 1869 he organized the first protestant church on the East Coast between New Smyrna and Key West. The community built a small log structure to serve as the first public meeting house, area schoolhouse, and church. It was located in what is now the north portion of LaGrange Cemetery. LaGrange Community Church, built in 1872, stands just south of this parcel. The earliest marked grave is that of Andrew Fenster, a War of 1812 veteran, who settled here in 1865, died in 1869 and is buried in the large family plot. Gravesites of many pioneer families include Tom J. Cockshutt, founder of the Church; Andrew Froscher, undertaker; Dr. B.R. Wilson, physician; William S. Norwood, who operated the first overland mail service; Mims, for whom the town of Mims was named; and Colonel Henry T. Titus (1823-1881), founder of Titusville.
Sponsors: BY THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
LaGRANGE MIMS COMMUNITY CEMETERY
Location:1575 North Old Dixie Highway
County: Brevard
City: Titusville
Description: In the early 1900s a two-acre parcel of land north of LaGrange Church and Cemetery was given to the Mims colored community for a cemetery. Earliest marked graves are dated 1903; many were unmarked. During the late 1800s both blacks and whites worshiped at LaGrange Community Church. In 1894, after organizing their own congregation, St. James Colored Missionary Baptist Church acquired land in Mims and in 1904 built their own church. In June 1913, trustees of that church purchased this parcel from the East Coast Cattle Company for use as a cemetery, then referred to as the Mims Colored Cemetery. Many of North Brevard’s pioneering black families rest in this hallowed ground with family names of Abrams, Bell, Brothers, Brown, Campbell, Cuyler, Grant, Gibson, Highsmith, McKenzie, Mitchell, Seigler, Simms, Strickland, Warren and Williams. Most noted ate the graves of Harry T. Moore and Harriette V. Simms Moore, Florida civil rights activists. Moore was chapter president of the Brevard County National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and later NAACP Florida Convention president/state coordinator. On Christmas Eve, 1951, the Moores were killed when their home, located near this site, was bombed.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HARRY T. & HARRIETTE V. MOORE MEMORIAL HOMESTEAD
Location:2180 Freedom Ave. Near Replica House
County: Brevard
City: Titusville
Description: This property is the former homesite of civil rights activists Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore, two people whose lives were committed to help Florida’s Negro communities unite to form a collective identity. Mr. Moore was a Brevard County educator who became a full-time civil rights activist. After being fired for demanding equal pay, he worked to equalize the salaries received by Negro teachers with that of their white counterparts. He organized the Progressive Voters League of Florida, and his efforts to open the Democratic Party to Negroes provided new political opportunities for minority citizens all over the state. Mr. Moore organized the first Brevard County Branch of the National Association for he Advancement of Colored People in 1934, and served as its president for five years. From 1941-1946, he served as president of the Florida State Conference of the Branches of the NAACP, and then as the executive director until his death. Mr. Moore and his wife were murdered when a bomb was planted beneath their house on Christmas night in 1951.
Sponsors: Brevard County Board of County Commissioners and the Florida Department of State
VALENCIA HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of Rockledge Dr. and Valencia Dr.
County: Brevard
City: Rockledge
Description: The Valencia Historic District was developed during the Florida Land Boom of the 1920s. The Valencia Homes Company was formed in 1924 by local businessmen C. Sweet Smith, Charles D. Smith, L.S. Andrews and Horace R. Bruen. The company acquired a 22-acre tract of land that was formerly the site of the Plaza Hotel and occupied in part by an orange grove. In March 1924 the company platted the subdivision and named it after the type of oranges that grew there, and for a region in Spain. They built impressive entry gates, a waterworks, paved roads, and installed light posts and tropical landscaping. Each lot was 25 feet wide and most buyers purchased at least two lots to build on. Each sale agreement required that the homes constructed must cost $4,000 or more and that they be of Spanish, Moorish or Italian architectural design. The official architect for Valencia was Richard W. Rummell, Jr., who designed many of Brevard County’s most impressive buildings. All of the contributing homes were built between 1924 and 1926 and are excellent examples of the Mediterranean Revival style. The Valencia Subdivision was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1992.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE BREVARD HERITAGE COUNCIL,THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GEORGIANA RAILWAY
Location:S. Tropical Trl., Near Georgianna United Methodist
County: Brevard
City: Merritt Island
Description: In 1892, Frank Cass Allen, a Georgianna merchant, began building a 0.6-mile standard-gauge railway with steel rail and wood ties across Merritt Island at this location, connecting docks on the Indian and Banana rivers. It was part of his private water/rail venture to accommodate tourists, especially northerners, who began flocking to the Atlantic beaches following the completion of a mainline railroad into Titusville in 1885. Allen wanted to improve upon the one and only 45-mile boat trip around the southern tip of the island to reach the beaches south of the Cape. His 10-mile route across the Indian River to Georgiana by boat, the island by rail, and the Banana River by boat took about an hour. One 10-ton steam locomotive is documented, apparently replacing an earlier one. Allen built an open 50-passenger car using commercial railroad wheels. The line opened in mid-December 1893, and by April 1894, over 700 had visited the beaches. Financial problems and poor maintenance defeated the railway, and, in mid-1894, it was replaced by a wagon route at Lotus, two miles farther south. The locomotive and passenger car were sold at public auction on March 2, 1896. Rail and other rolling stock were not part of this sale.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE LAST NAVAL BATTLE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR
Location:445 Challenger Rd.
County: Brevard
City: Cape Canaveral
Description: The last naval battle of the American Revolutionary War took place off the coast of Cape Canaveral on March 10, 1783. The fight began when three British ships sighted two Continental Navy ships, the Alliance commanded by Captain John Barry and the Duc De Lauzun commanded by Captain John Green sailing northward along the coast of Florida. The Alliance, a 36-gun frigate, and the Duc De Lauzun, a 20-gun ship, were loaded with 72,000 Spanish silver dollars they were bringing from Havana, Cuba to Philadelphia to support the Continental Army. One of the British ships, the HMS Sybil, a 28-gun frigate, commanded by Captain James Vashon, chased the Alliance and Duc De Lauzun to the south. The HMS Sybil fired first, exchanging shots with the slower Duc De Lauzun. Then in a daring strategy Captain John Barry aboard the Alliance reversed his course, and while under fire, waited until the HMS Sybil was close. When the British ship was alongside he returned fire to the broadside with greater number of cannon. The battle lasted less than an hour, when the HMS Sybil, outgunned and badly damaged, broke off from the battle and fled. The Alliance and Duc De Lauzun then continued on their mission at dawn on March 11, 1783.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA SOCIETY OF THE SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLIVER'S CAMP
Location:2215 Jay Jay Rd., Chain of Lakes Park
County: Brevard
City: Titusville
Description: This site derives its name from the Oliver family who migrated from Missouri and homesteaded this area of Turnbull Hammock in the early 1870’s. They owned large tracts of timberland and citrus groves, and the main “camp” was located on this property. In 1886, L.C. Oliver started a lumber business in Titusville, and dealt in Georgia pine lumber, shingles, and other building supplies. Oliver bought half interest in the Budge & Huckabay Hardware Store in 1888, and renamed the business Oliver & Budge Hardware & Lumber. Budge and Oliver moved to Miami in 1895, and started another hardware and lumber business. Budge bought Oliver’s half interest in the Titusville business, and in 1898 sold it to his father-in-law, Captain J. Pritchard, and it became James Pritchard and Son Hardware. In 1918 Oliver and wife Louise sold their Turnbull Hammock 40 acres to Florida Senator J.J. Parrish and wife Emma for $15,000. Parrish was one of the state’s largest citrus grove owners and businessmen during the early 1900’s. Located on this property was a 1910 Craftsman style two-story house that Parrish used as the grove caretaker’s residence. Brevard County purchased this property and is now the location of Chain of Lakes Regional Park.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ST. LUKES EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:5555 N. Tropical Trail
County: Brevard
City: Merritt Island
Description: St. Luke’s Episcopal Church of Courtenay was formed by the Porcher, LaRoche, Sams and other families that settled on north Merritt Island after leaving the Charleston, South Carolina area in 1875 due to the loss of their homes and plantations during the Civil War. The first services were held in 1879 in a store building on the bank of the Indian River. In 1888, Edward Porcher donated property for the site of St. Luke’s Episcopal Church. It was built with a $600 donation from Lucy Boardman of New Haven, Connecticut, along with the donated labor of parishioners. The Florida Gothic style, common architecture for Episcopal churches in Florida at the time, was a board and batten wooden 600-square-foot structure built of locally milled hand-planed island pine and cypress with a steep gabled roof and square bell tower. During the early years, the church did not have a vicar. Ministers from churches in Cocoa and Titusville traveled by boat to hold monthly services, while members led the weekly services. The chapel is still used for mid-week and special services. The church is surrounded on three sides by an historic cemetery. The church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
JOHN H. SAMS HOMESTEAD
Location:6195 N. Tropical Trail
County: Brevard
City: Merritt Island
Description: The Sams family came to Brevard County from South Carolina in 1875 to take advantage of the 1860 Homestead Act. The family consisted of John Hanahan Sams, his wife Sarah, their five children, John’s brother William Sams, and his sister, Catherine DeVeaux Sams. The Sams Homestead consists of two buildings. The first, a single story home, was originally constructed in Eau Gallie on property homesteaded by John H. Sams in 1875. The family decided to move nearer to other relatives on North Merritt Island and the house was rafted up the Indian River in 1878 to the present site. It is the oldest dated structure on Merritt Island and a prime example of Florida vernacular construction. In 1884 Sams was granted a homestead deed for 156 acres and by 1888, built the second two-story home adjoining the older house on the property. Sams served as Superintendent of Schools for the county from 1880-1920, while growing citrus and pineapples. John H. Sams died in 1923 and the homes were occupied by his descendants until 1995. Archaeological excavations at the site discovered a prehistoric Native American occupation site that dates from approximately 5,000 BC to 1250 AD, and also a late Pleistocene fossil site.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST D EVELOPMENT COUNCIL AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD MELBOURNE BEACH TOWN HALL
Location:2373 Oak St.
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne Beach
Description: This building was constructed in 1908 facing the Indian River Lagoon in the area now know as Ryckman Park in Melbourne Beach. It originally held offices of the Melbourne Beach Improvement Company. The officers, Capt. Rufus Beaujean, son Donald Beaujean and Lawrence Ryckman made plans for the town which included the pier, lot sites, roads, and a railway which ran from the Indian River to the Atlantic Ocean. Eventually, the building became the Melbourne Beach Town Hall and Post Office. In 1953, a new town hall was built and this building was floated down the river to this area. It was used for meetings and classes and managed by Mr. and Mrs. Williams, and became known as the Williams Building. When the Spessard Holland Golf Course was built, the building was moved to the point of land between Oak Street and Highway A1A where it continued to be a community center. In 2001, the county scheduled it for demolition, but two citizens requested time for rehabilitation. After many discussions, petitions and student letters, the county agreed to lease the building to the Town of Melbourne Beach. A committee enlisted the help of volunteers. In May 2007 the building opened as a history center.
Sponsors: The Brevard County Historical Commission The Brevard County Tourist Development Council and the Florida Department of State.
SMITH FAMILY HOMESTEAD
Location:A1A and Old Florida Trail
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne Beach
Description: Under the United States Government Homestead Act of 1862, brothers Robert Toombs Smith and Charley Smith laid claim to 158.79 acres on mullet creek in 1887. They discovered the property while searching the Indian River Lagoon shoreline by sailboat for land to homestead. They improved the land by clearing it by hand, building a permanent two story Florida Cracker “I” house with a wrap around porch on three sides was built on the site. The house, made from heart pine, featuring lapboard siding and tongue and groove floors, rests on coquina on pilings. A separate kitchen structure was attached. More than 15 years later on March 17 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the deed to their homestead. Today the property is known as Honest John’s Fish Camp. Honest John Smith was the son of R.T. Smith and their decedents currently own the homestead. Also located on the site is a sugar cane mill, barn net house and railroad depot used as a packing house for citrus grown on the property. Access to these areas is restricted.
Sponsors: The Brevard County Historical Commission, The brevard County Tourist Development Council and the Florida Department of States.
CAPE CANAVERAL LIGHTHOUSE
Location:Lighthouse Rd
County: Brevard
City: Cape Canaveral
Description: On May 21, 1838, Florida territorial delegate Charles Downing requested a lighthouse be built on Cape Canaveral. The first lighthouse completed in Jan. 1848 stood 65-feet tall, had a 55-foot tower and a 10-foot lantern room equipped with 15 lamps on 21-inch reflectors. The brick tower and keeper’s home cost under $13,300. Nathaniel Scobie oversaw construction and appointed the first keeper. With the advent of the Civil War, S. Mallory, Confederate Navy Secretary, ordered Florida east coast lighthouses “extinguished.” Keeper Mills Burnham removed the lamp and buried it in his orange grove. A state-of-the-art, 151-foot iron tower was erected in 1868 and topped with a 1st Order Fresnel lens. The tower’s living quarters were used for storage and a weather station. In 1871 a storm surge washed over the lighthouse area spoiling lamp oil and drinking water. This and shoreline erosion caused the lighthouse to be moved. From Oct. 1893 to Jul. 1894 the tower was dismantled, moved by tram one mile inland and re-erected, along with a 1st and 2nd assistant’s and keeper’s homes, to its present location. In 1939 the Coast Guard took ownership. In 2000 stewardship was transferred to the 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base.
Sponsors: The Brevard County Historical Commission, The Brevard County Tourist Development Council And The Florida Department Of State
BENSEN HOUSE
Location:5795 S US Highway 1
County: Brevard
City: Grant
Description: Atley Bensen paid $1,200 for the precut yellow pine lumber which arrived by riverboat from Jacksonville in 1916, to build this house for his wife Clara Christensen. The Bensen brothers married the Christensen sisters, both pioneer families of Grant. Atley and Clara lived in the house with sons, Atley Jr. and Russell until they were school age, and then moved to Melbourne, where son Edward Hartman was born in 1928. The Bensen House was rented for about five years until the family returned. Atley and his brother Adolph were involved in commercial fishing, grew pineapples, and operated the Jorgensen General Store, which opened in 1894. Atley died in 1961. Clara continued to live in the house, and then later moved to Tampa where she died in 1981. Russell donated the “cracker” house to the Grant Historical Society in 1984. In 1985, the house was moved from its original site, which was about 300 feet south of 1st Street on the banks of the Indian River Lagoon to this location, which was the original site of Grant’s first house built in 1894 by Louis Kossuth “Honey” Smith. The Smith house burned down in the 1970’s. The Bensen House became a museum in 1987.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL,AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE ADDISON/ELLIS CANAL
Location:444 Columbia Blvd.
County: Brevard
City: Titusville
Description: In 1911, Edgar W. Ellis and J.H. Beckwith put together a consortium of developers known as the Titusville Fruit and Farm Lands Company. They acquired 22,500 acres in the western portion of the old Delespine Grant with plans to drain marshland in the St. Johns River Valley, to make the land usable for agricultural purposes. By 1913, 43 miles of lateral canals had been dug and work began on the Addison/Ellis Canal, which led from Addison Creek to the outlying vegetable fields. The canal was intended to relieve flooding in the St. Johns River by diverting floodwaters to the lagoon and to transport supplies and crops from the St. Johns River to the Indian River Lagoon, ending at Addison Point. The company used the coquina rock extracted from the canal to pave roads to their fields. The marshland and sand ridges proved no problem for the equipment used, but a coquina rock ridge that runs north-south proved insurmountable, and the canal was never completed. The consortium went broke and the project was abandoned. The canal never reached a useful depth, and construction ended just east of the scrub/coquina ridge in Addison Creek.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
UNION CYPRESS RAILWAY
Location:Tallwood Park, Hollywood Blvd. Between Trend Rd and N. Tallwood Circle
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne
Description: This 18.5-mile standard-gauge railway was built to carry logs from the large cypress/pine holdings of George W. Hopkins, at Deer Park, to the Union Cypress sawmill just south of Melbourne. Two new and seven used steam locomotives would eventually ride the 50-lb. rails, crossing the St. Johns River on a 2,850-foot wooden trestle south of Lake Sawgrass. This was the first direct route across the St. Johns for 80 miles south of Enterprise, preceding the Kissimmee Highway (U.S. 192) by 6 years. Melbourne to Kissimmee travel was now only 53 miles, compared to a previous 128 miles by rail or 153 miles by road. The railway opened up the vast prairie lands along the St. Johns for settlement and carried much of the regional commerce: cut timber, naval stores, livestock, and farm produce as well as people and the materiel of their daily lives. Trains ferried automobiles across the marsh on flat cars when floods closed the Kissimmee Highway. Logging and railway operations ceased after Hopkins died in January, 1925. Foshee Manufacturing Co. took over in March, 1928, and operated until forced to quit in late 1932 due to a declining lumber market in the Great Depression. Only the skeletal St. Johns River trestle remains today.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
UNION CYPRESS SAWMILL
Location:2729 Lipscomb St, on Mill St. side of Macedonia Missionary Baptist
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne
Description: The Union Cypress Co. was Melbourne’s first big industry, bringing employment, growth and development to the region. Their big cypress/pine sawmill was a three-story, all-steel structure about 50 by 150 feet. Five, 150-horsepower boilers provided power. Its power plant supplied Melbourne’s first electricity. The company’s railway to Deer Park provided the first direct route across the St. Johns River for 80 miles south of Enterprise. Some 40,000 feet of lumber and 45,000 shingles could be produced daily from the cypress/pine holdings of George W. Hopkins, which had a market value over $2 million in 1911. Lumber not used locally was shipped out via the Florida East Coast Railway. The company-owned town of Hopkins had some 69 buildings within its industrial, residential and commercial areas. The big mill burned in August, 1919, and was replaced by a smaller pine mill. Construction of a new cypress mill began in late 1924, but halted after Hopkins died in January, 1925. Foshee Manufacturing Co. leased the now-idle mill and railway in March, 1928, but even with plenty of timber left, had to close in late 1932 due to a declining lumber market in the Great Depression. Less than a handful of original buildings exist today.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Location:S. Country Club Rd. between W. University Blvd and W. Amherst Ave.
County: Brevard
City: Cape Canaveral
Description: A 37-cent donation, given to Florida Institute of Technology founder Jerome P. Keuper (1921-2002), would launch one of the most remarkable stories in American higher education. Keuper, a scientist working at Cape Canaveral, founded Florida Tech in 1958 to meet a critical need for scientists and engineers in America’s race for space. Florida Tech quickly attracted the world’s foremost rocket scientists and engineers to its halls. It awarded its first honorary doctorate in 1962 to astronaut Virgil “Gus” Grissom. Among its first visiting professors were the legendary rocket scientist Werhner von Braun and Edward Teller, the father of the hydrogen bomb. Over the years, Florida Tech expanded its course offerings to take advantage of its unique location where the land, sea, sky and space come together. It has done so while maintaining internationally recognized excellence, and its ties to the space program. It counts among its graduates five astronauts, including two who flew together on Space Shuttle Discovery in December, 2006, Joan Higginbotham and Sunita Williams.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ALUMNI ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CITY POINT COMMUNITY CHURCH
Location:3783 North Indian River Dr.
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne
Description: Known as City Point, this area was settled shortly after the Civil War by Confederate veterans, citrus grove workers, northern winter residents, and consumptives seeking a healthy climate. By early 1885, a board of trustees was formed consisting of William H. Sharpe, George W. Holmes, A.L. Hatch, John M. Sanders, and George E. Chester, to construct this building to be used for a public hall, school, and non-denominational church for both white and black residents. On land donated by J.C. Norwood, this building was designed by A.L. Hatch and built by John M. Sanders who completed the work on November 1, 1885. This structure served as the beginning congregation for the following churches: the United Methodist Church of Cocoa, Church of Christ, Church of God, Primitive Baptist Church, Calvin Baptist Church, Indian River Baptist Church, Baptist Enterprise Church, and the First Apostolic Temple. The building was used as a school until 1924. Picnics, dances, political rallies, a precinct voting station and observation tower during World War II, were some of the many uses the community found for the building.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HOLY TRINITY
Location:Corner of Fee Avenue and U.S. 1, Melbourne
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne
Description: First organized in 1884, Holy Trinity Episcopal Church was erected in 1886 on land donated by Lucy Boardman, who also provided plans for the building. Founding members of the congregation included the Goode, Campbell, Miller, Ely, Ellis and Grubb families as well as Hector, McBride, Gibbs, and Mason. The church, built of virgin Georgia heart pine, was located south of Crane Creek. Members from the north side of the creek arrived by boat and after 1895, by footbridge. The building was moved in 1897 to land donated by W.T. Wells at the corner of Fee Avenue and U.S. 1, Melbourne. Repaired and stuccoed in 1927, the building was moved to its present location in 1963.
Sponsors: BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GREATER ST. JAMES MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH OF MIMS
Location:2396 Harry T. Moore Avenue
County: Brevard
City: Mims
Description: In 1894, after organizing a congregation, St. James Colored Missionary Baptist Church acquired land in Mims, and with Rev. G. Brewer as pastor, built the first wooden church on this site in 1904 under the guidance of Rev. J.S. Gilbert. Many of North Brevard’s pioneering black families: Warren, Grant, Campbell, Cuyler, Strickland, Bell, Harris, Hester, Lewis, Sheldon, Abrams, Brothers, Wright, Highsmith and Mitchell, held positions in this church. Rev. James Massey served as an inspirational and dedicated leader from 1937 to 1967. Choir director Dorothy Hester also served as Youth Advisor for North Brevard NAACP under the direction of Harry T. Moore. Funeral services were held at this church for Civil Rights activists Harry T. Moore and Harriette V. Moore who were killed when their home was bombed on Christmas night 1951. Moore was Brevard County NAACP Chapter President and later NAACP Florida Convention president/state coordinator. The present church structure was built in 1964. The old wooden structure was torn down in 1968 and the annex building was started in 1971. The name of the church was changed to Greater St. James Missionary Baptist Church in 1974.
Sponsors: THE BRVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
LaGRANGE COMMUNITY CHURCH
Location:1575 Old Dixie Highway
County: Brevard
City: LaGrange
Description: Founded by Tom Johnson Cockshutt in 1869, this was the first organized Protestant Church on the East Coast of Florida between New Smyrna and Key West. Tom donated land for a cemetery and built a small log structure located on what is now the northern part of LaGrange Cemetery. It was used as a public meeting place, church, and the first public school in Brevard County. In 1872 a two-story structure of vertical logs was built on the present site. The first floor was used as a church and the second floor for public meetings and a schoolhouse. In 1893 the second story was removed, a bay window was added between the two front doors, and horizontal boards were placed over the vertical logs, encompassing the old structure within the walls of the new. Depicted on one of the eight memorial windows are the names of those who built the church: J.N. Feaster; J.C.C. Feaster; Tom J. Cockshutt; W.S. Norwood; B.J. Mims; R. Singleton; and W.P. Day. The first ordained pastor was W.N. Chaudoin from 1871-1904. Several other congregations were formed from this small church that included: First Presbyterian of Titusville; Mims Methodist Church; and Greater St. James Missionary Baptist Church of Mims.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ORIGINAL MELBOURNE VILLAGE HALL
Location:6100 Hall Rd.
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne
Description: This community hall was constructed, circa 1941, as a barracks on the Banana River Naval Air Station. Following World War II, the Naval Air Station became Patrick Air Force Base. In 1948, this building was declared surplus, and sold to the American Homesteading Foundation (AHF), located in Melbourne Village, Florida. The building was barged down the Banana River and Indian River to Melbourne and trucked on the then two-lane U.S. Route 192 to this location. As the center of Village life, the Hall was used for AHF Trustee meetings and annual AHF Membership meetings. It was also used for square dancing, life saving and first aid classes, Women’s Guild activities, study groups for organic gardening, art and drama, plus children’s crafts, drama, and story time programs. From 1957 until 1963, it provided office space for the newly incorporated Town of Melbourne Village. After 1963, it was used for recreational activities and the Village Men’s Club. In 1996, the Town of Melbourne Village Historic Preservation Commission began a campaign to restore this historic landmark. The Town of Melbourne Village with the support of a grant from Brevard County completed the restoration in 2003.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GEORGIANNA CHURCH
Location:3925 S. Tropical Trail
County: Brevard
City: Merritt Island
Description: Georgianna United Methodist Church was built in the community of Georgiana on Merritt's Island in 1886. The ringing of the church bell still marks the beginning of worship as it has for many decades. Franklin C. Allen, Jr., a local homesteader, donated the land where the church stands. In the summer of 1886, led by Edwin Nelson, men of the Georgiana community started their building program. Lumber was brought in from St. Augustine by sailboat and unloaded along the Indian River shoreline then carried to the work site. By the end of September the roof was in place and Sunday school was held using chairs on loan from local households. Crafting of the pews was the next project. D.C. Munson crafted the pews by hand from rough lumber. The first service was held on Thanksgiving in 1886. With its dark wood, white pews, red carpet and bright stained glass windows, Georgianna United Methodist Church is one of the most unique worship centers on the east coast of Florida. Georgianna United Methodist Church has always been a vital part of its community and remains so today.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CLIFTON COLORED SCHOOL
Location:2.8 miles north of the Haulover Canal on the Canaveral National Seashore, on the east side of U.S. Route 3.
County: Brevard
City: Merritt Island
Description: Before the Clifton Schoolhouse was built, Butler Campbell and Andrew Jackson’s children were home schooled by a black teacher, Mr. Mahaffey. The teacher was paid five dollars for each student, after examination by the County School Superintendent. Any locality claiming a school had to provide a public school house, select at least one trustee, and secure a certified teacher. In 1890-91, Campbell and Jackson decided to build a proper school. A neighbor, Wade Holmes provided a one-acre lot on the northwest corner of his property. The three men built a 12’ x 16’ heart pine structure that sat on coquina cornerstones about one foot off the ground. The west-facing front was fitted with a double-paneled door. Two sets of glass-paned windows were on the north and south sides. The roof was made of cedar or cypress boards. Campbell’s children included Florida, Eugenia, Agnes, Henry and Willie, who was Valedictorian in 1892. Jackson’s children were Annie, Mary, Floyd and Douglas, who was Valedictorian in 1893. Studies included reading, physiology, English, math and Latin. By 1910, the children were out of school or attending school elsewhere. In 1924, Eugenia returned to Clifton and later lived in the structure. When NASA bought properties on North Merritt Island in the 1960s, the families relocated to other areas and most of the houses were moved or demolished.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THEBREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE PRITCHARD HOUSE
Location:424 South Washington Avenue
County: Brevard
City: Titusville
Description: Captain James Pritchard bought a lot from Mary Titus, and in the spring of 1891 contracted Pleasant J. Hall, who had built St. Gabriel’s Episcopal Church, to build a Queen Anne style house of heart pine. It appears today much like it did then. On the first floor is a main entrance hall, a stairway to the second floor, parlor and dining room. The kitchen was separated from the main living area by an open passage, now closed in with a side door. A narrow stairway ascends from the kitchen to the maid’s room above. The second floor has four bedrooms with built-in closets. Only the master bedroom had access to the balcony. The passage between the main house and maid’s room at the end of the hall later became a bathroom. A pipe connected to a hand pump located next to the tub carried water from the cistern below. The four fireplaces have original tiled hearths. The entrance hall light fixture is original. In 1888, Pritchard organized Titusville’s first bank, built the first generating plant in 1890 - later sold to Florida Power and Light Co., and owned James Pritchard and Son Hardware Store. Pritchard family members had continuously lived in the house, until it was purchased by Brevard County in May 2005.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
POSSIBLE VICINITY OF JUAN PONCE DE LEON'S LANDING
Location:4005 Hwy. A1A
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne Beach
Description: While there is disagreement among scholars, it is believed that this site may be in an area where Juan Ponce de Leon made landfall in April 1513. It has long been thought that this event took place near St. Augustine, based upon studies of de Leon’s compass headings that did not account for the inability of 16th century navigators to accurately determine longitude, magnetic compass deviations, or the effects of the Gulf Stream and prevailing winds. Professional navigator Douglas Peck re-traced Juan Ponce de Leon’s route in a sailboat, however, and found a more likely landing site. Peck, who sailed the same waters for 30 years, has an “intimate geographical knowledge of the route” Juan Ponce de Leon took. When he re-sailed the route at the same time of year as the 1513 voyage, he reached Florida’s eastern shore at 28 degrees North Latitude and 80 degrees 29 minutes West Longitude, just south of Melbourne Beach. He can place the accuracy to within 5 to 8 Nautical Miles on either side of this navigational fix. Many historians now conclude that an area south of Melbourne Beach, such as this site, was a more probable location for Juan Ponce de Leon’s first landing. This Brevard County Park, Juan Ponce de Leon Landing, was created in 2005.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, BREVARD COUNTY PARKS & RECREATION, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HAULOVER CANAL
Location:SR #3 Merritt Island Wildlife Rufuge
County: Brevard
City: North Merritt Island
Description: Native Americans, explorers and settlers hauled or carried canoes and small boats over this narrow strip of land between Mosquito Lagoon and the Indian River. Eventually it became known as the “haulover.” Connecting both bodies of water had long plagued early settlers of this area. Spaniards visited as early as 1605 and slid boats over the ground covered with mulberry tree bark. Early settlers used rollers and skids to drag schooners across. Fort Ann was established nearby in 1837, during the 2nd Seminole War (1835-1842), to protect the haulover from Indians and carry military supplies from the lagoon to the river. In 1852, contractor G.E. Hawes dug the first canal using slave labor. It was 3 ft. deep, 14 ft. wide, and completed in time for the 3rd Seminole War (1856-1858). Steamboat and cargo ships used the passage until the railroad arrived in 1885. By 1887, the Florida Coast Line Canal and Transportation Co. dug a new and deeper canal which you see now, a short distance from the original. The Intracoastal Waterway incorporated the Haulover Canal as a federal project in 1927 to be maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Since then the channel has been dug wider and deeper, and a basin added for launching boats.
Sponsors: BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HISTORIC DERBY STREET CHAPEL
Location:121 Derby Street
County: Brevard
City: Cocoa
Description: Dedicated on July 13, 1924, this structure was built by the Seventh Day Adventist Church, and was heralded by The Cocoa Tribune as “an honor to the City.” In 1955 it was sold to the Church of Christ, Scientists. In 1964 it was sold to the First Baptist Church. The building is constructed of heart of pine and stucco over wire lathing. The Craftsman style architecture and the original flooring, windows, altar rail, and tin tile roof have been preserved. The roof withstood many years of hurricanes without leaking. In 1996, the building was destined to be demolished for a parking lot, but local preservationists objected and resolved to save the historic building. In 2003, Cocoa Main Street leased the property to restore and rehabilitate it as a community use facility. Restoration was done by volunteer labor. Design and landscaping of the adjoining park was a project of the Dirt Daubers Circle of the Cocoa-Rockledge Garden Club. On September 27, 2005, it was officially named “The Historic Derby Street Chapel.”
Sponsors: THE BREVARD HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL,AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HISTORIC BREVARD COUNTY COURTHOUSE
Location:506 South Palm Avenue
County: Brevard
City: Titusville
Description: Brevard County was founded in 1855 and Titusville became the county seat in 1879. The first courthouse was a two-story classical revival wood structure built in 1882, on land donated by Titusville founder Col. Henry Titus. In 1912, County Commissioners ordered the construction of a new courthouse which opened in March 1913. The old wooden structure was moved to the back of the site and sold at auction. Lightman, McDonald & Co. of Jacksonville built the two-story structure of re-enforced concrete for $30,566. Four large classical columns mark the original main entrance on the east side. On the north and south entrances were two small piazzas with one-story classical columns. County Commissioners, Clerk of the Court, Treasurer, Tax Assessor/Collector, and Surveyor offices were on the first floor. On the second floor were a large courtroom, lawyer’s offices, judge’s chamber, and jury rooms. In 1926, a three-story wing was added to the west side. On the third floor were jail cells, warden’s quarters, kitchen, and hospital ward. Sheriff, other county offices, and vault room were located on the second floor. The courthouse continues to serve Brevard County, and the jail facilities on the third floor are no longer used.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
PROVOST HALL
Location:3890 Old Settlement Road, behind building
County: Brevard
City: Merritt Island
Description: Provost Hall was originally constructed in 1910 as the Georgiana Club house on land provided by Charles D. Provost and his wife Gertrude Breese Provost. Until their grandchildren, Charles D. Provost and his sister, Mary Virginia Provost Katz, gave the hall to the Georgianna United Methodist Church in 1992 the Georgiana Club house was used for community functions. These functions included the children’s Christmas Eve party; the Georgiana Club meeting and card party fund-raiser; Memorial Day services; and, the Fall Youth party and dance. During WWI it was the focus of many Georgiana Red Cross Auxiliary Unit (GRCAU) functions to sew items for the war effort. A fund-raising mid-winter ball was held on March 1, 1917 by the GRCAU with the KMI military school orchestra providing the music. The Club house was packed to capacity with people from all over Brevard County. The Club house was also the voting precinct for Georgiana residents for many years beginning in the 1930s. Presently, Provost Hall plays a vital role in the ministry of Georgianna United Methodist Church and its WAVE (Wave of the Future) Youth Groups.
Sponsors: THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
JAMES WADSWORTH ROSSETTER HOUSE
Location:1320 Highland Avenue
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne
Description: Descended from 17th Century New England pioneers, James Rossetter (1863-1921) was born in Hamilton County, Florida. Rossetter arrived in Eau Gallie in 1902 and became a leader in the local fishing industry, harvesting the many local waterways as a charter partner of the Indian River & Lake Worth Fish Company. Later, he would form his own wholesale fishing enterprise and would go on to develop a fish pound at the Bight of Canaveral, precursor of Port Canaveral. The James W. Rossetter House began as a small existing structure on this property, which Rossetter bought in 1904. To expand his newly purchased home, Rossetter bought the winter home of John Aspinwall, a wealthy New York industrialist, and moved it to its present location. The Aspinwall structure, built in 1890 and now the west wing of the house, was connected to the existing building with open-air breezeways. Many of the designs used in the construction of boats were employed in the building of the house, as evidenced by the whimsical wood patterns inside the home. The scale of the home in relation to the surrounding residential area reflects the early success of Rossetter's industrial endeavors.
Sponsors: BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL, THE FLORIDA HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HISTORIC MONROE CENTER
Location:705 Blake Ave
County: Brevard
City: Cocoa
Description: The Monroe Center – originally Monroe High School -- was built in 1954-55 as one of three segregated high schools serving Brevard County. The school was named after Jessie Ruth Monroe, a pioneer, teacher and principal of Cocoa Junior High School, an earlier segregated school in the community. The original address was 705 Avocado Street. The street was renamed after Virgil Blake, a prominent activist in the community who resided on the Street. Virgil Blake was the father of Richard Blake, who served as principal of Cocoa High School for 22 years and as a councilman in the City of Rockledge. Richard Blake is the grandfather of Michael Blake, who was elected the first Black Mayor of the City of Cocoa in 2004. The facility served Black children in grades 7 through 12 from throughout Central Brevard until 1966-67, when area public schools were integrated. The school had a distinguished reputation and was the alma mater for several community leaders in education, government, industry and the arts. The Monroe Center, now the “Children’s Village,” includes an array of educational and social services for children and families.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CHILD CARE ASSOCIATION OF BREVARD COUNTY, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ULMAY
Location:805 Sykes Creek Parkway at the entrance of the Ulumay Wildlife Sanctuary
County: Brevard
City: Cocoa
Description: The Ais were one of the most influential and powerful tribes in Florida when Spanish Army Lt. Alvaro Mexia mapped Ulumay Lagoon in 1605. He wrote in his diary “Here is the town of Ulumay, the first one of the province of Ais. In back of and adjacent to this town there are many camps.” Ulumay was part of the vibrant Ais (Malabar) culture. Ais people occupied small interior camps and towns along resource-rich estuaries. The Ais were subject to Spanish patrols but were independent when British merchant Jonathan Dickinson from Jamaica trekked north through their territory in 1696 after he was shipwrecked near Hobe. Within a few years of his visit, epidemics weakened and then decimated the Ais. By 1715 only a few natives were seen by survivors of a Spanish fleet wreck. Through the 1950s, Ais village mounds including Ulumay were mined to obtain decomposed shell for use as roadbed. During the 1960s, local naturalist and historian Johnnie Johnson helped record what remained of Ulumay mounds. In 1970 the area was given to Brevard County by the State of Florida as a park. In 1993, the Brevard County Historical Commission dedicated the Ulumay Wildlife Sanctuary as a historical landmark.
Sponsors: A FLORIDA HERITAGE LANDMARK SPOSORED BY THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION,FRIENDS OF ULUMAY, THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MISSION (MERCURY) CONTROL CENTER
Location:Mission Control Rd.
County: Brevard
City: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Description: Built on this site in 1957, the Mercury Control Center, later renamed Mission Control, was the United States' first mission control for unmanned and manned space programs under the leadership of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The center housed critical launch equipment for the Mercury and Gemini programs. These programs made crucial advancements in the development of spaceflight, including placing astronauts in suborbital and orbital space within and outside a spacecraft, and safely returning them to Earth. The Gemini program was the first American attempt in orbital rendezvous and docking, a critical maneuver used in future manned lunar landings. The control room was dominated by a world map with a miniature spacecraft that tracked the capsule's planned flight path. Teams at the center controlled all flights launched aboard Redstone, Atlas, and the first three Titan II vehicles. After mission control functions were transferred to Houston, Texas, the center provided backup for the initial launch and trajectory. Before the facility's demolition in 2010, its essential historical components were removed for preservation and are displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex.
Sponsors: THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
BETHEL AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:4725 North Tropical Trail
County: Brevard
City: Merritt Island
Description: Established in 1892, the Bethel A.M.E. Church of Merritt Island was the first African Methodist Episcopal church on North Tropical Trail, located on land James R. Ragan originally acquired in 1895 through the Homestead Act. The little wooden church sat on brick piers close to the road, and was referred to as “The Little Church on Courtenay.” The pews were made of rough-hewn cypress, worn smooth from years of wear and lined with fans advertising an insurance company. In front of a small altar was the Communion rail, a 4 ft. section of 2x4 wood. Rev. Lawrence Walton was one of the first pastors and Rev. L.R. Catlin, Jr. was the pastor when a cornerstone was added in 1959. The congregation numbered 49. The church was in existence for 76 years before burning down in the spring of 1968. The adjacent cemetery was originally known as the “White Lilly Cemetery.” Graves date back to the early 1900s, and many are unidentified. Among pioneer families buried here are the Gillins, McDonald, Williams and Anderson. Renamed the Bethel-Greater Mount Olive A.M.E. Church Community Cemetery, and still in use, it is managed by the Greater Mount Olive A.M.E. Church, 1240 N. Tropical Trail, Merritt Island.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MYRTLE COTTAGE
Location:Ocean Ave, near Pine St.
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne Beach
Description: Constructed on this site in 1888, Myrtle Cottage was built by Mrs. Hannah Cummings and her daughter Grace, and was the first house in the area known as Melbourne Beach. The house's construction was made difficult by the lack of roads or docks, and while it was being built the Cummings family camped on the beach at the nearby House of Refuge, a shipwreck lifesaving station. After its completion, the family lived in the large house and took in boarders, including Major Cyrus Graves, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Whiting, Mr. Alfred Wilcox, and others who helped found Melbourne Beach. Myrtle Cottage was always an important part of the community. Church services and Sunday school classes were held there until 1892 when the Community Chapel was built. However if repairs were needed to the chapel or bad weather threatened, church services and classes were temporarily held in Myrtle Cottage. In later years the house served as a rooming house for students from the Florida Institute of Technology. In 1982, the house caught fire and burned to the ground as a large number of people watched in dismay. There are still residents of Melbourne Beach who fondly remember the "Grand Old Building."
Sponsors: The Brevard County Historical Commission The Brevard County Tourist Development Council and the Florida Department of State
ST. MARK'S EPISCOPLE CHURCH
Location:4 Church Street
County: Brevard
City: Cocoa
Description: On June 2, 1878, The Right Reverend, The Bishop of Florida, and Dr. William H. Carter of Holy Cross Church of Sanford, FL held the first meeting of St. Mark's Episcopal at a nearby Rockledge residence. The mission was originally named St. Michael's in honor of St. Michael the Archangel. In 1884 Mrs. Lucy Boardman, a Winter resident of Sanford and frequent visitor to Cocoa and Melbourne, made a donation to Bishop Young for the constuction of Episcopal churches in the Indian River Area. Mrs. Sarah O. Delannoy donated land for the church. The board and batten Carpenter Gothic church was designed by Gabriel Gingras in 1886. William Booth and William Hindle, both early settlers in Cocoa designed and installed the church's woodwork. While still under construction on Christmas Eve 1886, the church was the sight of the first ever Christmas Tree seen in Cocoa Village. In 1888 "Michael," the Church's tower bell was cast in New York. In 1890 the church name was changed to St. Mark's in recognition of support from St. Mark's church in West Orange, New Jersey. Despite later remodeling and additions, most of the church's original interior woodwork and stained glass windows remain
Sponsors: The Brevard County Historical Commission, The Brevard County Tourist Developement Council, and The Florida Department of State
INDIALANTIC CASINO
Location:201 North Miramar Avenue
County: Brevard
City: Indialantic
Description: The Indialantic Casino was constructed on this site in 1923. The two-story Mediterranean Revival style building was designed by architect William Christen and developed by Herbert Earle. It opened on December 22, 1923, and boasted shops, an Olympic-size saltwater pool, a tall diving tower, and wading pools. The casino became a center for social activity in the Melbourne area, offering rooms for winter guests and space for club meetings, socials, and galas, such as wedding receptions, banquets, and cotillions. Special events included a Midnight New Year’s Eve dinner, a Fourth of July celebration, and the Miss Melbourne and Miss Florida Beauty Pageants of 1925. Weekly rates in 1924 for ocean-view rooms (including board) were $20 for singles and $35 for doubles. The casino’s pool was used for training World War II military personnel from the Banana River Naval Station. Following a major renovation in 1942, Karl Abbott purchased the casino in 1944 and changed its name to the Bahama Beach Club. From 1949 until it was purchased by the Town of Indialantic in 1967, the building was an exclusive private club. Following a period of decline, the building was razed in 1970
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE BREVARD COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION THE BREVARD COUNTY TOURIST DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE RYCKMAN HOUSE
Location:515 Ocean Ave
County: Brevard
City: Melbourne Beach
Description: One of the first homes in Melbourne Beach, the Ryckman House was built in 1890 for Jacob Fox by Captain Rufus W. Beaujean. Both men were original investors in the Melbourne Beach Company, later named the Melbourne Beach Improvement Company. The Ryckman House was built of native pine and cypress that was brought to Melbourne Beach on the vessel Frost Line. The two-story house originally had no electricity, and water came from the Improvement Company’s free-flowing artesian well. Jacob Fox and his family spent several seasons living here, enjoying the Atlantic, hunting, fishing, and socializing with the town’s few residents. Garrett E. Ryckman, a vintner from Brockton, N.Y., and a major shareholder in the original Melbourne Beach Company, acquired the house in 1908. The Ryckmans and their son Lawrence came to Melbourne Beach in 1908, followed by their daughter Ruth in 1910, after her graduation from Vassar College. Ruth Ryckman was an active member of the Melbourne Beach community, volunteering her services as a private nurse to the town for many years. She bequeathed the Ryckman House to the Town of Melbourne Beach upon her death in 1979 at the age of 89.
Sponsors: Commodore John Barry Chapter, National Society Daughters of the American Revolution and the Florida Department of State

Broward

ANNIE TOMMIE'S CAMP
Location:101 NW 15 Ave
County: Broward
City: Fort Lauderdale
Description: Seminole matriarch Annie Jumper Tommie and her family established a Panther clan camp c. 1902 on a site located on the north fork of the New River east of the present-day Broward Boulevard bridge. Annie Tommie’s Camp was the last permanent Seminole camp in the City of Fort Lauderdale. There, Annie and her husband, Doctor Tommie, lived with her mother Mammy; brother Willie Jumper; and Annie’s children, including Tony Tommie, who were well-known to local residents. The camp consisted of a cooking chickee, work and sleeping chickees, and a landing and work area on the New River. Nearby, the young Seminole boys practiced baseball on their own diamond in preparation for games against local schools. The camp was a local tourist attraction, where Annie pioneered the manufacture and sale of Seminole Indian dolls, which later became an important industry for the tribe. Fort Lauderdale pioneer Ivy Stranahan convinced Annie and her family to move to the new federal Indian reservation west of Dania (now Hollywood), where Annie became the leading matriarch in June, 1924. Annie Tommie died in December 1946 at the age of 90.
Sponsors: The City of Fort Lauderdale and The State of Floirda
THE FIRST FORT LAUDERDALE
Location:400 SW 11th Avenue
County: Broward
City: Fort Lauderdale
Description: The prehistoric peoples of Fort Lauderdale, commonly known as the Tequesta, occupied camps as early as 500 BCE in the area now known as Sailboat Bend. By 1800, Seminole Indians and Bahamian and American settlers inhabited lands along New River. In January 1836, after the outbreak of the Second Seminole War, settler William Cooley’s family was killed by the Indians. In response to the incident and to seek out the Seminoles and their leader Sam Jones (Abiaca or Abiaki), U. S. Army Major General Thomas Jesup sent 200 mounted Tennessee Volunteers, commanded by Major William Lauderdale, from Jupiter to New River. They were accompanied by Lieutenant Robert Anderson with Company D, Third Artillery, and followed a route later known as "Military Trail." On March 6, 1838, the soldiers encamped on the north bank of New River at its forks. The new post was designated "Fort Lauderdale" after its commanding officer. Although active during its occupation, the garrison abandoned the fort by May 1838. Soldiers returning to reestablish Fort Lauderdale in February 1839 found that the fort’s blockhouse and stockade had been burned. They chose a site further down river, west of Tarpon Bend, for the second Fort Lauderdale.
Sponsors: The City of Fort Lauderdale and the Florida Department of State.
THE SECOND FORT LAUDERDALE
Location:630 SW 9th Avenue
County: Broward
City: Fort Lauderdale
Description: During the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), there were three military posts named “Fort Lauderdale” along the New River. In February 1839, the second “Fort Lauderdale” was established to the east of the first fort by Company K, Third Artillery, under the command of Captain William B. Davidson. Located on the north bank of New River at what is today approximately Southeast Ninth Avenue, the fort consisted of a two-story log blockhouse and tents surrounded by a stockade with a watchtower. A cemetery, privy and a garden were located just outside the stockade. With only occasional encounters from nearby Seminole Indians, boredom, disease, insects, and isolation weakened the soldiers’ moral. The officers’ wives and the occasional visit by a steamer enhanced the forts social life. Hunting and Fishing were popular activities and items such as liquor, books, and tobacco provided some diversion from soldiers. During the summer of 1839, works began on the third and final “Fort Lauderdale, “ located on a thin strip of land between the Atlantic Ocean and the New River Sound (now the Intracoastal Waterway). The beach Fort was completed by September 1839.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the City of Fort Lauderdale and the Florida Department of State
FORT LAUDERDALE BEACHES WADE-INS
Location:S. Fort Lauderdale Blvd. at E Las Olas Blvd,
County: Broward
City: Fort Lauderdale
Description: On July 4, 1961, local NAACP president Eula Johnson and black physician Dr. Von D. Mizell began a series of nationally publicized "wade-ins" of Fort Lauderdale beaches. Johnson, Mizell, a third black adult, and four black college students participated in the first "wade-in." As many as 200 African-American residents took part in subsequent "wade-ins" during July and August 1961. The demonstrations were prompted by Broward County's failure to build a road to provide access to "Colored Beach," the only beach available for people of color. In 1954, the county had purchased the beach (now part of John U. Lloyd State Park), promising African-Americans beach access and amenities. By 1961, the beach still lacked tables, restrooms, shelter, and fresh water, and only members of the black community served as lifeguards. On August 12, 1961, the City of Fort Lauderdale filed suit in Broward County Circuit Court against Johnson, Mizell, and the NAACP in an attempt to stop the "wade-ins." Nearly a year later, on July 11, 1962, Judge Ted Cabot denied the city's request. The decision effectively desegregated the county's beaches and marked a turning point in the struggle to desegregate all public facilities in Broward County.
Sponsors: The City of Fort Lauderdale, The Florida Department of State
COLORED BEACH AT JOHN U. LLOYD ST. PARK
Location:6503 N. Ocean Dr
County: Broward
City: Dania Beach
Description: African Americans living in South Florida in the earlier part of the 20th century drove from as far away as Palm Beach and Miami to use Fort Lauderdale’s beaches, but met with significant resistance from oceanfront property owners. On May 14, 1946, a delegation from the Negro Professional and Business Men’s League, Inc., petitioned the Board of County Commissioners “seeking a public bathing beach for colored people in Broward County.” In 1954, the county finally acquired a barrier island site, designated it for segregation, and promised to make the beach accessible, but a road was never built. In response, Eula Johnson, Dr. Von D. Mizell and many others led a series of protest wade-ins on all-white public beaches. In July 1962, the City of Fort Lauderdale requested an injunction to end the wade-ins. The court disagreed with the municipality’s position and entered an order in favor of defendants, thus launching a larger civil rights movement that soon brought integration to local schools. John U. Lloyd, the county attorney at the time of these landmark cases, is the namesake of this state park. Unrecognized, however, are our local black leaders, whose historic actions forever changed the landscape.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE FLORIDA STATE PARKS SYSTEM AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CORAL SPRINGS COVERED BRIDGE
Location:4550 NW 95 Ave., Aux
County: Broward
City: Coral Springs
Description: The Covered Bridge was the first permanent structure built within the City by Coral Ridge Properties, developer of Coral Springs, in 1964. It withstood the eye of Hurricane Cleo that passed over it in August 1964 without sustaining any damage. The 40-foot Bridge has a single steel span. Its roof is composed of 25 truss rafters, cross braces, and stringers and is covered with shingles. It is the only covered bridge in Florida in the public right-of- way. Originally painted barn red, Coral Ridge Properties contacted the American Snuff Company in Winston-Salem, North Carolina for chewing tobacco designs to make the Bridge appear appropriately weathered. They supplied two historical designs and an artist to paint the murals. The Bull of the Woods logo, on the east side of the Bridge, first appeared in 1876. The Peach Sweet Snuff logo, on the west side of the Bridge, was designed to appeal to the ladies and was introduced in 1950. Over the years, the Bridge and murals have been restored but are difficult to see as trees have grown along the sides of the canal.
Sponsors: CORAL SPRINGS HISTORICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MUSEUM OF CORAL SPRINGS HISTORY
Location:10,000 NW 29th Ave.
County: Broward
City: Coral Springs
Description: Coral Ridge Properties built the City’s first real estate office in 1964 at the intersection of Route 441 and Wiles Road, just outside the City limits. This 30-by-20 foot single-room wooden structure displayed maps and plats of subdivisions, none of which had been built in 1964. In 1966 Coral Ridge Properties built a large administration building at 9551 Sample Road and offered the real estate office to the City, provided they move it. It was moved to 4500 Woodside Drive and became Coral Springs’ first administration building. In 1968 it became the first police station. When the police moved to a larger facility in 1972, it became the Jaycees’ clubhouse. By 1976 the building was considered obsolete and moved to the City dump, to be used as a fire department training facility for smoke drills. When it was accidentally set on fire, a group of concerned citizens formed the Landmark Restoration Committee with the intent of rescuing the building and restoring it for use as a museum. In 1977, the building was moved again but this time with an accompanying parade as a flat bed truck moved it to its permanent home in Mullins Park. On March 4, 1978, it was fully restored and opened as the Mini Museum.
Sponsors: THE CORAL SPRINGS HISTORICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD DAVIE SCHOOL
Location:6650 Griffin Rd.
County: Broward
City: Davie
Description: This historic structure was the first permanent school in the Everglades and is now Broward County’s oldest existing school building. The Davie School was designed in 1917 by August Geiger (born 1888), who came to Miami in 1905 from New Haven, Connecticut and later became one of South Florida’s most well known early architects. The school opened its doors in 1918 to 90 students and was in continuous use as a school until 1980. The masonry vernacular, concrete structure is topped by a shallow hip roof behind a parapet. From the day it opened, the Davie School served as the area’s source of education as well as a center for community gatherings. In 1988 the Davie School was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Today, the Old Davie School Historical Museum is a historic, cultural, social and artistic resource dedicated to providing information and learning opportunities for students and the community at large. The building represents an irreplaceable link with the history of early 20th century pioneering, settlement and education in Western Broward County.
Sponsors: THE TOWN OF DAVIE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD FORT LAUDERDALE VILLAGE
Location:SW 2nd St. Grounds of the Fort Lauderdale History Center behind the Museum of History New River Inn
County: Broward
City: Fort Lauderdale
Description: Old Fort Lauderdale Village at the intersection of the New River and the Florida East Coast Railway (F.E.C.) incorporates four turn-of-the-20th century historic buildings. These include the 1905 New River Inn, the 1905 Philemon N. Bryan House, the 1905 Acetylene Building, and the 1907 King-Cromartie House. The New River Inn houses a Museum of History and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was built for Philemon N. Bryan from hollow concrete block made on site. Bryan, a grove owner, storekeeper and former mayor of New Smyrna, was ruined by the great Florida freeze of 1894-95. F.E.C. owner Henry Flagler (1830-1913) asked Bryan to build the railway section from the New River to Pompano. In 1894, Philemon, with his two sons Tom and Reed, brought 400 African-American workers by boat from New Smyrna to build the roadbed. The first train to Miami reached Fort Lauderdale on February 22, 1896. Philemon and his sons acquired land on either side of the railway tracks in what later became downtown Fort Lauderdale. In 1905, Contractor Edwin T. King built the Inn, the Philemon Bryan House and the nearby Tom and Reed Bryan houses, thereby creating the first Fort Lauderdale residential neighborhood.
Sponsors: THE FORT LAUDERDALE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
EVERGREEN CEMETERY, ESTABLISHED 1910
Location:1300 SE 10th Ave.
County: Broward
City: Fort Lauderdale
Description: Many Civil War veterans are buried at Evergreen Cemetery in addition to the founding families of Fort Lauderdale including the Stranahans (who built Stranahan house on SE 6th Avenue), Bryans, Kings, Cromarties (the maiden name of Ivy Julia Stranahan (1881-1971) and the Olivers. This burial place for the early residents of Fort Lauderdale was established by Mr. and Mrs. E.T. King in 1910. In 1910 or 1911, a funeral director from Miami moved many bodies from the first burial ground, in the proximity of what currently is Southside School on Andrews Avenue, to the newly created Evergreen Cemetery. In 1917, the City of Fort Lauderdale purchased the cemetery. In 1921, the American Legion purchased four lots set aside for the burial of veterans. Shortly thereafter, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks purchased lots 34 and 43 for indigent burials. In 1926, hurricane victims were buried in unmarked graves in the north central portion of the cemetery. This area is also the baby section. In 1935, B’Nai Israel acquired blocks one and two for burials of those of the Jewish faith. Evergreen Cemetery is Fort Lauderdale’s oldest intact cemetery.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF FORT LAUDERDALE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SILVER THATCH MOUNTED BEACH PATROL
Location:Corner of Colony Club Rd. and N. Riverside Dr.
County: Broward
City: Fort Lauderdale
Description: The recreation area encompassed by Colony Club Road, during World War II, was the site of the corrals and paddocks for the United States Coast Guard’s Silver Thatch Mounted Beach Patrol. The mounted beach patrol protected the coast from U-boat activity and saboteurs. The location of the Beach Patrol headquarters was the site of the old Silver Thatch Inn, which was built by the Jelks family c. 1930s. When the Coast Guard requisitioned the property in 1942, stables, corrals and a paddock were built behind the hotel, which served as headquarters for the unit and barracks for the men. Starting the eight-hour duty at 4 P.M., the unit patrolled from Hillsboro Inlet to Port Everglades. In 1945, the unit was decommissioned and the hotel was returned to civilian control. In 1954, Ed Stack, who later became Broward County Sheriff and then was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, purchased the property and started the Bath and Tennis Club of Pompano Beach on the site. The hotel was torn down in 1972, when the Silver Thatch Atlantic Plaza was built on the property. The recreational area remains because of a 1962 deed restriction, which precludes any building on the parcel.
Sponsors: THE FORT LAUDERDALE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
INDIAN HAULOVER
Location:S. R. A1A at entrance to Bahia Mar Hotel & Resort.
County: Broward
City: Fort Lauderdale
Description: Bahia Mar is the site of a haulover where Indians took their canoes from New River Sound into the Atlantic Ocean. A Second Seminole War fort named for Major William Lauderdale was built near here in 1838. It was active until the War ended in 1842. House of Refuge Number Four, originally built about two miles to the north in 1876, was moved to this site in 1892. Barefoot mailmen walked their weekly route from Hypoluxo to Miami along these beaches. The Coast Guard began using the House of Refuge in 1915. It was made permanent as Coast Guard Base Six in 1926. Base Six saw considerable action against rum runners during Prohibition. It remained in active service until after World War II. The City of Fort Lauderdale purchased the property for use as a public yacht basin and park in 1947.
Sponsors: sponsored by bahia mar hotel and yachting center and fort lauderdale historical society, inc. in cooperation with department of state

Calhoun

COCHRANETOWN - CORAKKO TALOFV
Location:On Highway 20 on grounds of Old County Courthouse between Cayson and Rauson St.
County: Calhoun
City: Blountstown
Description: Side 1: Apalachicola Creek Indians permanently settled Calhoun County in 1815; wars forced them out of Alabama. A new Tribal Town was built by Chief Tuskie Hajo Cochrane between Old River and Noble Lake. Cochrane is an anglicized version of his Creek name Corakko pronounced "Cho'thlakko" which means Horse. The 1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek recognized Cochranetown with its 100 families as part of the Blunt-Tuskie Hajo Reservation now called Blountstown. Meske 1815 mahen, Estecate Ocesvlke Vpvlvcekola fullvt. Tepokv empefatkvtet eyicet tacko Kvlhun vpoketv hatyakvtes. Mimvm, Tvske Hacoketatet talofv empvtakvn hayvtes. Tvske Haco Corakko "Cochrane" Wacenv ehocefkvt toyvtes. 1823 opunvkv-cokv (Motle Temfvtcetv) oc-ofvn, Corakko Talofv "Cochranetown", Plvnt-Tvske Haco ekvntacko hahoyvtes. Mucv nettv, Plvnt-en-Talofv tos. The 1832 Treaty of Payne's Landing compelled local Creeks to emigrate to Texas with Chief John Blunt. Tuskie Hajo Cochrane's daughter, Polly Parrot, refused to go. Her clan fled northward to a Calhoun County wilderness called Boska Bokga, "the last fasting place." The Bokga's people became known as the Boggs family. Many Calhoun County citizens descend from Polly's clan. 1832 opunvkv-cokv (Lucuwv Temfvtcetv) oc-ofvn, Teksvke min vpeyvnonstkes kihocen. Vyepofvn Tvske Haco echuste vyetvn eyacekot. Polly em-estvlken vtelohyet kvn posketv pokkon sohletkvtes. Mucv, Kvlhun Tacko ofvn, Polly enrohonvpvlke fulle emunks. Side 2: In 1986, Florida Tribe of Eastern Creek Indians whose members include the Boggs clan was recognized by the State. Today, they still maintain their ancient traditions. Their unbroken line of titled chiefs is Tuskie Hajo Cochrane-1832; Polly Parrot, regent matriarch 1833-1898; Tuskie Hajo John James William Joseph Boggs-1900; Tuskie Hajo James Daniel Boggs-1920; Alice McClellan Boggs, regent matriarch 1933-1961; Tuskie Mahaya Hajo Dr. Andrew Boggs Ramsey-1962, The Tuskie Hajo (Zealous Warriors) all descend from Polly. Cochranetown is 3 miles south of here, east of SR 69. Ohrolope 1986, Kvnfvske, Vhakv-hayvlke em-nakaftetv oc-ofvn Ocesvlket Florida Tribe kerkueckv emhoyet omvtes. Hiyomat, Kvlhun Tacko estecate Mvskokvlket fulle emunks. Emmekkvlket Tvske Haco Corakko 1832, Polly 1833-1898, Tvske Haco Can Cems Welev Cose Pokkvs 1900, Tvske Haco Cems Tvnel Pokkvs 1920, Vles Mvklelan Pokkvs 1933-1961, Tvske Mvhayv Haco Vntolv Pokkvs Lvmse 1962, Hocefkvlket omvts. Pommekkvlke Pollyketate Rohonvpvlket omes, Mytto!
Sponsors: The Calhoun County Historical Society and the Boggs Family in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
M & B RAILROAD
Location:Railroad and Pear Street
County: Calhoun
City: Blountstown
Description: For 63 years (1909-1972) the Marianna and Blountstown Railroad was Calhoun County's link to the railroads and commerce of the nation. Sometimes known as "Many Bumps" or "Meat and Bread," the M&B had a significant impact on the lives of Calhoun Countians. Until 1929, before automobile travel was commonplace, the M&B provided passenger service. Farmers used the railroad to ship a wide array of agricultural products. In the early years, logging spur lines extended into remote areas of the county and millions of board feet of long-leaf pine lumber were shipped from local sawmills. The M&B also carried mail, manufactured goods and building products. During its operation, the 29-mile-long line was Florida's shortest railroad. Until 1938 it ran 16 miles farther south to Scotts Ferry. Steam locomotive #444 was in operation when the M&B's first diesel engine arrived in 1947 and rests today on the exact location of the M&B roadbed.
Sponsors: Rep. Robert Trammell in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
BLUNT RESERVATION AND FIELDS
Location:On Highway 20 on grounds of Old County Courthouse between Cayson and Rauson St.
County: Calhoun
City: Blountstown
Description: This is the western boundary of a reservation set aside by the treaty of Fort Moultrie and given to John Blunt (Blount) one of the six principal chiefs of the Florida Indians. The Apalachicola River was the eastern boundary. The treaty was ratified January 2, 1824. Signers of the treaty were William P. Duval, James Gadsden, Bernard Sequi, Nea Mathla, John Blunt, Tuski Hajo, Mulatto King, Emathlochee and Econchatimico. Blounstown was named after him.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with Calhoun County Board of County Commissioners
ALTHA METHODIST CHURCH
Location:25503 N. Main St.
County: Calhoun
City: Altha
Description: The Richards family had a long history of building churches in Northwest Florida. Daniel Thomas Richards (1825-1879), survivor of an Indian attack on Fort Richards/Fort Place, and son of Rev. John G. Richards of Wewahitchka, built Moss Hill Methodist Church in Vernon (1857), Chipola Primitive Baptist (1873), and organized the Chipola Methodist Church (1874) in his log home. In 1876 Daniel and his sons built a log church near this site. In 1899 Daniel’s son, Martin L. Richards, purchased land and platted the town. Martin Lafayette Richards (1866-1947) and wife Lula Mozelle Cannon Richards (1875-1956), who named Altha and served as its first postmistress, granted this church site on August 23, 1907 to J.F. Richards, B. M. Stanfill and I. H. King as Trustees of the Blountstown Circuit Methodist Episcopal Church South, of the Marianna District Alabama Conference, and their successors in office, in order that the premises be used, kept, maintained as a place of divine worship for the use of the ministry and membership. A white wood frame church was built here in 1908 where the congregation met until a new church was built in 1974. Martin L. Richards served as the first Sunday School Superintendent until 1945.
Sponsors: PEACOCK, TATE, DEMARIA AND RICHARDS FAMILIES AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
RICHARDS CEMETERY
Location:C.R. 274 between NW Harrel Rd. and Pete's Ln.
County: Calhoun
City: Altha
Description: On this site are the remains of early area settlers, the Richards family. As a prominent Virginia Colonial family, George Richards (1727-1818) was with Washington at Braddock’s Defeat (1755), and with his sons in the Revolutionary War (1776). The family served in the War of 1812, Florida Indian Wars and Richards Company of Friendly Indians, settling Ocheese Bluffs, Wewahitchka, and Altha. As one of Florida’s first pioneer families and Interpreters for Andrew Jackson for Florida treaties, they built Fort Richards where George’s son Thomas C. Richards (1774-1838) was killed during an Indian attack. Thomas’s son, Rev. John G. Richards (1797-1876), built the church and named Wewahitchka, and served as Calhoun County Elections Inspector (1843), Clerk of the Court (1851) and in Company A 2nd Florida Calvary. His son, Daniel Thomas Richards (1825-1879), buried at this site, survived the fort’s attack and built Moss Hill, Chipola Baptist and Altha Methodist Churches. He was a Civil War Veteran (6th Florida Infantry Regiment Company G wounded at Chickamauga, Georgia in 1863) and Washington County Clerk of Court. His wife, brother, a son, and other family are buried here. Son Martin L. Richards (1866-1947) founded Altha.
Sponsors: BY THE PEACOCK, TATE, DEMARIA, RICHARDS, AND HARRELL FAMILIES AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ABE SPRINGS BLUFF COURTHOUSE
Location:Corner of CR 275 and Abe Spings Rd.
County: Calhoun
City: Blountstown
Description: Side 1: Abe Springs Bluff was Calhoun County's second county seat -- from 1849 to 1880. About 4/10 mile west of here, at a remote location overlooking the Chipola River, stood the one-story wood frame courthouse that housed county courts and offices for over three decades, including the turbulent period surrounding the Civil War. Earlier, St. Joseph had served as the original county seat from the time Calhoun County was created in 1838 until the coastal boom town was destroyed by a yellow fever epidemic and a hurricane in the early 1840s. For a time thereafter the county actually had no seat of government. Side 2: From 1845 to 1847 the Florida Legislature tried unsuccessfully to re-establish a county seat. Finally, in 1848 Calhoun Countians voted on proposed locations and, the following January, Abe Springs Bluff -- a more centrally located inland site -- was officially declared the county seat. Unlike its ill-fated predecessor, Abe Springs Bluff never was a true community -- just a courthouse site. In 1880 the Abe Springs Bluff courthouse was destroyed by fire and the county seat was moved to the new community of Blountstown on the Apalachicola River.
Sponsors: The Florida Department of State
"OLD BLOUNTSTOWN" COURTHOUSE
Location:River St. & Hayes Ave., 1.3 Mi S of SR 20
County: Calhoun
City: Blountstown
Description: Side 1: Following the Civil War, a growing number of steamboats plied the waters of the Apalachicola River, busily transporting passengers, agricultural products and manufactured goods between the Gulf of Mexico and upstream locations in Florida, Alabama and Georgia. A river port had been established and a 26-block area was mapped out for the new community of Blountstown, named for the Seminole chief who had ruled much of the nearby territory during the early 19th Century. In 1880, after the Calhoun County courthouse at Abe Springs Bluff burned, the county seat was moved here to Blountstown -- then a growing community of 100 or so inhabitants. On this site, a two-story wood frame courthouse was constructed on the designated courthouse square. Side 2: Homes, businesses and a hotel were constructed nearby, but few of the mapped streets ever were built. Periodic river flooding caused some residents to seek higher ground -- and "New Blountstown" began to develop around the turn of the century. In 1904, after streets had been laid out and many buildings built in "New Blountstown," a much larger two-story brick courthouse was constructed just over a mile northwest of here on the town's principal east-west thoroughfare. After the courthouse here at "The Bluff" no longer housed county courts and offices, the structure was used as a private residence until it was demolished in the mid-1940s.
Sponsors: The Florida Department of State

Charlotte

COLUMBUS G. McLEOD--PROTECTOR OF PLUMED BIRDS
Location:3400 Ponce De Leon Parkway
County: Charlotte
City: Punta Gorda
Description: Many wading birds can be seen here, largely due to the sacrifice of men like Columbus G. McLeod (1848-1908), who gave his life trying to protect them from plume hunters. Ladies’ hats with exotic bird feathers were high fashion in the late 1800’s, and thousands of birds were slaughtered in Florida for their plumage. In 1901, the Audubon Society persuaded the state to adopt laws protecting Florida wildlife, especially plumage birds. Even so, no funds were allocated. The state, however, agreed to deputize two wardens hired by the Audubon Society. The danger of this work was evidenced when Guy M. Bradley, charged with protecting the Everglades area, was found shot to death near Flamingo on July 8, 1905. Columbus G. McLeod of Placida, charged with protecting the rookeries here in northern Charlotte Harbor, disappeared under suspicious circumstances and was presumed murdered on November 30, 1908. This second death of an Audubon warden sparked a national campaign against the wearing of feathers, and shifted public sentiment in favor of stronger enforcement of wildlife protection laws and the prosecution of plume hunters. Today we enjoy the beauty of our Florida wading birds largely because of these men.
Sponsors: THE PEACE RIVER AUDUBON SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
PUNTA GORDA RAILROAD DEPOT
Location:1009 Taylor Rd.
County: Charlotte
City: Punta Gorda
Description: Plans to build the railroad depot in Punta Gorda began in 1928. Although the trains carried passengers, the main purpose was for shipping fish to northern markets. The Punta Gorda depot is the only remaining one of this style built by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Its design incorporated the Spanish Mission style features used by Atlantic Coast Line in six Florida depots. The original work was awarded to the R.W. Burrows Construction Company of Bartow. By 1971 the depot was closed to freight traffic and purchased by Fred C. Babcock, who donated the site to Old Punta Gorda, Inc., in 1996. In 1998 volunteers began to restore the building. The former “Colored” waiting room features pictures of area pioneers and local prominent African Americans. The former “White” waiting room includes other exhibits. The ticket office now includes railroad memorabilia, historic items from the local fishing industry and nostalgic items from World War II (1941-1945) troop arrivals to Charlotte County. In August 2004 the depot was hit by Hurricane Charlie, but it has since been restored as a Punta Gorda landmark. The depot was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.
Sponsors: OLD PUNTA GORDA, INC., DBA PUNTA GORDA HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CITY OF PUNTA GORDA
Location:326 W Marion Ave on wall of City Hall.
County: Charlotte
City: Punta Gorda
Description: Spanish fishermen from Cuba first gave the name "Punta Gorda" to this area in early 1800's. The City was originally platted as "Trabue" by Isaac H. Trabue on February 24, 1885. The City of Punta Gorda came into being when a group of men met in a home on Cross Street and decided that the community should be incorporated. They walked to Pine level and filed the necessary papers on December 7, 1887.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with the City of Punta Gorda
SOUTHERNMOST RAILROAD TERMINAL
Location:Marion Way behind Punta Gorda Yacht Club
County: Charlotte
City: Punta Gorda
Description: On this site, in 1887, ended the southernmost railroad trackage in the U.S. Florida Southern Railway's narrow-gauge tracks run out on a 4,000 foot "Long Dock," where connections were made with New Orleans, Key West, and Havana steamers of the Morgan Line. Sailing schooners and paddle wheelers were a common sight. Governor Albert Waller Gilchrist, then a young civil engineer, was in charge of construction. The railroad was extended South in 1904.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Historic of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Punta Gorda Isles, Inc.
ALBERT WALLER GILCHRIST - (1858-1926)
Location:326 W Marion Ave at City Hall
County: Charlotte
City: Punta Gorda
Description: A founder of Punta Gorda, he was a resident until his death. Served as a member of the Florida House of Representatives in 1893, 1895, 1903 and was House Speaker in 1905. He resigned as Brig. Gen. of the Florida Militia and enlisted as a private in the U.S. Volunteers during the Spanish-American War. He was discharged a captain. He served as Governor 1909-1913. Was noted for rugged honesty, good humor, and concern for others. Gilchrist County was named for him.
HECTOR HOUSE PLAZA: THE FOUNDING OF PUNTA GORDA
Location:223 Taylor Street
County: Charlotte
City: Punta Gorda
Description: On December 3, 1887, 34 men in the "Town of Trabue" met here in a two-story building, built in 1887, owned by Tom Hector. The diverse group of landlords, tenants, merchants and workers, some white and some black, were all qualified voters. At the time of the meeting, the ground floor was the location of a drug store and the second story was Hector's billiards hall. Above the drug store, at a pool table, the men passed the articles of incorporation by a two-thirds majority. They selected a city seal, a council and the corporate name of Punta Gorda. Although politically active locally and in his native Kentucky, town founder Col. Isaac Trabue had not registered to vote on this issue and was barred from the balloting. Trabue had begun acquiring land in early 1883. He had the land platted, reserving the shoreline for public use and naming streets for family members. Having given up half his holdings for rail service, a depot and a luxury hotel, he was angered by the settlers' ingratitude. The documents were filed at Pine Level, the county seat, on December 7, 1887. Trabue sued to dissolve the municipality and regain title to the public lands. Ten years later he gave up. The Hector House was demolished in 1988.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the City of Punta Gorda and The Florida Department of State
CHARLOTTE HIGH SCHOOL
Location:1250 Cooper Street
County: Charlotte
City: Punta Gorda
Description: Originally named the Punta Gorda High School, this building was the first dedicated high school for the newly created Charlotte County (1921), replacing the previous 1907 Punta Gorda Grammar and High School. Construction of the school began in 1926 in response to student overcrowding caused by rapid development after the first bridge was built across Charlotte Harbor. Construction was delayed that year due to a hurricane, and the first commencement took place in the school’s auditorium, as the building’s classrooms were still under construction. The school served as Charlotte County’s only high school for 49 years and was one of the first high schools in the state to desegregate in 1964. In 1990, the austere Neo-Classical Revival style building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Charlotte High School survived multiple hurricanes over time, but was significantly damaged by Hurricane Charley on August 13, 2004. The school was re-opened on April 2, 2009. Despite ongoing construction work around the school at the time, Charlotte High School’s class of 2009 was able to complete its senior year in the original school building, much like the first class had 82 years earlier.
Sponsors: The Charlotte County Public Schools and The Florida Department of State

Citrus

FLORIDA BOOM SIDEWALK
Location:Aquaduct St. and S. Pittsburg Ave.
County: Citrus
City: Homossa Springs
Description: The wide sidewalks of Homosassa Springs are a reminder of the 1920s Florida Land Boom in Citrus County. In 1924, at the height of the boom, the Florida West Coast Development Company bought several thousand acres in what is now Homosassa Springs and set out to create a “City Beautiful.” Locally referred to as New Homosassa, the community was laid out with 80 to 100-foot-wide streets and nine-foot-wide sidewalks. Also envisioned were plazas, parks, boulevards, a golf course, three country clubs, and 700 home sites. The city’s ambitious plan reflects the aspirations of the City Beautiful Movement in urban planning. Popular during the late 1890s and early 1900s, proponents of this aesthetic believed that living in a beautiful, harmonious setting would lead to an improved quality of life. The grand plans envisioned for Homosassa Springs were quickly abandoned after the boom went bust in 1926. Most of the city’s planned amenities were never realized, and only two commercial buildings and a few homes designed in the Mediterranean Revival style popular during the boom years were built. Today, this remaining portion of the city’s original sidewalk reflects the City Beautiful aesthetic once envisioned for Homosassa Springs.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITRUS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HISTORIC CITRUS COUNTY COURTHOUSE
Location:1 Courthouse Square, Inverness, FL 34450
County: Citrus
City: Inverness
Description: Citrus County was formed from Hernando County in 1887 and Mannfield, in the center of the new county, was chosen as the temporary county seat by the state legislature. After a political tug-of-war and several elections, Inverness was chosen as the permanent county seat in 1891. In June, 1911 the Board of County Commissioners adopted a resolution to erect a new building to replace the Victorian style wood courthouse on the square. The 1912 Courthouse, designed by architect Willis R. Biggers, includes a copper cupola topped with a belvedere and constructed at a cost of $55,885. Its eclectic design incorporates features from four distinct architectural styles, Italian Renaissance, Neoclassical, Mission, and Prairie School. The building is uniquely situated on a square lot at 45 degree angles. It is historically significant because of its association with county government for over eighty years. A restoration returning the building to its original appearance was funded with grants from the Division of Historical Resources, matching funds from the county, and fund raising efforts by the Citrus County Historical Society. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992.
Sponsors: THE CITRUS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Clay

VILLAGE IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION WOMEN'S CLUB
Location:17 Palmetto Ave.
County: Clay
City: Green Cove Springs
Description: On February 20, 1883, the Village Improvement Association (V.I.A.) of Green Cove Springs was organized. Meetings were held in members’ homes. Money was raised to beautify the town, most of which was used for boardwalks, and 70 feet of clay pavement was laid. In 1888, the V.I.A. formed a children’s auxiliary known as the Star Branch, and ran the first public library until December 1961, when the Clay County Public Library was formed. A kindergarten was maintained from 1900 to 1904 in the public school building, with the V.I.A. assuming most of the expenses. In 1889 the V.I.A. was incorporated. In 1895, a member of the Borden Milk Company family, Mrs. Penelope Borden Hamilton gave the V.I.A. its first permanent home and the lot where the present building stands. That same year, the V.I.A. became a charter member of the Florida Federation of Woman s Clubs and acquired membership in the General Federation in 1898. The present building, designed by Architect Mellen C. Greeley (1880-1981) of Jacksonville, was built in 1915 at a cost of $4,589.49 and formally dedicated on February 18, 1915. The V.I.A. continues as an important unit of the community, devoted to social, educational, and beautification projects.
Sponsors: THE VILLAGE IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE BELLAMY ROAD
Location:U.S. 17 at Bellamy Rd.
County: Clay
City: Keystone Heights
Description: The Old Bellamy Road intersects Highway 100 near this point. In 1824, the First session of the 18th United States Congress appropriated $20,000.00 to develop a public road in the Territory of Florida between Pensacola and St. Augustine. It was to follow as nearly as possible on the pre-existing Old Mission Trail. The St. Augustine to Tallahassee segment was contracted to John Bellamy. He completed this in 1826, using Native American guides and his own slaves. Remnants of the old sand road are used today and part of the Bellamy Road forms the county line between northwest Putnam and southwest Clay County.
Sponsors: Clay County Historical Commission and the Florida Department of State
THE BELLAMY ROAD
Location:S.R. 100 just east of County Line rd. LOCATED ON US 17 AT THE BELLAMY ROAD, 6.
County: Clay
City: Green Cove Springs
Description: The Old Bellamy Road intersects Highway 17 near this point. In 1824, the First session of the 18th United States Congress appropriated $20,000.00 to develop a public road in the Territory of Florida between Pensacola and St. Augustine. It was to follow as nearly as possible on the pre-existing Old Mission Trail. The St. Augustine to Tallahassee segment was contracted to John Bellamy. He completed this in 1826, using Native American guides and his own slaves. Remnants of the old sand road are used today and part of the Bellamy Road forms the county line between northwest Putnam and Southwest Clay County.
Sponsors: Clay County Historical Commission and the Florida Department of State
FORT SAN FRANSISCO DE PUPO
Location:S.R. 16 at Shands Bridge.
County: Clay
City: Green Cove Springs
Description: Pupo is first mentioned in 1716 as the place where the trail from the Franciscan Indian Missions in Apalachee (present-day Tallahassee) to St. Augustine crossed the river. The Spanish government built the fort on the St. Johns River sometime before 1737. Pupo teamed with Fort Picolata on the Eastern Shore, these forts protected the river crossing and blocked ships from continuing upstream. In 1738 after an attack by the British-allied Yuchi Indians, the fort was enlarged to a 30-by-16 blockhouse, surrounded by a rampart of timber and earth. During General James Oglethorpe's 1739-40 advance on St. Augustine, Lt. George Dunbar unsuccessfully attacked Pupo on the night of December 28th. On January 7th and 8th, Oglethorpe himself took two days to capture the Spanish blockhouses. Oglethorpe reinforced the fort with a trench, which is still visible. Upon the British retreat from Florida, Fort San Fransisco de Pupo was destroyed. Though the fort was never rebuilt, the site remained a strategically important ferry crossing. In the 1820s, Florida's first federally built road, the Bellamy Road, used the river crossing on the route between St. Augustine and Pensacola.
Sponsors: CLAY COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
TOWN OF PENNEY FARMS
Location:4100 Clark Ave.
County: Clay
City: Penney Farms
Description: James Cash Penney (1876-1971), philanthropist and founder of J.C. Penney Department Stores, purchased 120,000 acres in Clay County and invited farmers to claim 40-acre tracts by clearing the land, building houses, growing crops and raising livestock. In 1922 Penney and associates formed the Florida Farms and Industries Company that planned, plated and registered 10,000 acres as Long Branch City, whose population rose to 825 in 1930 and is 654 in 2002. Here, in 1926, Penney built the Memorial Home Community to honor his parents. In 1927 the Florida State Legislature chartered the city as the Town of Penney Farms and in 1937 the town limits were reduced to 1,500 acres. The community consisted of a church building and 22 cottages based on French Norman architecture. Modest wood frame dwellings occupied by farmers contrasted with stately Norman-styled buildings. The Great Depression (1929) caused Mr. Penney to sell his holdings except 200 acres, which he deeded to the Memorial Home Community, and turned over its operation to the Christian Herald Foundation. In 1971 it became the self-sustaining Penney Retirement Community, Inc., and in 1999 was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: THE TOWN OF PENNEY FARMS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FORT HEILMAN
Location:Blanding Blvd. between Section and Palmetto St. near bank
County: Clay
City: Middleburg
Description: Fort Heilman, named after Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Julius F. Heilman, was built in the mid 1830's at the spot where the north and south forks of Black Creek join. It was a temporary wooden stockade used during the First Seminole War as a quartermaster work shop and storage depot. Clustered around the stockade were the log huts of the small village of Garey's Ferry. When the Indian wars ended the fort was abandoned.
GREEN COVE SPRINGS
Location:229 Walnut Street at Spring Park
County: Clay
City: Green Cove Springs
Description: High ground along the river and a flowing mineral spring drew the first inhabitants to this area some 7000 years ago, but historic development dates from 1816 when George I. F. Clarke erected a sawmill in this vicinity under a Spanish land grant. The first settlement, called White Sulfur Springs, was established in 1854, with a wharf, a store, and several houses clustered around a public square. During the Civil War, Federal troops frequently skirmished with Confederate forces in the vicinity, and finally occupied the town in 1864. Renamed in 1866, Green Cove Springs became the seat of Clay County government in 1871. Tourism flourished, surpassing citrus culture and lumbering as the area's economic base. River steamers brought visitors to the "Saratoga of the South", noted for the healthful qualities of its famous spring and for hotels and boarding houses said to rival the finest to be found in northern resorts. By the 1890s, the population reached more than 1500. But an expanding railroad system carried tourists southward and a great freeze in 1895 destroyed the surrounding citrus groves. The city's tourist industry declined sharply. The advent of the automobile age and the creation of a state highway system provided the basis for economic recovery in the 1920s, when the city shared in the general prosperity of the Florida Land Boom. But the collapse of the boom and the depression of the 1930s marked the end of the early development of the city. Between 1940 and 1945, the city experienced renewed development. The population increased from 1752 to 3026 as a result of the wartime construction of Benjamin Lee Field, a 1500 acre air auxiliary complex, by the U. S. Navy. With the end of World War II, thirteen piers were constructed by the Navy and the Green Cove base became home port to a "mothball fleet" of some 600 ships. With its share of returning war veterans, the community's population grew through the 1950s to a total of 4233 in 1960. In 1961, the Navy decommissioned its base and the reserve fleet was transferred to another facility. In 1984, the city annexed the former naval base into its corporate limits, tying this part of its heritage to its future growth and development.
Sponsors: The City of Green Cove Springs in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
MIDDLEBURG
Location:Corner of Wharf Street and Main Street
County: Clay
City: Middleburg
Description: Middleburg developed in the early 1800s as a transportation center linking the St. Johns River with the peninsular interior. Originally settled in the 1820s as Clark's Ferry, a crossing on Black Creek, it became a major military entrepot during the Second Seminole war (1835-1842) with establishment of Ft. Heilman. The Clark-Chalker House dates from that era, when the population reached 800. Served by roads and riverboats, Middleburg gained its name in the 1840s, thrived on the surrounding timber, citrus, and farm economy, and became the first Clay County seat of government in 1858. The United Methodist Church was built in 1847. The 4th Massachusetts Cavalry burned much of the town in 1864. Prosperity returned in the 1870s as river traffic and the citrus industry burgeoned. The population numbered 700 in 1890, before a devastating freeze (1895) and decline of the river trade undermined the local economy. Many houses in the unincorporated town date from the Victorian Era and are found in a historic district listed in the National Register of Historic Places (1990).
Sponsors: Main Street Preservation Project, Inc. in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
MIDDLEBURG METHODIST CHURCH
Location:3925 Main Street
County: Clay
City: Middleburg
Description: Founded on or before July 27, 1828 by Isaac Boring, a Methodist Circuit Riding Preacher. First known as The Black Creek Methodist Church. This frontier Methodist society met in homes until the present church was built in 1847. In continuous use since that date, the structure represents the oldest Methodist meeting place in Florida. Built mostly by slave labor, from native lumber and hand wrought nails from local blacksmiths. The heart of pine exterior is of clapboard square edge siding, a design unique to this period. The windows and mahogany wood for the pews were brought from overseas ports. The bell was cast in New York in 1852 and shipped here prior to 1860 by George Branning. It was tolled for the first time for the funeral of his son on February 29, 1860, who died during a swamp fever epidemic. The wide aisle was left down the center to segregate the men and women. The back pews were reserved for slaves. The pews were put together with wooden pegs and hand drawn. The marks of the draw-knife can still be seen. During the mid 1800's the cemetery was used to bury the town Protestants. The Catholic Cemetery was located 120 feet north of here. In recent years the Cemetery became the burial ground for the community in general.
Sponsors: sponsored by the middleburg united methodist church in cooperation with the department of state
OLD CLAY COUNTY COURTHOUSE
Location:915 Walnut Street
County: Clay
City: Green Cove Springs
Description: When Clay County was created in 1858 by the Florida Legislature, Middleburg was named as temporary county seat. As a result of an 1859 election, Whitesville (Webster), became the official county court site. Clay County's 1st courthouse was located there. In 1871, Green Cove Springs was chosen as the new county seat. Courts met there in 1872, but it was 1874 before a 2 story frame courthouse was completed. In 1889, a new, large 2-story brick building was ready for use. The Old Clay County Courthouse served as the seat of county government until 1973. This structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
Sponsors: sponsored by the clay county historical society in cooperation with department of state
CAMP BLANDING
Location:5629 State Road 16 West
County: Clay
City: Camp Blanding
Description: Side 1: Camp Blanding, established as a National Guard base in 1939, is named for Major General Albert Blanding (1876-1970) who commanded a brigade in WWI, was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, and was Chief of the National Guard Bureau. He assumed command of the 31st Infantry Division, Florida National Guard in 1924, and served as chief of the National Guard Bureau in Washington, D.C. from 1936 until his retirement in 1940. Some materials from the Guard's former base, Camp Clifford J. Foster in Jacksonville, were used for buildings at the new 30,000-acre facility in Clay County. By early 1940, the cantonment area, built to serve one infantry regiment, was in place on the shores of Kingsley Lake. In early 1941, when World War II was declared, President Franklin Roosevelt mobilized the National Guard and the War Department began construction of sufficient facilities to house two full divisions. The State Armory Board turned the post over to the U.S. Army to establish separate training and induction centers for soldiers of both races, although they remained in separate areas of the post. The government purchased 40,000 more acres and leased additional land for military maneuvers, expanding the base to more than 150,000 acres. Side 2: The Camp Blanding construction project employed more than 22,000 civilian workers, who built more than 10,000 buildings to accommodate two divisions, about 60,000 trainees. By 1941, Camp Blanding was the fourth largest city in Florida. In addition to housing and mess halls, maintenance buildings, PXs, field artillery and rifle ranges, the camp had a 2,800-bed hospital, enlisted men's and officer's clubs, bowling alleys, four theaters, and five chapels. The first unit trained here was the 31st Division ("Dixie Division"), National Guard units from four southern states. The 43rd Division, composed of men from New England, arrived in February 1941. During World War II, approximately one million men received basic training here, the largest of Florida's 142 military installations built in the 1940s. A prisoner of war compound, established for about 1,200 captured German soldiers and sailors, was maintained until the prisoners were repatriated to Germany after the war. At the war's end in 1945, many temporary buildings were sold as surplus. In 1955, Camp Blanding Military Reservation was returned to the State Armory Board for training the National Guard in Florida and other states and active and armed services reserve units.
Sponsors: The Florida National Guard and The Florida Department of State

Collier

THE NAPLES DEPOT
Location:1200 5th Avenue South
County: Collier
City: Naples
Description: The Naples Depot, which was completed in 1927, is one of the oldest remaining structures in the City of Naples. The Depot was built to serve as the Seaboard Air Line Railway's southern-most west coast terminal. The coming of railroads to Naples and the opening of the Tamiami Trail in 1928 gave impetus to the growth of the area as a winter resort. The Naples Depot for a time became the property of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad before a merger in the late 1960s brought it under the auspices of the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad. It remained a hub of activity for tourists and residents for several decades. In 1971, increased reliance upon auto and air transportation resulted in the discontinuation of passenger service to Naples. Originally designed in a style compatible with the tropical Florida climate, the terminal building was added to the National Register of Historic places in 1974. Through action initiated by the Naples Jaycees, community efforts to save the Depot were started. Two years later the Naples Depot was acquired by Southwest Heritage, Inc., so that it might continue to be used by this community.
Sponsors: sponsored by the naples jaycees in cooperation with department of state
OLD LAUNDRY BUILDING - EVERGLADES WOMEN'S CLUB
Location:105 West Broadway
County: Collier
City: Everglades City
Description: The first permanent white settlers arrived in this region in the late 19th century. A community dependent on hunting, fishing and farming soon emerged. The land upon which Everglades City now stands was acquired in 1921-22 by Barron Collier, a wealthy advertising man. In 1923 Collier County was formed with the Town of Everglades as county seat. A planned town, it was built on filled land at Collier's direction, service facilities were provided, and by 1928 this building had been completed as a community laundry. That year also marked the opening of the Tamiami Trail from Tampa to Miami and completion of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad into Everglades. After a prosperous beginning, the town suffered economically during the depression and World War II. The Town of Everglades was changed by charter into Everglades City in 1953, and the community moved away from its "company town" origins. This structure ceased to function as a laundry after WWII but remained Collier-owned until 1963. In that year the Everglades Women's Club, founded in 1928 but later disbanded, was reactivated and in 1965 purchased the building for use as a clubhouse. The structure retains the typical appearance of the company town period.
Sponsors: sponsored by everglades women's club in cooperation with department of state
1936 SEMINOLE CONFERENCE
Location:US 41 (Tamiami Trail) just south of Monument Lake South side of Tamiami Trail
County: Collier
City:
Description: On February 22, 1936, this pine hammock was the site of a conference attended by about 275 Seminoles and several representatives of state and local governments. Florida's New Deal governor, David W. Sholtz (1933-37), had aided the state's economic recovery from the great depression. Accompanied by members of his cabinet and D. Graham Copeland of the Collier County Board of Commissioners, Sholtz journeyed into the Everglades to discuss with Seminole leaders what the government could do to assist the Indians in those trying times. A ceremonial welcome was followed by conversations in which Gotch Nagoftee (Josie Billie) and Tush Kee Henehe (Corey Osceola) spoke for the Seminoles. The Indians appreciated the offer of aid but, fearing removal from the Everglades, gave the Governor this reply: "Pohoan Checkish" - "Just leave us alone."
Sponsors: Sponsored by the collier county historical societyin cooperation with department of state
THE NAPLES PIER
Location:12th Avenue South, at entrance to pier.
County: Collier
City: Naples
Description: Built in 1888 as a freight and passenger dock, the Naples Pier stands as a community landmark. Narrow gauge train rails spanning the length of the pier transported freight and baggage in the early 1900's. Part of the structure as well as the post office located on the pier was razed by fire in 1922. Rebuilt after damage from hurricanes in 1910, 1926, and 1960, it remains a public symbol of the area's history.
Sponsors: Naples Jaycees in Cooperation with Department of State
SUNNILAND OIL FIELD
Location:Oil Well Park Rd, just before S.R. 29 in unmarked park
County: Collier
City: Sunniland
Description: The first commercial oil well in Florida, located just east of this site, was drilled in 1943 by Humble Oil and Refining Company. The discovery of oil at a depth of over 11,500 feet proved that there was oil in Florida. Seventeen wells were subsequently drilled near here. Sunniland was the state's only commercial oil field until 1964 although there had been extensive drilling since 1900. A vision of Barron Gift Collier was thus fulfilled.
Sponsors: Collier County Historical Society and the Collier County Historical Commission in Cooperation with Department of State
BIG CYPRESS SWAMP
Location:Collier-Seminole State Park off U.S. 41, near San Marco Rd.
County: Collier
City: Naples
Description: Once occupied by the Caloosa Indians and the Spanish, it was the last refuge of the Seminoles. The region is drained in a north- south direction by creeks, rivers, sloughs and swamps. Abounding in wildlife, trees, plants, shrubs and flowers, most of the area is less than fifteen feet in elevation; but fertile hammock forests dot the higher lands. The ever-present cypress is called the "wood eternal" and is the oldest living thing on earth.

Columbia

ALLIGATOR
Location:Downtown Courtyard between NE Madison and W Duval St.
County: Columbia
City: Lake City
Description: Originally called Alpata Telophka, or Alligator Town, this site was a Seminole village, ruled by the powerful chief Alligator, an instigator of the Dade Massacre, which began the great Seminole War of 1835. Following the cessation of hostilities, a white settlement sprang up on the site of the old Seminole village and became known simply as Alligator. Prior to the War Between the States, the name was changed to Lake City.
TOWN OF LENO
Location:O'Leno State Park
County: Columbia
City: near Mikesville
Description: Originally called "Keno", for a variation of lotto gambling, the town was settled in the 1860's. Ecclesiastical and commercial pressure changed the name to "Leno" in 1876. A grist and saw mill, cotton gin, stores, and hotel sprang up in the settlement. Railroad construction bypassed the town, and by the 1890's Leno became a ghost town. The site of old Leno (O'Leno) was purchased by the state as a park and forestry station in 1934.
BETHEL UNITED METHODIST CHURCH
Location:4843 South US Hwy. 441 at County Road 133-B
County: Columbia
City: Lake City
Description: Old Bethel Church was first organized by Alligator area settlers as early as the 1820s. The original church was a small log structure located some two miles northeast of this site. In 1855, this building was erected to accommodate a growing number of parishioners. One of only a few Antebellum church buildings which have survived in rural Florida, Bethel Church has served its congregation continuously since its mid-19th century founding. The building has been known in the community as "the white church by the side of the road" for over a century.
Sponsors: Bethel United Methodist Church in Cooperation with The Florida Department of State
TOWN OF FORT WHITE
Location:N 1st St., Deese Memorial Park
County: Columbia
City: Fort White
Description: The town of Fort White, named for a former Second Seminole War fort built nearby in 1837, was founded in 1870 and flourished briefly after the arrival of the railroad in 1888. Phosphate mining and the growing of citrus and cotton sparked a boom that before 1900 made Fort White the second largest city in Columbia County with a population of nearly 2,000. The boom collapsed when severe freezes in the winter of 1896-1897 destroyed the local citrus industry. Phosphate mining ceased by 1910, and the boll weevil ended cotton farming before World War I. A handful of historic buildings, such as the Old Fort White School (1915) remain from the town's era of prosperity.
Sponsors: The Florida Department of State

DeSoto

OWENS COMMUNITY SCHOOL
Location:5586 SW Owens School Road
County: DeSoto
City: Arcadia
Description: The Owens Community School was built1916-1918 in the once thriving community of Owens. The community and school were named for Owen H. Dishong (1850-1902), the first sheriff of DeSoto County, serving 1887 to 1893 and 1897 to 1901. He was a charter member of the first church and donated land for the first schoolhouse. The community was situated between the Peace River and Horse Creek. It flourished through the mining of pebble phosphate. The community consisted of a post office, general store, railroad, citrus packing house, Owens Community School, and Mt. Ephraim Baptist Church. The frame school is the only remaining building of the original structures of Owens. It was last used as a school site in 1946, but some original school furnishings remain intact. It has continued to be used as a polling place over the years. In 2000, the School District of DeSoto County refurbished the school and began using it for school district training and recognitions, and historical society and humanities presentations.
Sponsors: SCHOOL DISTRICT OF DESOTO COUNTY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ARCADIA CITY HALL
Location:121 Hickory St., In front of Fire Department
County: DeSoto
City: Arcadia
Description: The Town of Arcadia was settled in 1883, incorporated in 1886, and became the county seat in 1888. By the late 1880s the population was 300. On Thanksgiving night 1905 the town burned. Three brick stores survived. Using only brick or block, rebuilding began immediately. Most of those buildings remain today. During World War I with its two flying schools, Carlstrom and Dorr Fields, Arcadia became known as the “Aviation Capital” of Florida. The land for Arcadia’s first city hall (140x142) was a pineapple patch bought in 1917 for $3,000 from Fred and Ida Gore. City Hall was designed in the Mediterranean Revival style and was furnished in June 1926 at a cost of $45,216, including all furnishings. A section of the original nine-foot office counter and steel shelves for the vault are still in use. The fire station first housed a solid, rubber-tired, auto driven hose wagon with chemical tanks and a 1924 American La France fire truck which is still owned and running. The original 20-foot brass fire pole and the 400-pound siren are to be placed in the City Hall Museum. In 2004, restoration of City Hall began with funding from the Florida Division of Historical Resources and the City.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF ARCADIA AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DE SOTO COUNTY
Location:115 East Oak Street, by County Courthouse
County: Desoto
City: Arcadia
Description: Named after the great Spanish conquistador and Florida explorer Hernando De Soto, the county was created out of Manatee County in 1887. The area's original inhabitants were Caloosa Indians. In early Florida history the region was the scene of numerous Indian battles. The county's 416,640 acres offer a diversified economy of citrus, cattle, agriculture and industry. Arcadia is the county seat.
FORT OGDEN
Location:9693 SW Highway 17 in Front of Post Office
County: DeSoto
City: Fort Ogden
Description: As white settlers moved into Florida, demands increased for the removal of the Seminole Indians to a western reservation. The Seminoles failed to cooperate, and in 1835 the conflict known as the Second Seminole War began. By 1841, the Indians were still entrenched in central and south Florida. Campaign plans for that year aimed at clearing Indians from the area between the Withlacoochee River and the frontier and then attacking Indian bands in Big Cypress Swamp. To sustain the wide-ranging troops, detached camps were established at various points. Camp Ogden, named for Captain Edmund Ogden of the 8th U.S. Infantry, seems to have been established in July, 1841, as an advanced position for the Big Cypress campaign. In addition, 55 canoes were constructed for the next winter's Everglades expedition. Before the camp was abandoned in the fall, an influential Indian leader, Coacoochee, visited Camp Ogden. The community of Fort Ogden developed in this citrus and cattle region in the last part of the 19th century and took its name from the Second Seminole War camp. Fort Ogden's post office, established in 1876, is the oldest in DeSoto County to be in continuous service.
Sponsors: sponsored by fort ogden civic club in cooperation with department of state

Dixie

OLDTOWN
Location:Near intersection of C.R. 55 and S.R. 349
County: Dixie
City: Old Town
Description: Inhabited by the Upper Creeks, Old Town, often called Suwanee Old Town, was one of the largest Indian villages in northern Florida. In Andrew Jackson's punitive expedition into Florida in April, 1818, Old Town was captured. Most of the renegade Indians escaped, but Jackson caught Robert Armbister, a British subject, who was tried and executed for aiding the Creeks in border raids into Georgia. This produced tension between the United States and Great Britain.
PUTNAM LODGE
Location:15487 NW 19 Hwy
County: Dixie
City: Shamrock
Description: Putnam Lodge, built in 1927-28 by the Putnam Lumber Company, is part of a bygone era in Florida's forestry history. Here, beside the old Dixie Highway, Putnam Lodge, part of the "company town" of Shamrock, accommodated tourists, transients and company executives and clients. The lobby and the dining room of the 36-room lodge were decorated exclusively with the still preserved, artfully stenciled "pecky cypress," a now virtually extinct lumber product. In its day, the Putnam Lumber Company, founded by William O'Brien, a timber magnate of Irish descent, and associates including E. B. Putnam, employed hundreds at its two state-of-the-art sawmills in Shamrock. The mills annually produced and shipped worldwide millions of feet of "deep swamp tidewater cypress" and "dense Florida longleaf yellow pine" lumber, products that are now rare because the old growth trees are gone. Shamrock provided its residents and employees with comfortable homes, a commissary, a store comparable to "any city department store," two schools, two hotels, the Shamrock Dairy Farm, and an ice plant producing 18 tons of ice daily. The lodge is representative of a time of local timber supremacy and economic prosperity.
Sponsors: THE SOCIETY OF AMERICAN FORESTERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLETCHER COMMUNITY
Location:Hwy. 349 Between Pinecrest Dr. and Senco Mertz Rd.
County: Dixie
City: Old Town
Description: The Fletcher Community was established when Dixie County was part of Lafayette County and both were part of their parent county, Madison. In the early 1850s Fletcher families and other families emigrated south from the Carolinas through Georgia, bringing their livestock and looking for better pastures. Other families followed including the Edmond, Bell, Boatright, Gronto, Hatch, Matthis, Jones, Sauls and Ward families. They used the Suwannee River to move cotton and farm produce by steamboats to the railroad at Cedar Key. Most settlers of the Methodist faith attended services at Pleasant Grove Church, established by Rev. John A. Fletcher (1811-1858). This church is now gone but the Pleasant Grove and Ward Cemeteries are reminders of the Fletcher Community’s settlers. William Rete Fletcher served as Madison County’s Justice of the Peace 1847-1849 and Clerk of Court of Lafayette County 1856-1858. U.S. Postal records show Matilda J. Jones Fletcher as the community’s first Postmaster. Eborn Haywood Sauls, William R. Fletcher, and Mittie (Matilda) Fletcher were later Postmasters.
Sponsors: DIXIE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY, DIXIE COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FORT DUVAL AND THE SUWANNEE RIVER
Location:23465 SE 349 Hwy
County: Dixie
City: Old Town
Description: Captain Francis Langhorne Dade, U.S. Army and his 120-man Companies A,B,D,H and N, built Fort Duval in November 1826 at the mouth of the Suwannee River. The structure was 140 by 130 feet and six feet high with portholes for firing. The fort was named for territorial governor William Pope Duval. Fort Duval was built to guard the mouth of the Suwannee River. Indians used the river for many years, traveling to Cuba, the Bahama Islands and other places to trade and purchase goods. William Bartram witnessed this in his travels in 1774 while visiting the Indians up river from its mouth. In April 1818, General Andrew Jackson used the river to transport his wounded back to St. Marks after his Battle for Billy Bowleg’s Old Town, located on the Suwannee River. Fort Duval was destroyed by May 15, 1841. At that time, Capt. Cambell Graham wrote of Lt. Palmer’s survey of the mouth of the Suwannee River in search of the remains of Fort Duval. Time and tide have destroyed all traces of Fort Duval. The Suwannee River now carries fishing enthusiasts and sportsmen.
Sponsors: DIXIE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY, THE SUWANNEE RIVER CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
TRIUMPH THE CHURCH AND THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN CHRIST
Location:166 NE 106 Street
County: Dixie
City: Cross City
Description: This church, built in 1929, was originally a wood-framed structure and the first church erected in the African-American community of Cross City. The architectural character was retained when it was remodeled and enlarged in 1942. The hand-made masonry blocks were fashioned under the direction of Prince Robert C. Glanton (1892-1965). He was the church’s Shepherd and presiding elder until he was promoted to District Bishop in 1957. Cross City’s first voter registration for blacks was held in this church. The church is part of a national system of churches founded in 1902 by Father Elias Dempsey Smith and is represented in 36 of the United States and Monrovia, Liberia. It was chartered in Washington, D.C. in 1918, and is in the hall of records. In addition to worship and praise services, the church provides charity, summer enrichment classes, youth development training, and many other activities that enhance the spiritual, physical, and moral development of the community.
Sponsors: TRIUMPH THE CHURCH AND THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN CHRIST AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD TOWN SCHOOL
Location:SE County Road 349, and St. Co. Rd. 55A Dixie County Cultural Center
County: Dixie
City: Old Town
Description: On April 1, 1899, Orren Y. Felton and his wife, Lillie F. Felton, gave deed to the Board of Public Instruction for Old Town School. On May 23, 1911, Ruby E. Chaires and her husband McQueen Chaires gave additional deed to the Board of Public Instruction for School. The present two story, four-classroom building was constructed in 1909—two classrooms upstairs and two downstairs. From home schooling to one-room schoolhouses to neighborhood schools, the schools of the Old Town era were built. The auditorium was added in 1930. Children continually attended classes in this building until 1999. This historic, two and one-half story building was constructed of locally made bricks which were “fired” on site. All rafters are of the exposed “Italian eight design.” The top half floor contains a two-louver door dormer. The dormer and high windows were the only means of ventilation. The Dixie County Historical Society uses this building, now known as the Dixie County Cultural Center, as an office, museum of local artifacts, and library.
Sponsors: DIXIE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE JACKSON TRAIL
Location:C.R. 351, 2.4 mi. north of Horseshoe Beach
County: Dixie
City: Cross City
Description: On December 26, 1817, U.S. Secretary of War John C. Calhoun directed General Andrew Jackson to protect citizens trying to settle in Florida. Jackson arrived in Florida with the largest army ever to invade the state to date – 2,000 Creek Warriors and 1,000 Georgia and Tennessee militiamen. After leaving Nashville, Tennessee, they traveled through Georgia and on to Florida, winding up in Suwannee-Old Town (now Dixie County). Jackson’s goal was to remove the Indians, destroy their homes and confiscate their horses, cattle and food and slaves. In four days he had killed or driven off all Indians and escaped slaves. Near this spot, in April 1818, while on a “seek and find” mission, Jackson and his army captured Indian traders Robert Armbrister and Alexander Arbuthnot. They were British subjects who were supposed to be protected by a truce between England and the United States. Jackson had Arbuthnot hanged and Armbrister shot, which almost caused a war between the two countries. The Jackson Trail ran alongside Highway 19, branching south to the Coast on the west side of what is now the Horseshoe Beach Road (Highway 351).
Sponsors: DIXIE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Duval

ABRAHAM LINCOLN LEWIS MAUSOLEUM
Location:Moncrief Road, Downtown Jacksonville
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: Pioneer Abraham Lincoln Lewis (1865-1947) and others founded Florida’s oldest African-American insurance company, Afro-American Life in 1901, which spread throughout the South as far as Texas. In 1926, A.L. Lewis opened Lincoln Golf and Country Club where the famous visited, such as heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis (1914-1981). Later Lewis founded American Beach, which in 1935 was a recreational haven for blacks during segregation. Although most noted for the Afro, A.L. Lewis started Florida’s first black-owned and operated bottling company and assisted Booker T. Washington in establishing the national Negro Business League. Throughout his life A.L. Lewis continued to serve as a dynamic leader in countless organizations such as the 33rd Masonic Order and the African Methodist Episcopal Church, where he was a principle financial supporter. He also provided financial support to Edward Waters College and Bethune Cookman College. Interred in this nationally historic mausoleum, which was registered in 1997, are his immediate family and first wife, Mary Sammis Lewis (1865-1923), who was the great-granddaughter of Anna and Zephaniah Kingsley of Kingsley Plantation, today a national park on Fort George Island.
Sponsors: A.L. LEWIS HISTORICAL SOCIETY
JACKSONVILLE'S 1901 FIRE
Location:Duval St. at Hemming Plaza
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: On May 3, 1901 at 12:30 p.m., a fire began at the Cleaveland Fibre Factory, ten blocks northwest of this site. Chimney embers ignited sun-dried moss to be used as mattress stuffing. Fueled by wind and dry weather, the fire roared east destroying most structures in its path. By 3:30 p.m., the fire reached this site, then called Hemming Park. The park and its renowned live oaks were devoured by the flames and only the Confederate Monument survived, its base glowing red from heat. The fire continued an eastward march to Hogan’s Creek, where a citizens’ bucket brigade stayed the flames. Then, turning south, the inferno roared to Bay Street’s riverfront docks. Extreme heat caused a waterspout in the river where rescue boats trolled for survivors. The fire was so intense, black smoke clouds could be seen as far away as South Carolina. As flames moved west on Bay Street, the firefighters’ gallant stand and dying winds brought the fire under control by 8:30 p.m. In just eight hours, nearly 10,000 people were homeless, 2,368 buildings were lost, 146 city blocks were destroyed, but miraculously only seven people perished. Jacksonville’s 1901 Fire remains the most destructive burning of a Southern city in U.S. history.
Sponsors: THE JACKSONVILLE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLORIDA’S FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN INSURANCE COMPANY--1901-2001
Location:101 Union St E
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: The Afro-American Insurance Company, formerly the Afro-American Industrial and Benefits Association, was founded in 1901 to provide affordable health insurance and death benefits to the state’s African-Americans. Founded by the Reverend E.J. Gregg, E.W. Latson, Abraham Lincoln Lewis, A.W. Price, Dr. Arthur W. Smith, J.F. Valentine, and the Reverend J. Melton Waldron, the Afro’s first office at 14 Ocean Street was destroyed by the great Jacksonville Fire two months after it opened on May 3, 1901. It then moved to 621 Florida Avenue, the home of treasurer and future president, Abraham Lincoln Lewis (1865-1947). From their next home office at 105 E. Union Street, the company wrote millions of dollars of insurance policies and started district offices in Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas. Lewis formed the African-American Pension Bureau and in 1935, land was purchased on Amelia Island for the black resort called American Beach. On April 22, 1956, the company dedicated its new, million-dollar building at Ocean and Union Street. After over 80 years of serving black southerners, the company closed on July 17, 1987. The 11th Episcopal District of the African Methodist Episcopal Church owns the Building.
Sponsors: A. L. LEWIS HISTORICAL SOCIETY
1960 CIVIL RIGHTS DEMONSTRATION
Location:Monroe St. and N. Hogan St. in Hemming Park
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: On Saturday, August 27,1960, 40 Youth Council demonstrators from the Jacksonville Branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) advised by local civil rights leader Rutledge H. Pearson (1929-1967), sat in at the W.T. Grant Department Store, then located at the corner of West Adams and North Main Streets, and at Woolworth’s Five and Ten Cent Store on Hogan Street across from Hemming Park. Seeking access to the whites-only lunch counters, the youths were met by 150 white males wielding axe handles and baseball bats. Many of the youths were injured while others sought safety at the adjacent Snyder Memorial Methodist Church. Although not the beginning of the Jacksonville civil rights movement, this conflict was a turning point. It awakened many to the seriousness of the African-American community’s demand for equal rights, equal opportunity, human dignity, and respect, and inspired further resolve in supporters to accomplish these goals. Within the decade, lunch counters were integrated, Duval County public schools began to desegregate, four African-Americans were elected to City Council, and segregation of public accommodations, including parks, restrooms, and water fountains ended.
Sponsors: Jacksonville Historical Society and the Florida Department of State
MAPLE LEAF
Location:North Bank Riverwalk at the foot of Hogan Street
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: Approximately 15 miles up river from this point, the Union transport Maple Leaf was destroyed by a Confederate mine during the early morning hours of April 1, 1864. The Maple Leaf sank to the bottom of the St. Johns River after hitting one of twelve Confederate mines along Mandarin Point. At the time of the explosion, the steamboat was transporting 68 passengers and crewmembers from Palatka to Jacksonville. Passengers included 42 Union sympathizers seeking protection of federal troops in Jacksonville. Four crewmembers died in the explosion. After sinking, only the top of the wheelhouse and smokestack were visible. These parts were later removed to keep the channel clear for navigation. The hull with its valuable cargo had settled deep within the muddy river bottom. On the Maple Leaf were 400 pounds of cargo, primarily the equipment of three Union regiments and two brigade headquarters. In 1981the Maple Leaf was located by St. Johns Archaeological Expeditions, Inc. Hundreds of artifacts have been recovered from the site, which is now a National Landmark.
Sponsors: JACKSONVILLE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MUNGEN HOUSE
Location:508 Jessie St.
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: This frame vernacular house was built in 1928 for Doane Martin Mungen, Sr. (1872-1948) and his wife Mary Elizabeth Mungen (1874-1955). It is located in the Oakland neighborhood, which was platted in 1869, and emerged in the 1870s as a working class community. The Mungens moved from 343 East Union Street to a wooded bungalow here that was demolished to build this 12-room house. With time, the rooms on the second level were rented. Later, inside stairs were removed, steps placed on the east, and the upstairs was rented as an apartment. Red bricks that form the columns, pier foundation, and chimney are from a demolished building in the downtown area. A large white stone at the curb of the front walk has rested there for 75 years. It once served as a step from horse-drawn buggies. Mr. Mungen planted a water oak on the east lawn and laurel on the west. D.M. Mungen, Jr. (1904-1936), eldest son of five, sent money from Tallahassee where he worked as a chef in the Floridan Hotel, now demolished. The only daughter, Sylvia Amanda Mungen (1903-1996), a Duval County teacher for 42 years, lived here until 1990. The house is one of a few left of its era in the area representing African-Americans of upward mobility.
Sponsors: The Mungen Family and the Florida Department of State
ST. GEORGE EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:Ft. George Rd. Between Palmetto Ave. and Admiral Blue Rd.
County: Duval
City: Fort George Island
Description: St. George Episcopal Church, designed by Robert S. Schuyler and built in 1882, is a fine example of Carpenter Gothic, one of the most distinctive varieties of church architecture. Such churches were promoted by Florida’s second bishop, John Freeman Young (1820-1885) just after the Civil War. Bishop Young divided north Florida into regions defined by major water bodies. These churches along the St. Johns River included St. George Episcopal Church on Ft. George Island. Using local materials and craftsmen, Carpenter Gothic became the preferred form of church construction from 1867 to 1924. Gothic architectural characteristics are defined by: a steep gable roof, a narrow rectangular building shape, pointed lancet windows and a bell tower. New York architect R. Dennis Chantrell (1783-1872) best described this type of church as “a handsome church, which is a kind of standing sermon.”
Sponsors: THE ST. GEORGE EPISCOPAL CHURCH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SS GULF AMERICA
Location: 11 N. 3rd St., Jacksonville
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: This marker commemorates the attack on the USS Gulfamerica on April 10, 1942, during World War II (1941-1945) by a German U-boat just off the coast of Jacksonville Beach. The Gulfamerica, a merchant marine vessel, was on her maiden voyage from Port Arthur, Texas to New York carrying 90,000 barrels of fuel oil. It was one of the first merchant vessels to be fitted with weapons and carried seven naval armed guards in addition to its crew of 41 men. German U-boat, U-123, first fired a torpedo, striking the Gulfamerica on her starboard side; then maneuvered between the vessel and the shore to shell the tanker with its deck gun in full view of spectators on the boardwalk in Jacksonville Beach. Captain Oscar Anderson of the Gulfamerica ordered the ship to be abandoned. There was great confusion while loading the lifeboats and 19 men were killed, by drowning or from shellfire. The Gulfamerica and its cargo of oil burned for several days before sinking. Today the wreck sits in 60 feet of water, 4 ½ miles from the Jacksonville Beach coastline. In response to the sinking of the Gulfamerica, Florida Governor Spessard Holland declared a blackout of coastal areas to prevent the silhouetting of passing ships.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF JACKSONVILLE BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HARRIET BEECHER STOWE HOME
Location:Mandarin Road 1.6 miles west of SR 13.
County: Duval
City: Mandarin
Description: In 1867, Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe and her husband Calvin bought thirty acres of the Fairbanks Grant in Mandarin which served as their winter home until the winter of 1883-1884. The move to Florida was due to plans for philanthropy among the Negroes and a desire to benefit her son's health. While in Florida, Mrs. Stowe, author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin", wrote sketches called "Palmetto Leaves". The Stowes were active in local charitable and religious activities.
CHURCH OF OUR SAVIOR (EPISCOPAL)
Location:12223 Mandarin Road.
County: Duval
City: Mandarin
Description: Situated on the St. Johns on a portion of the Fairbanks Grant, this congregation was organized in 1867. The church was completed in 1883 under the Rev. C.M. Strugess, a mission priest assigned to the St. Johns Valley. The church was regularly attended by Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin", and the west window is a memorial to the Stowe family who were winter residents of Mandarin for many years.
SITE OF COW FORD
Location:Bay Street on grounds of Courthouse.
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: This narrow part of the St. Johns River, near a clear freshwater spring was a crossing point for Indians and early travelers. The Indian name Wacca Pilatka, meaning "Cow's Crossing", was shortened by the English to Cow Ford, and Jacksonville was known by this name for many years. This crossing was used by the English when they made an old Timucuan Indian Trail into King's Road.
THE HUGUENOT MEMORIAL SITE
Location:U.S. Highway A1A at Mayport Naval Air Station.
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: In 1562, when France was being torn by religious strife, Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of France, sent two vessels to the New World in search of a refuge for the oppressed Huguenots. Leading the expedition was the Huguenot explorer, Jean Ribaut, who charted a new course across the Atlantic and arrived off the coast of Florida. On Friday, May 1, 1562, Ribaut's party first landed in the New World here on the east shore of Xalvis Island. In the presence of friendly Indians, the Frenchmen fell to the ground and gave thanks to God in the first Protestant worship service held in the New World. Ribaut sailed on up the coast where he founded the colonial settlement of Charlesfort-named in honor of his king. Charlesfort did not last and in 1562 a Huguenot settlement-Fort Caroline-was established on the St. Johns. There, sometime before 1565, the first Protestant white child was born in what is now the United States. On his second voyage to the Americas in 1565, Ruinate and his men were shipwrecked near St. Augustine. The bold explorer and most of his followers were cold-bloodedly murdered at Matanzas Inlet, near St. Augustine, by Spanish Governor Pedro Menendez, who feared the encroachment of France on Spain's Florida empire.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
THE BEGINNING
Location:Interesction of Bay and Market st. at City Hall
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: Here at the foot of Market St. stood a bay tree which served as the starting point for the original survey of Jacksonville in June 1822. Market was the first street laid off and named. A total of 20 squares were platted, bounded by Ocean, Duval, Catherine and Bay Sts. One of the first lots sold for $12 and was in the center of the present courthouse block.
Sponsors: Jacksonville Historical Society, Florida Historical Society and the Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
"MOTHER" MIDWAY A.M.E. CHURCH
Location:1462 Van Buren St.
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: Midway A.M.E. Church was organized on Sunday, June 10, 1865, a few weeks after the Confederate Army in Florida surrendered to the Union Army. It was thus the first black independent church organized in Florida. William G. Steward was sent to Florida by the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and founded a church at Midway, a settlement east of Jacksonville, on his second day in the state. Mr. Steward appointed Brother G. B. Hill as the pastor of Midway Church before going on to organize congregations in middle Florida and in the panhandle section of the state. In later years Mr. Steward became involved in politics in Leon and Gadsden Counties and served a term in the Floirda Legislature. Midway Church is recognized as the "mother" of both the Florida Conference of the A.M.E. Church, organized in 1867 in Tallahassee, and of the East Florida Conference organized in Palatka in 1877. While the original church building is no longer standing, the congregation of "Mother" Midway has been in continuous existence since its founding.
Sponsors: sponsored by african methodist episcopal church of floridain cooperation with department of state.
JAMES HALL-SOLDIER OF THE REVOLUTION / JAMES HALL-DOCTOR OF MEDICINE
Location:Lomax Street.
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: Side 1: James Hall was born on October 8, 1760, in Keene, New Hampshire. Records of the Continental Army indicate that James Hall of Keene was mustered into service about August 20, 1776. Hall served throughout the Revolutionary War as an infantry soldier of the Continental Army line. New Hampshire units participated in the important campaign of the fall of 1777 which culminated in the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga on October 17, 1777. Hall continued to serve with the Continental Army as it endured the winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge. On June 28, 1778, he was in the ranks of Poor's Brigade at the battle of Monmouth where he participated in the final advance of the day in that "hottest day of battle". James Hall was promoted to sergeant on April 1, 1780. He served on through the war and was present at Yorktown in October, 1781, in Col. Alexander Scammell's Third New Hampshire Regiment. When the war ended, twenty-one year old James Hall was a full-time fighting patriot. Side 2: During the next two decades, James Hall became a doctor. At length, he decided to move to the Spanish territory of Florida. In 1790, Dr. James Hall, then aged thirty, settled near Cow Ford (now Jacksonville). He was the first known American physician to sustain the practice of medicine in Florida. In 1803, the first settler of Cow Ford, Robert Pritchard, died. Since his arrival in 1783, Pritchard had acquired considerable land holdings. These included seven hundred acres in the Goodby's Lake region and sixteen thousand acres on Julington Creek. Within the year of Robert Pritchard's, his thirty-six year old widow, Eleanor (nee Plummer) married the forty-four year old Doctor James Hall. The Halls made their home in what is now called Plummer's Cove. Here Dr. Hall sustained his practice until 1810, at the age of fifty, he was banished from East Florida by the Spanish for having participated in the "Florida-Georgia Rebellion." On February 22, 1819, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, and in 1822 Doctor Hall returned to what had become Jacksonville. He continued his medical practice and was active in many community matters, such as testifying at Spanish Land Grant hearings. James Hall died at LaGrange, Florida (on Plummer's Cove) on December 25, 1837.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Sons of the American Revolution, The Daughters of the American Revolutions And The Duval County Medical Society In Cooperation With Department of State
MULBERRY GROVE PLANTATION
Location:Mustin Road in a housing area on the Jacksonville Naval Air Station base
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: Although East Florida was under Spanish control from 1783 to 1821, English speaking settlers lived along the St. Johns River in the late eighteenth century. In 1787, the Spanish crown granted a large parcel of land to Timothy Hollingsworth, who named his plantation Mulberry Grove after trees native to the area. In 1805, Mulberry Grove was purchased by a Georgia planter named John H. McIntosh. In 1812, he became a leader in the so-called Patriot War, an attempt by U.S. citizens to seize East Florida from the Spanish. After these efforts failed, McIntosh returned to Georgia. During the next decades, cotton was grown on the plantation, which came to be owned by Joshua Hickman. Prior to the beginning of the Civil War, Arthur M. Reed, a Jacksonville businessman, purchased Mulberry Grove, and in 1862 took his family there to live when Union forces occupied the town. Oranges, cattle and many varieties of fruits and vegetables were produced on the plantation in the decades after the Civil War. The main house with an oak shaded avenue leading to the river was an attraction for excursionists travelling on the St. Johns. In 1939, the U.S. government acquired a portion of Mulberry Grove Plantation for the Jacksonville Naval Air Station.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the colonial dames xvii century, hannah dustion chapter in cooperation with department of state
SITE OF THE MISSION OF SAN JUAN DEL PUERTO
Location:Fort George Rd. Fort George Island,
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: The establishment of missions chiefly for the purpose of Christianizing the Indian population was one of the methods used by Spain in attempting to colonize Florida in the sixteenth century. The Mission of San Juan del Puerto was founded late in the 1500's by the Franciscan Order of friars to serve the Timucuan Indians living in the area. While working at this mission around 1600 Father Francisco Pareja prepared a Timucuan dictionary, grammar and several religious books in that language for use by the Indians. The Mission of San Juan del Puerto continued to exist throughout the seventeenth century in spite of the growing conflict between Florida's Spanish inhabitants and English and French invaders. In 1696, Jonathan Dickinson, a Philadelphia Quaker who had been shipwrecked off the coast of Florida, passed this way and recorded a visit to "the town St. Wan's, a large town and many people." In 1702, Governor James Moore of the British Colony of South Carolina attempted to take St. Augustine from the Spanish. His effort failed, but in the process of the raid into Spanish territory, Moore destroyed the Spanish missions from St. Augustine northward, including the Mission of San Juan del Puerto.
Sponsors: Sponsored By Jacksonville Historical Society In Cooperation With Department of State
FORT GEORGE ISLAND
Location:off S.R. A1A, State Cultural Site.
County: Duval
City: Fort George Island
Description: Ft. George Island presents a cross-section of the Florida story. Timucuan Indians inhabited this island when French explorer Jean Ribault landed nearby in 1562. A Spanish mission was established here before 1600 to serve the Timucuans. Known to the Spanish as "San Juan," this island was renamed "St. George" by Georgia Governor James Oglethorpe. He built a fort- Ft. George- here in the 1730's during a British invasion of Spanish Florida. During the 2nd Spanish Period (1783-1821), three American planters in succession owned this island: Don Juan McQueen, John Houstoun McIntosh and Zephaniah Kingsley. Two plantation houses and the ruins of slave dwellings which remain from that period are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Shortly after the Civil War, Ft. George Island was acquired by John F. Rollins. The island enjoyed brief popularity as a tourist resort during the 1880's. Competition from other tourist areas, yellow fever, and fire combined to end this era about 1890. The 1920's brought new prosperity to the island. Hecksher Drive, a road built by New Yorker August Hecksher, brought the automobile to the island. After World War II, a state park was created on a portion of historic Ft. George Island. Shortly after the Civil War, Ft. George Island was acquired by John F. Rollins of New Hampshire. He remodeled the Kingsley Plantation main house and called his new Florida residence the "Homestead." As postmaster, Rollins had the area's post office removed to nearby Batten Island to take advantage of river traffic on the ST. Johns. Although Ft. George Island could be reached only by boat, it became a popular tourist resort during the 1880's. There were new year-round residents as well. The construction in 1881 of St. George's Episcopal church signified the growth of the island's population. But by about 1890, the extension of the railroad along Florida's east coast combined with a yellow fever epidemic and destructive fire to end the tourist era on Ft. George Island. Later, during the Florida "Boom" of the 1920's, the island experienced new prosperity. Two fashionable clubs opened there, and a road - Hecksher Drive - built by New York millionaire August Hecksher brought the automobile to the island. After World War II, part of Ft. George Island became a state park, and tourists once again were attracted to this historic island.
Sponsors: sponsored by the jacksonville historical society in cooperation with department of state
FIRST SETTLERS AT RUBY, FLORIDA
Location:Beach Boulevard near N. 5th St.
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville Beach
Description: In 1883 construction of the Jacksonville and Atlantic Railroad was begun to serve this undeveloped area. The track was narrow-gauge, running 16.54 miles from the south bank of the St. Johns River to the beach. The first settlers were William Edward Scull, a civil engineer and surveyor, and his wife Eleanor Kennedy Scull. They lived in a tent two blocks east of Pablo Historical Park. A second tent was the general store and post office. On August 22, 1884 Mrs. Scull was appointed postmaster. mail was dispatched by horse and buggy up the beach to Mayport, and from there to Jacksonville by steamer. The Jacksonville and Atlantic Railroad company sold lots and housing construction began. The Sculls built the first house in 1884 on their tent site. The settlement was named ruby for their first daughter. On May 13, 1886 the town was renamed Pablo Beach. On June 15, 1925, the name was changed to Jacksonville Beach.
Sponsors: Sponsored by beaches area historical society, inc. centennial year in cooperation with department of state
DOOLITTLE'S 1922 RECORD FLIGHT
Location:Beach Boulevard near N. 5th St.
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville Beach
Description: Florida's mild climate made it attractive to aviation pioneers. This area, known until 1925 as Pablo Beach, served as takeoff or terminal point for several early coast-to-coast flights, the first of which occurred in 1912 and required 115 days to reach Pablo Beach from Pasadena, California. On September 4, 1922, Army Lieutenant James H. ("Jimmy") Doolittle piloted a DeHavilland DH-4 biplane from Pablo Beach to San Diego in an elapsed time of 22 hours and 35 minutes. He made one stop during his flight for fuel, at Kelly Field in San Antonio, Texas. Doolittle's feat established a new speed record and helped demonstrate the practicality of transcontinental flight. Jimmy Doolittle remained active in aviation. During World War II, he led the first American bombing raid against the Japanese home islands, a daring stroke which provided a psychological lift to the nation's war effort.
Sponsors: sponsored by beaches area historical society in cooperation with
DOUGLAS ANDERSON SCHOOL
Location:2445 San Diego Road
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville
Description: In 1922, the Duval County Board of Public Instruction opened South Jacksonville School No. 107, the only public school on the southside of Jacksonville for African-American children in grades one through nine. Spearheading the building of this school were black community leaders Douglas Anderson (1884-1936) and W.R. Thorpe (1893-1967). Anderson, a graduate of Tuskegee Institute, began the first free school bus transportation service for the school and was president of the Parents-Teachers Association. In 1945, the school board renamed the school the Douglas Anderson School. It became a high school in 1955 and quickly became an educational and cultural center for African-Americans from communities all over southeastern Duval County. Community envolvement was the strength of the school. Even though high school enrollment never exceeded 400-500 students, they achieved prominence in academics, athletics, and the arts far beyond their numbers. Douglas Anderson School closed in 1968 as a result of school desegregation. Afterwards, it served as a campus for Florida Junior College, and a 7th grade center. It re-opened in 1985 as the Douglas Anderson School for the Arts.
Sponsors: The Douglas Anderson Alumni Association, Faculty, Parents and Community Friends, and the Florida Department of State
OLD BREWSTER HOSPITAL
Location:Monroe St. at Davis St.
County: Duval
City: LaVilla
Description: Built in 1885 as a private residence, Old Brewster Hospital and Nursing Training School was the first medical facility to serve Jacksonville’s African-American community. Located in the LaVilla neighborhood, the hospital opened in 1901 through the efforts of the Women’s Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Matilda Cutting Brewster of Danielson, Connecticut, donated $1,000 in honor of her late husband, the Rev. George A. Brewster, to help start the hospital. Brewster Hospital was sponsored by the nearby Boylan Industrial Home and School, a private institution for African-American girls. One of the earliest nursing training programs in Florida, its students were welcomed by the community and made 1,230 house calls in 1901. The hospital soon outgrew its first facility, and in 1910 relocated to a different part of LaVilla. By 1931, it was located in a large brick building on North Jefferson Street in the Old Sugar Hill neighborhood. With the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Brewster Hospital closed in 1966 and reopened in 1967 as the Methodist Hospital. In 2005, the Old Brewster Hospital building was moved to its present location from its original site at 915 West Monroe Street.
Sponsors: x
AMERICAN RED CROSS VOLUNTEER LIFE SAVING CORPS AND STATION
Location:2 North Oceanfront
County: Duval
City: Jacksonville Beach
Description: In 1912, following the drowning of a prominent citizen, Dr. Lyman Haskell and Clarence MacDonald established and trained Florida’s first U.S. Volunteer Life Saving Corps (VLSC) at this location to protect the lives of bathers on Jacksonville Beach (then Pablo Beach). On April 17, 1914, the American National Red Cross chartered this unit of lifeguards as its first American Red Cross VLSC in the U.S., and the unit served as a training model for other beaches around Florida. The VLSC celebrated its 100th anniversary of uninterrupted volunteer service at this station in 2012 after recording more than 1,500 life-saving rescues and 1.3 million volunteer hours at the site. Since 1913, three permanent VLSC stations have stood here. The present station, constructed of concrete block and stucco in the Art Moderne style, was designed by architect Jefferson D. Powell and completed in 1948. Among the traditions of the VLSC is the Annual Ocean Marathon Swim, which has been sponsored continuously by the Meninak Club of Jacksonville since 1934.
Sponsors: The Meninak Club of Jacksonville and the Florida Department of State

Escambia

KUPFRIAN'S PARK
Location:Avery Street Just East of N Pace Blvd
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: Established by German immigrant Conrad Kupfrian (1833-1892), the 100-acre Kupfrian’s Park opened in the early 1880s and provided a distinctive entertainment and recreational venue for Pensacola residents for over thirty years. Kupfrian constructed amenities such as a German-style beer garden, a racetrack surrounding an infield lake, and numerous picnic pavilions nestled among his park’s large live oak trees. One of the park’s greatest contributions to the growth of Pensacola was its connection with the creation of the city’s first public transportation system. An astute businessman, Kupfrian was one of the founding owners of the Pensacola Street Car Company, and he made certain that the company’s service extended two miles northwest of the city center to terminate at his park’s main gate. As the city grew during the 1920s, the popularity of Kupfrian’s Park waned, eventually being replaced by coastal venues accessible by the newly constructed Pensacola Bay Bridge. Today, the park’s original structures are gone, but many of its oak trees and infield lake remain. Kupfrian’s Park is an important reminder of the many contributions made by immigrant entrepreneurs to the multi-cultural growth of modern Pensacola.
Sponsors: The Kupfrian Park Homeowners Association, The Escambia County Board of County Commissioners, West Florida Historic Preservation, Inc., and the Florida Department of State
FIREFIGHTER VISTA S. LOWE
Location:Seville Square
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: At this site on September 30, 1962, Firefighter Vista Spencer Lowe, age 23, died in the line of duty while responding to a house fire at 409 East Zarragossa Street. Upon arrival at the scene, Firefighter Lowe stepped from the rear tailboard of the pumper he was riding (Engine 5, a 1957, 1,000-gallon Seagrave Pumper Truck), tripped and fell to the ground. Unaware of Lowe’s location, the pumper’s driver began backing his truck, trapping Lowe under the truck and crushing him. Lowe was the third firefighter with the Pensacola Fire Department (PFD) and the 33rd Florida firefighter to lose his life in the line of duty. Lowe’s death caused the PFD to change its rules and regulations governing standard operating procedures and training methods, requiring that no fire apparatus be backed up at any time without a department member directing traffic. As a result of these changes, no firefighter with the PFD has since died in the manner in which Firefighter Lowe lost his life in 1962.
Sponsors: Sons Matthew D. and Mark D. Lowe and the Florida Department of State
ST. JOSEPH CATHOLIC CHURCH
Location:140 West Government Street
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: The Sisters of Mercy began the Catholic Church's work for blacks in Pensacola when they opened St. Joseph Colored and Creole School on September 8, 1879. St. Joseph Catholic Church, built in 1891, was the 1st African-American parish in the Diocese of Mobile. The first Church was a two-story frame building. The present Gothic revival style church, built in 1894, cared for the needs of African-Americans, Creoles, Germans, Italians, and Irish immigrants. In the 1920's, Fr. Charles Hartkoff, the church's second pastor, built and opened St. Joseph orphanage which took in homeless African-American boys. In 1939, Fr. Joseph J. Raleigh closed and reopened one school operated by the Sisters of Charity of Convent Station, New Jersey. Two years later, St. Joseph High School opened, the only Catholic African-American high school in the state of Florida at the time. At its height, St. Joseph's operated "Maryall Negro Missions" which included four chapels: Mary Immaculate, Our Lady of Victory, Our Lady of Fatima and Our Lady of Africa. Other ministries included Our Lady of Fatima Mission School and Our Lady of Angels Maternity Hospital for African-American women located beside the Church's grammar and high school
Sponsors: sponsored by the Knights of Peter Claver, Council 223, and the Florida Dept. of State.
HISTORIC JOHN THE BAPTIST CHURCH
Location:101 N. 10th Avenue
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: This is the site of John the Baptist Church, one of the oldest Baptist Churches in Pensacola. In 1846 the First Baptist Colored Church of Pensacola, known today as Historic John the Baptist Church, was organized in the Seville Square community. The church served black and white Baptists until the Civil War (1861-1865). Retreating and invading armies threatened to burn Pensacola, causing all residents except 72 white and 10 black people to relocate to Alabama. During the war, African-American Baptists kept this, the only Protestant church in Pensacola open. After the war, a dispute arose between black and white Baptists regarding the church property. In 1866, black Baptists wrote a letter to the Freedmen’s Bureau explaining that the black Baptists purchased the property and “upon it erected a place of worship.” The letter also explained that the property had always been in use of the congregation and that since the war others claimed control of it. In 1870, the black congregations relocated, under the leadership of Rev. Robert Ahrens (c. 1833-1925), to this site in the Hawkshaw community. The Seville Square church housed a Freedmen’s Bureau school and the church at Hawkshaw housed a school for children and adults
Sponsors: The Congregation of John The Baptist Church and the Florida Department of State
ORIGINAL SITE OF PENSACOLA JUNIOR COLLEGE
Location:Lee Square on North Palafox Street
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: On this site, Pensacola Junior College (PJC) opened its doors on September 13, 1948. It was the first public junior college created by the Florida Legislature under the Minimum Foundation Program Act of 1947, signed into law by Governor Millard F. Caldwell. The Escambia County School Board received authority to establish the college. District staff Jesse Barfield and Margaret Andrus helped James L. McCord, principal of Pensacola High School, prepare the initial proposal and continued as faculty. McCord became the first director of PJC. The Aiken Boarding House provided classrooms for the first 136 students. James H. Allen, president of Florida Pulp and Paper Company, contributed the first two year’s rent for the facility. In June 1953, the College moved one block south to the old Pensacola High School. On May 13, 1955, Governor LeRoy Collins signed a bill appropriating $1,243,000 to the college, which resulted in the 1956 purchase of property on 9th Avenue, now the college’s main campus. Pensacola’s Booker T. Washington Junior College was established as Florida’s first black junior college in 1949, and at the height of the Civil Rights Movement, merged with PJC in 1965.
Sponsors: BY THE PENSACOLA STATE COLLEGE BOARD OF TRUSTEES and the Florida Department of State
TRADER JON'S
Location:South Palafox and Main Street
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: This building was erected in 1896 and rented to numerous businesses until the 1950s. One of the most significant tenants in the early 1900s was Samuel Charles, one of Pensacola's most prominent black businessmen, whose shoe repair shop became Pensacola's largest shoe repair and sales store at that time. In the 1920s the building was occupied by Birgar Testman's ship chandlery. Since the early 1950s the building has been owned and occupied by Trader Jon's, a favorite haunt of U.S. Navy and other military personnel. The tavern has gained international fame for its unusual and extensive display of military memorabilia which surrounds the clientele.
Sponsors: The Historic Pensacola Preservation Board in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
HAWKSHAW
Location:on South 10th Ave., grounds of Gulf Power
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: The Hawkshaw site has supported prehistoric and historic occupations which span a period of nearly 2,000 years. It was inhabited around A.D. 150 by groups of Native Americans whom archaeologists call the Deptford Culture. Scientific excavation of the site revealed hundreds of trash pits containing food remains and household debris which provided detailed information about the daily life of these prehistoric people. They sustained themselves with the abundant marine resources available in the area. Hawkshaw is important to archaeologists because the remains of the Deptford Culture are not mixed with those of other Native American cultures. For this reason the site gives a very good indication of what life was like during Deptford times. The next time the site was used was the middle of the 18th Century when the Spanish built a brick kiln here before 1761. A little later, during the British occupation of Pensacola (1763-1783), a complex known as the Governor's Villa was built nearby for Peter Chester, Governor of the Province of West Florida. The Villa was burned in 1781 by the troops of General Bernardo de Galvez during his recapture of Pensacola for the Spanish. After Florida was acquired by the United States in 1821, Hawkshaw became part of a plan to create a "New City" to serve the railroad industry. The New City Hotel was built in 1836 with over 100 rooms. It remained in operation into the 1840's. After the failure of the "New City", Hawkshaw evolved into a working class neighborhood whose residents were largely employed by the industrial and commercial establishments associated with lumbering and the railroad. It became the first of Pensacola's outlying black neighborhoods. Hawkshaw's waterfront once contained Wright's Lumber Mill, which could cut 30,000 board feet of lumber a day in 1882, and the Muscogee Wharf, which served as a coaling station for the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. After the destruction of Wright's Mill during the 1906 hurricane and the decline of the lumber and railroad industries, many of the residents of Hawkshaw became "baymen" who earned their living by loading ships, fishing and gathering shellfish.
Sponsors: sponsored by gulf power company in cooperation with the department of state
ALGER RAILROAD / CENTURY, FLORIDA
Location:on U.S. 29 at Hecker Rd. in wayside park.
County: Escambia
City: Century
Description: Side 1: This site is 300 yards west of former location of tracks of The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company logging railroad which ran from Century to Alger-owned timber lands in Alabama. Ninety miles in length, the railroad hauled prime virgin longleaf logs for manufacture of lumber and export timbers at the Century mill, the largest in Florida. Logging crews lived in railroad camp cars on sidings. Oxen were used in the woods to skid logs to the railroad for loading. Railroad discontinued operation in 1942. Side 2: Founded in 1900 to house mill employees of the Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company founded in 1900 by General Russell A. Alger- Governor of Michigan, U.S. Senator, and President McKinley's Secretary of War - and by Martin H. Sullivan of Pensacola. Edward A. Hauss led the company from 1901 to 1957 and pioneered in reforestation to perpetuate timber resources. Century and Alger recall the names Colonel Frank Hecker, Henry Glover, W.D. Mann, David Miller, Houston Jones, Larry Nelson, and Marion Leach.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
FIRST JEWISH HOUSE OF WORSHIP IN FLORIDA
Location:800 N Palafox St
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: Jewish families in Pensacola began organized worship following the Civil War. On this site in 1876 a Reform Jewish Synagogue was constructed. The State of Florida granted a charter in 1878 for Congregation Beth El. Temple Beth El joined the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in 1889 and engaged its first Rabbi in 1892. The original temple was destroyed by fire in 1895. It was rebuilt in 1898 at this site, but that building was also destroyed by fire in 1929. The current synagogue at 800 North Palafox Street dates from 1931. Temple Beth El is Florida's first formally recognized Jewish Congregation.
Sponsors: TEMPLE BETH EL AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
NORTH HILL PRESERVATION DISTRICT
Location:401 West Gonzalez St., Alabama Square
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: The North Hill Preservation District occupies a 50-block area bound by Blount, Wright, Palafox, DeVilliers and Reus Streets, and represents one of the best preserved residential historic districts in Florida. After the Civil War, wealthy families left areas near the waterfront to build grand houses on Pensacola’s North Hill. From 1890 to the outbreak of World War I--between 1914 and 1918--as Northwest Florida entered the lumber boom era, local forests of yellow pine provided prosperity and building materials for many of the stately houses now treasured in the North Hill Preservation District. Another surge of growth occurred during the 1920s as a new generation of wealthy Pensacola citizens moved to the area and extended North Hill to its current northern border of Blount Street. From 1930 onward, homes typical of their periods were built on remaining available properties. As a result of its gradual development, architectural styles in North Hill are unusually varied including Queen Anne, Neoclassical, Tudor Revival, and Art Moderne. Through the dedicated efforts of community leaders, North Hill was designated as a preservation district in 1973 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: NORTH HILL PRESERVATION ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:18 West Wright Street
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: Christ Church, founded in 1827, was incorporated by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida in 1829. The first church, constructed in 1832, still stands on Seville Square. Later, Chicago architect John Sutcliffe and Pensacola contractor A.D. Alfred built a new church on this site at Wright and Palafox. The first services were held here by the Reverend Percival Whaley, rector, on Easter Sunday, 1903. The exterior of the building is unchanged since then, and its Spanish Baroque architecture reflects the city’s heritage. The building’s brick walls are covered with pebble-concrete stucco. A tiled narthex leads to the nave where wooden pews seat 600. The gable roofs have barrel tile surfaces and a copper-covered dome over the transepts. From the days of the Reverend Joseph Saunders (1836-1839), Christ Church has been involved in community outreach. Since then, members have been leaders in the city’s growth and development. Historic Christ Church was the mother congregation of Episcopalians in Northwest Florida and one of seven churches in the state when the Diocese of Florida was founded in 1839. The present Christ Church was the site of the Primary Convention of the new Diocese of the Central Gulf Coast in 1970
Sponsors: CHURCH WARDENS AND VESTRYMEN OF CHRIST CHURCH AND THE RECTOR OF CHRIST CHURCH
SITE OF THE FIRST METHODIST CHURCH OF PENSACOLA/SITE OF THE SAN CARLOS HOTEL
Location:1 North Palafox St.
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: Side 1: Pensacola's first Methodist congregation was established in 1821 by Alexander Talley, M.D. It met in a series of small, wood frame churches until 1881, when construction of a three-story, Romanesque Revival sanctuary was begun on this site. Services began here in 1884, but the building was not completed until 1890. The handsome red brick bell tower and gabled entrance portico of the church marked this corner of Palafox Street until 1909, when the property was sold and the congregation moved to larger facilities on East Wright Street. Side 2: The imposing, seven-story structure opened on this site in 1910 as the city's largest and most elegant hotel. Designed by the well known New York architect W. L. Stoddard, it was built by the local firm of C. H. Turner Construction Co. at a cost of $500,000. Its simple masonry design was embellished with Renaissance Revival exterior details. It was extensively "modernized" and expanded from 157 to 403 rooms in the 1920s, and continued to dominate the Palafox streetscape for the next 50 years. Increasing competition and gradual deterioration led to its closing in 1982. It was demolished in 1993.
Sponsors: The City of Pensacola, the First United Methodist Church of Pensacola and the Florida Department of State
HYER-KNOWLES PLANNING MILL
Location:Scenic Highway Between Langley and Bohemia Dr.
County: Escambia
City: Pensacola
Description: The Chimney is the only trace of what once was the first major industrial belt on the Gulf Coast, a string of antebellum wood mills and brick factories. The chimney represents the lumber industry of the Florida Panhandle. As the lumber industry prospered in the 1850s, local mills employed 600 people and produced almost 55 million feet of lumber. The bricks in the base of the chimney bear the mark of J. Gonzalez", showing that they were produced at the local brick plant of James Gonzalez. The chimney was part of the steam power plant for the Hyers-Knowles Mill. In March 1862, General Braxton Bragg was evacuating the Confederate forces holding Pensacola when Confederate Secretary of War Judah P. Benjamin gave the order to "Destroy all machinery private and public, which could be useful to the enemy; especially disable the sawmills in and around the Bay." The machinery from the mills was loaded onto barges which were moved into Escambia Bay. On March 10th a thunderstorm and large waves sank the barges. That same night the Hyer-Knowles Mill was burned, and all that is left is the chimney
Sponsors: City of Pensacola and the Florida Department of State

Flagler

HOLDEN HOUSE
Location:204 East Moody Blvd
County: Flagler
City: Bunnell
Description: The Holden House was designed and built in 1918 by Sam Bortree (1859-1918) as a gift for his daughter, Ethel (1892-1977), and son-in-law, Thomas Holden (1892-1974). Holden was the town pharmacist and prominent in business, civic and political affairs. A unique feature on the house is the broken apothecary glass Holden used from his pharmacy as decoration on the gables. This home is among the more elaborate examples of the Craftsman bungalow style, featuring coquina, a shell and stone mixture quarried in this region. The Holden House is associated with I.I. Moody (1874-1918) and the Bunnell Development Company, the principal forces behind the first significant settlement and development of Bunnell. The Bunnell Development Company platted the town in 1909. Two years later, the Florida Legislature incorporated Bunnell as a town. Holden’s family retained ownership of the property until Flagler County purchased it in 1978. Except for the addition of a sunroom on the east side of the house in 1947, and the replacement of sash windows, the house retains its original features.
Sponsors: FLAGLER COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MALA COMPRA PLANTATION
Location:Bing's Landing on Route A1A between Apachee St. and Mala Compra Rd.
County: Flagler
City: Palm Coast
Description: Joseph Martin Hernandez (1788-1857) purchased and worked Mala Compra Plantation, originally a Spanish land grant, from 1816 to 1836. The name Mala Compra means “bad bargain” or “bad purchase” in Spanish. It served as the center of the largest plantation system in Northeast Florida until burned by the Seminoles in 1836 during the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). He served as Brigadier General through the Second Seminole War and part of the Wars of Indian Removal. Hernandez did not revitalize the plantation after the war. Mala Compra was one of many coastal plantations in the Southeast that grew long-staple cotton. The physical remnants of the main house, well, and kitchen provide evidence of a coastal plantation. The building remains provide rare structural evidence of coastal plantation layout and residential construction in Florida during the early 19th century. Mala Compra’s relatively undisturbed setting offers a legacy of national importance and its lack of development offers the opportunity for further research about coastal plantations. Flagler County purchased the Mala Compra Plantation property in 1989.
Sponsors: FLAGLER COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
PRINCESS PLACE ESTATE
Location:2500 Princess Place Rd
County: Flagler
City: Bunnell
Description: In 1791, the King of Spain offered a 1,100-acre land grant to Francisco Pellicer. Henry Mason Cutting purchased the property in 1886, renaming it Cherokee Grove. Featuring local materials including tabby block cladding, cedar and palm tree trunk posts and pink coquina, the Adirondack camp-style lodge was constructed in 1887. The complex included servant’s quarters, a caretaker’s house, tennis courts, stables, bathhouse, pool house and the first in-ground concrete swimming pool in Florida. The Lodge became an entertainment center for many socially prominent Americans and New York families as well as European royalty. Cutting died in 1892, leaving a widow, Angela Mills Cutting and two small children. Angela later married an exiled Russian prince, Boris Scherbatoff, a member of the Russian royal family. Because he feared for his life, the Prince later changed the spelling to Scherbatow. After Prince Scherbatow died in 1949, the Princess used the lodge as her primary residence. For this reason it became known as the Princess Estate. In 1954, Princess Scherbatow sold the property to Lewis and Angela Wadsworth, one of the founding families of Flagler County. Flagler County purchased the property in 1993 as a preserve.
Sponsors: THE FLAGLER COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON OAKS GARDENS
Location:Washington Oaks State Gardens.
County: Flagler
City: South of Marineland
Description: Part of a Spanish land grant to Bautista Don Juan Ferreira in 1815. Developed as a plantation by General Joseph Hernandez, early Florida planter. George Washington, related to our first president, married Hernandez' daughter, Louisa, in 1844. They were given this land by Hernandez and remained here until 1856, developing the plantation and starting an orange grove. Louisa died in 1859, and George left, but returned in 1886, to live here the rest of his life. Purchased in 1936, by Mr. and Mrs. Owen D. Young, the gardens, groves, and plantings were expanded. In 1964, after Mr. Young's death, Mrs. Young gave the property to the State.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
KING'S ROAD
Location:Old King's Rd N, just South of I-95 overpass
County: Flagler
City: Bunnell
Description: This road was built about 1766 when Colonel James Grant was governor of British East Florida. It extended from St. Augustine to Cowford (Jacksonville) and north to Colorain, Ga., across the St. Marys River. Later the road was extended south along the Matanzas River. Aided in part by donations from Grant's friends in South Carolina and Georgia, the road's chief financial backing came from local subscribers. It became a major artery of travel.

Franklin

FRANKLIN COUNTY
Location:U.S. 98 and Avenue C at Courthouse.
County: Franklin
City: Apalachicola
Description: Named for Benjamin Franklin, the county was created in 1832 .Apalachicola, the county seat, which dates back to the times of the Creek Indians, was an important center for cotton trade. The county is noted for agriculture, timber, livestock and sea foods. Franklin County men of note include: Joseph White, territorial delegate to Congress; McQueen McIntosh, fiery secessionist; Dr. John Gorrie, inventor of artificial refrigeration; Alvin Wentworth Chapman, botanist; and Cosam Emir Bartlett, editor.
TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:6th Ave. at Ave. D on church grounds.
County: Franklin
City: Apalachicola
Description: This original structure of white pine had previously been cut into sections in New York and floated by sailing vessel down the Atlantic Coast and around the Florida keys before it was erected on this site. This parish was first organized in 1836 by The Reverend Fitch W. Taylor, Diocese of Maryland, but on February 11, 1837, it was incorporated by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida. Vestrymen at the time of the church's incorporation were Colin Mitchel, John Gorrie, E. Wood, George S. Middlebrook, Hiram Nourse, William G. Porter, C.E. Bartlett, Ludlum S. Chittenden, and George Field. Membership rolls include the names of some of Florida's pioneer settlers-Orman, Raney, Grady, Whiteside, Oven Branch, and many others.
Sponsors: Apalachicola Historical Society in Cooperation with Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
WHEN THE RIVER WAS KING!
Location:Park at Water St. between Ave. D and E
County: Franklin
City: Apalachicola
Description: Side 1: History records the first shipment of cotton to leave this Port, arrived New York, 1822. Beginning 1836, forty-three, three- storied brick, Cotton Warehouses and Brokerages lined Apalachicola's waterfront. Their granite-columned facades caused Apalachicola to be known as "The City of Granite Fronts." Cotton receipts were over 55,000 bales per year. By 1840, 130,000 bales of cotton annually left this Port. Foreign and coastwise shipments amounted to between $6,000,000.00 and $8,000,000.00 yearly. Corresponding amounts of merchandise were received for transportation into the interior. Apalachicola was the third largest Cotton Port in the United States. Side 2: The Apalachicola Board of Trade, 1860, in a resounding memorial to Congress, stated: "We are the great depot of the State. We do more business than each and every portion of the State put together. This year we have done $14,000,000.00 worth of business." In that year $13,000.00 was refused for a Water Street lot. Between 1828 and 1928 two hundred and four "Sidewheelers" and "Sternwheelers", Queens of the River, plied this waterway. Long Live The Apalachicola!
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with the City of Apalachicola
FORT GADSDEN
Location: Fort Gadsden State Historic Site
County: Franklin
City: Liberty
Description: Built in 1814 by Lieutenant Colonel Edward Nichols, His Majesty's marines, as a rallying point to encourage the Seminole Indians to ally themselves with England against the United States in the War of 1812. Abandoned after 1814, it was occupied by a band of free Negroes, and was known by 1816 as "The Negro Fort." Its location in Spanish Florida did not deter Major General Andrew Jackson from ordering its elimination as a threat to American commerce on the Apalachicola River. On July 27, 1816, Lieutenant Colonel Duncan L. Clinch, with U.S. forces and 150 Creek Indians, fired on the fort and destroyed it with a "hot shot" cannon ball which exploded in the powder magazine killing all but 30 of 300 occupants. In 1818 General Jackson directed Lieutenant James Gadsden to build "Fort Gadsden" here, in spite of Spanish protests. Confederate troops occupied the fort until July, 1863, when malaria forced its abandonment.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
CHESTNUT STREET CEMETERY OF EARLY APALACHICOLA (OLD CITY GRAVEYARD)
Location:U.S. 98 between 6th & 8th Sts.
County: Franklin
City: Apalachicola
Description: Chestnut Street Cemetery dates prior to 1831. Interred are some of Apalachicola's founders and molders of her colorful history. Also buried here are many soldiers of the Confederacy and victims of yellow fever and shipwrecks. Seven of the Confederate veterans served with Pickett at Gettysburg in the gallant Florida Brigade. World famed botanist, Dr. Alvin Wentworth Chapman, of Apalachicola died in 1899, and is interred here beside the grave of his wife.
Sponsors: The Apalachicola Historical Society in Cooperation with Department of State, Bureau of Historic Preservation
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BOWLES
Location: St. George Island State Park, off of C.R. 300, sou
County: Franklin
City: Eastpoint
Description: During a storm in 1799, the schooner Fox ran aground off the eastern end of St. George Island. On board was William Augustus Bowles, a British citizen and self-styled leader of the Creek-Cherokee nation. Bowles was returning to Florida having escaped after five years as a Spanish prisoner. Bringing gunpowder and bullets, he hoped to re-establish his prominence among the Creeks, drive the Spanish out of Florida, and create an independent Muskogee state under British protection. The Creeks were the most organized of the southern Indians and still controlled much of their territory. Because of Florida's strategic location, the U.S., Spain, Britain, and France were all interested in Bowles' actions. With supplies salvaged from the shipwreck, Bowles paddled up the Apalachicola River to reunite with his Creek family and begin rallying native support. The ship captain and crew camped on the island until rescuers returned them to Jamaica. Bowles and his Creek, Seminole, black, and white followers captured the Spanish fort at St. Marks in 1800 and held it for over a month. Losing control of its only fortification between St. Augustine and Pensacola was an embarrassment to Spain and a sign of its fragile hold on Florida. Britain's peace with France and Spain through the Treaty of Amiens, 1802, removed any hope of British support for Bowles' schemes. Bowles lived among the Creeks until his recapture in 1803, and died in a Cuban prison. Although Bowles' dreams were not realized, he plagued the Spanish for almost two decades, preventing them from maintaining complete military control of Florida.
Sponsors: in memory of historian and professor j. lietch wright, jr.sponsored by the florida historical societyin cooperation with the florida department of state
THE RANEY HOUSE
Location:On Ave. F at Market Street.
County: Franklin
City: Apalachicola
Description: During the 1830's, when the cotton port of Apalachicola was rapidly expanding, David G. Raney built a rather plain, Federal style house at this site. Around 1850, a two-story portico and other features of the then popular Greek Revival architectural style were added to that structure. Raney, a native of Virginia, was a prosperous merchant who was prominent in many of the town's civic affairs. His eight children grew up in this home. A son, George Pettus Raney (born in 1845), served in the Confederate Army and then returned to Apalachicola to practice law until his election to the Florida Legislature in 1868. Later, George P. Raney served two Florida governors as Attorney General before becoming first a justice of the Florida Supreme Court and then its Chief Justice, a position he resigned in 1894. He practiced law until his death in 1911. Legend related that ladies of Apalachicola met in the Raney House at the beginning of the Civil War to sew a battle flag for local Confederate troops. Legend also says that Franklin County troops were mustered out of service at the Raney House when the war ended. The Raney House in listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: sponsored by the apalachicola historic board in cooperation with department of state
MILLY FRANCIS
Location:Addie Rd. Fort Gadsden State Park
County: Franklin
City: South of Sumatra
Description: Francis the Prophet, whose Indian name was Hillis Hadjo, was an important Creek chief who was forced to leave his home in the Alabama Territory at the end of the Creek War of 1813-14. He established a new town on the Wakulla River several miles above Ft. St. Marks. In 1818, Gen. Andrew Jackson led an army into Spanish Florida to campaign against the restive Seminoles. With the army was a young Georgia militia private named Duncan McKrimmon. While Jackson's forces were at recently constructed Ft. Gadsden in the spring of 1818, McKrimmon went fishing, lost his way, and after several days was captured by Indians from Francis' Town. Duncan McKrimmon was taken to that village where he was stripped and bound to await execution. The younger of Francis' two daughters, a girl of about fifteen named Malee (Anglicized to "Milly"), begged Private McKrimmon's captors to spare his life. This they agreed to do. Instead of being shot, the youth was sold to the Spanish at Ft. St. Marks, who then released him. Not long afterwards, Francis the Prophet was detained by U.S. forces and on April 8, 1818, was hanged at the order of General Jackson. A few months later, Francis' family surrendered themselves along with a number of other Seminoles. They remained at Ft. Gadsden for several weeks awaiting removal to a reservation in the West. Duncan McKrimmon traveled to Ft. Gadsden and out of gratitude offered to marry Milly, but she refused his proposal. Milly went to live in Indian Territory on Arkansas River where she married and had a number of children. In 1842, Lt. Col. E.A. Hitchcock found Milly living there widowed and in poverty. He initiated action which led to the granting in 1844 by Congress of a pension of $96.00 a year and a Congressional medal to Milly. Delays occurred and when the pension was finally activated in 1848, Milly was on her deathbed. There is no evidence that the medal recommended to honor Milly for saving the life of Duncan McKrimmon was ever cast.
Sponsors: Sponsored by department of natural resources in cooperation with department of state
FORT COOMBS
Location: 4th St. Apalachicola
County: Franklin
City: Apalachicola
Description: The Franklin Guards, a company of Infantry organized in Apalachicola in 1884 by J.H. Coombs and Fred Betterfield, erected the first building in the city to be used solely as an armory in 1898. Made of simulated brick, it was located at the corner of High Street and Center Avenue. On May 25, 1900, fire destroyed it and much of the downtown. On July 3, 1900, a committee was formed to build a new armory. The facility was designed by Frank and Thomas Lockwood of Columbus, Georgia and constructed by John H. Hecker. It was completed in 1901 at a cost of $12,000. The replacement armory features real brick walls and a gable roof with a gable parapet. Solid massing of the walls, slit windows, and a corner tower that resembles a medieval watchtower make this an imposing military structure. Fort Coombs is a unique example of “fortress architecture” in Florida, and has served as the military and social nexus of Apalachicola for more than a century. Units stationed here have been mobilized for service in World Wars I and II, the Gulf War and the War with Iraq. Bronze plaques located on the exterior front wall memorialize the names of generations of Apalachicola and Franklin County citizens who have served their State and Nation.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH SOUTH
Location:75 5th St.
County: Franklin
City: Apalachicola
Description: First United Methodist Church of Apalachicola was established in 1839 when Reverend Peter Haskew was appointed to serve the St. Joseph and Apalachicola Mission of The Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The original sanctuary, built and dedicated around 1846, was destroyed in 1900 by a fire that devastated the city, burning approximately 70 buildings. The present structure, erected in 1901 on the same site, has been in continual use since that time. The Gothic and Renaissance Revival style was typical of Protestant church architecture of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The sanctuary is constructed of locally harvested black cypress ceiling with yellow pine tongue-and-groove walls and floors. The church building has consistently been included in the annual tour of historical homes held each spring, drawing several hundred people each day, many of whom return later for a leisurely appreciation of the town. The church congregation participates in the annual Florida Seafood Festival, and the structure is used for meetings by Philaco Woman’s Club of Apalachicola, the Girl Scouts and other civic organizations.
Sponsors: THE FIRST UNITED METHODIST CHURCH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DR. JOHN GORRIE
Location:The Gorrie Grave, 6th Ave between Ave D and C
County: Franklin
City: Apalachicola
Description: Dr. John Gorrie (1803-1855) was an early pioneer in the invention of the artificial manufacture of ice, refrigeration, and air conditioning. He was granted the first U.S. patent for mechanical refrigeration on May 6, 1851 (U.S. Patent # 8080). Dr. Gorrie moved to Apalachicola in 1833 after the completion of his education at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Western District of New York in Fairfield, New York. Motivated by a severe yellow fever epidemic in the summer of 1841, Dr. Gorrie and his predecessors felt the fever was caused by heat, humidity and decaying vegetation. He sought to effect a cure by introducing an element of cold in the form of refrigeration. Dr. Gorrie noted, “Nature would terminate the fevers by the changing of seasons.” In May 1844, he constructed the refrigeration that received the patent. This mechanism produced ice in quantities but leakage and irregular performance impaired its operation. At various times he served as a physician of the Marine Hospital Service, Postmaster, President of the Apalachicola Branch Bank of Pensacola, Mayor, Secretary of the Masonic Lodge, and founding vestryman of Trinity Episcopal Church. Dr. Gorrie was honored by the State of Florida with a statue of him placed in Statuary Hall at the U.S. Capitol.
Sponsors: JOHN GORRIE STATE MUSEUM AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CAMP GORDON JOHNSTON (1942-1946)
Location: Along U.S. 98 by the Old Camp Gordon Johnston
County: Franklin
City: Carrabelle
Description: In June 1942 the U.S. War Department selected a 155,000 acre section of coastal Franklin County to be used as an amphibious warfare training center. Originally called Camp Carabelle, the base was renamed in January 1943 to honor the memory of Colonel Gordon Johnston, who had died in 1934. The3rd Engineer Amphibian Brigade arrived for training on September 10, 1942. One of the largest army facilities in Florida during World War II, the base was known by troops stationed there as "Hell-by-the-Sea" because of its crude living conditions and dangerous training programs. The 4th, 28th an 38th Infantry Divisions also received training at the base. Its mission was changed September, 1943 to train personnel to operate small harbor craft and amphibious vehicles. In 1944, German and Italian prisoners of war were interned at the camp. The end of World War II in August 1945 made Camp Gordon Johnston obsolete, and it was decommissioned in 1946. By 1948 the property had been transferred to private ownership and most of the buildings and structures demolished or removed. Today, the former officers' family quarters that remain standing in the vicinity of Parker Street are being used as housing in the Lanark Village Retirement Community.
Sponsors: florida heritage landmarksponsored by the camp gordon johnston associationand florida department of statesandra b. mortham, secretary of state
WORLD WAR II D-DAY TRAINING SITE
Location:Carrabelle Beach & Dog Island
County: Franklin
City: Carrabelle
Description: In late 1943, Carrabelle Beach and Dog Island, while they were a part of Camp Gordon Johnston, were used by the U.S. Army 4th Infantry Division to train for the Normandy Invasion on D-Day, June 6th, 1944. The Amphibious Training Center had been officially closed, but it was reopened and staffed for the purpose of training for this important mission. Although the troops had trained for over three years, the amphibious training conducted on this site was the last step before shipping out to England for the invasion. On D-Day, the first amphibian infantry assault teams to arrive on French soil were from the 4th Infantry Division at Utah Beach. On June 6, 2000, the Camp Gordon Johnston Association extracted a small amount of soil from this site and delivered it to the National 4th Infantry Division Association to be placed in the Association’s monument in Arlington, VA. The U.S. Department of Defense’s World War II Commemoration Committee in 1995 named the Camp Gordon Johnston Association an official “Commemorative Community.”
Sponsors: CAMP GORDON JOHNSTON ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE DOCTOR ALVIN W. CHAPMAN HOUSE
Location:West Corner of 6th St and Avenue E
County: Franklin
City: Apalachicola
Description: This classical Greek Revival style house served as the residence of Dr. Alvan Wentworth Chapman, physician, scientist, and eminent botanist, whose research and writings on the flora of the South received international recognition. Born in 1809 in Massachusetts, Dr. Chapman came to Florida in 1835, and by 1847 had settled in Apalachicola. He built this house in 1847, and lived here almost continuously until his death in 1899. Active in the community, Dr. Chapman served as county judge, mayor, and collector of customs. Among the many plants named in his honor is the Chapman Rhododendron, so named by noted Harvard professor Asa Gray. Dr. Chapman was also associated with the Smithsonian, furnishing that institution’s first specimens of butterfly chrysalises of this locality. His first herbarium is located at the New York Botanical Garden; his second, including his original manuscript, “Flora of the Southern United States,” is at the Biltmore Estate near Ashville, North Carolina. Dr. Chapman died here and was buried in nearby Chestnut Cemetery. Dramatically altered during the 20th century, the house underwent a complete restoration, completed in 2012, and now appears as it did during Dr. Chapman’s residency.
Sponsors: Dr. Helen E. A. Tudor, Walter B. Melvin, A.I.A. and the Florida Department of State

Gadsden

SOLDIERS CEMETERY
Location:344 E. Jefferson St.
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: Gadsden County and the town of Quincy served the war effort of the Confederate States of America in many ways. Quincy served as a crossroads and a military center of activity through the four years of conflict. As a military center and commissary, everything from socks to beef were provided the units. In times of emergency hospitals were established in public buildings, churches and private homes. The needs of the sick, wounded and dying were tended by the Ladies Aid Society which in April 1868 became the Ladies Confederate Memorial Association. Soldiers Cemetery was established early in the war years for a final resting place for those who had no family here or were too far from home to be returned to their loved ones. The Ladies Memorial Association worked hard to preserve the memory of the Southern Soldier even though most of the markers and names of those buried here were lost. For years, in the springtime, the association held Confederate Memorial Day ceremonies at this site. Mrs. John Lawrence, President of the association from 1892-1900, raised $1,200 to erect the first iron fence around this “Soldiers Cemetery.”
Sponsors: THE SONS OF CONFEDERATE VETERANS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DEZELL HOUSE
Location:328 E. 8th St.
County: Gadsden
City: Greensboro
Description: The Dezell House was built in 1912 by James A. and Margaret Leila “Maggie” Shepard Dezell. This house, with its Prairie Style architecture and Arts and Crafts features, was their family home for 46 years. James A. Dezell (1867-1937) was born in Chicago, moving from southwestern Missouri to Gadsden County in 1886. James and “Maggie,” a Gadsden County native, married on September 13, 1893. Between 1894 and 1903 they had three sons and two daughters. James and his father, Samuel A. Dezell, were builders. They constructed the Samuel Dezell family house in Mt. Pleasant in 1886. James A. Dezell was the first mayor of the Town of Greensboro, serving several terms following the first organizational meeting on August 13, 1908. The most distinctive aspects of this house’s construction are its closeness to the ground rather than sitting on piers, fine craftsmanship, and windows set in dormers that crown the roofline on each main roof slope and provide light for a skylight in the entry hall. Dezell was evidently very confident in materials and techniques he chose for the house. The Dezell House was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2006, showing his confidence was well placed.
Sponsors: THE WEST GADSDEN HISTORICAL SOCIETY, INC., THE CAPITAL CITY BANK GROUP FOUNDATION,AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
PAT MUNROE HOUSE
Location:204 East Jefferson Street
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: Mark Welch, "Mr. Pat Munroe" built the Pat Munroe House for his first wife, Edith Adelaide Walker, in 1893. The couple had 10 children before her death in 1896. Mr. Pat later married Mary Frances Gray in 1912. Eight children were born from this union. Mr. Pat was the son of William Munroe, an immigrant from Inverness, Scotland. Serving for 50 years as president of the Quincy State Bank, Mr. Pat was reguarded as a prominent and respected businessman. His family occupied the house until 1972, after which John Welch Bates , a grandson of Mr. Pat, purchased the home from the estate of Mary C. Munroe. The home was then donated to the City of Quincy. The Quincy Garden Club has leased the home since that time. The Pat Munroe House is built of heart of pine in an unadorned Victorian style. Notable features of the house include stained glass windows, sculptured mantels, and plaster ceiling medallions. The basic structure of the house has not changed since 1893. The grounds, however, have gone from a farm-like atmosphere with chickens , a cow and vegetable garden , to a well landscaped area with camillias, azealeas and other plants of interest.
Sponsors: The City of Quincy and The Fl. Dept .of State
OLD GRETNA SCHOOL HOUSE
Location:722 Church St.
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: In the late 1800’s the railroad pushed further west into Gadsden County. A settlement was established in Gretna in 1897 by the Humphrey Company. After Gretna was platted as a town in 1905 there was a desire to have a school in the town limits. One of the men who settled the area was W. P. Humphrey. In 1908, he along with his wife Sarah M. Humphrey and J.W. Mahaffey and his wife Addie Mahaffey deeded the land for the school to the Board of Public Instruction for $100. R.A. Gray, who later became Florida’s longest serving Secretary of State, was a principal here from 1910-1911. The building served as a school until 1935. Since the old school was closed, many students and teachers relate experiences and stories in loving memory of their lives at the Gretna School in times of long ago. The school has since been used as a health clinic, town hall, community center, and for church related activities. It has been a part of the history of Gretna from the beginning. Many lives have been touched by this building and we the trustees of the W.P. Humphrey Club, A. Walter Watson, Jr., W.A. Johnson, and Sterling L. Watson are honored to preserve for future generations this monument of our past
Sponsors: W.P. Humphrey Club and the Florida Department of State
SITE OF ELLICOTT'S OBSERVATORY
Location:At intersection of Pearl and High Streets
County: Gadsden
City: Chattahoochee
Description: At the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, Florida was returned to Spain after twenty years of British control. Controversy soon arose over the exact location of the boundary between Spanish Florida and the state of Georgia. In 1795, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo, an agreement fixing the boundary in question at the thirty-first parallel and providing a survey to be made to determine the exact location of that line. In May, 1796, President George Washington appointed Andrew Ellicott, a mathematician and experienced surveyor, as the American Commissioner for the survey. After much delay, work got underway in June, 1798. A party of Spanish and American surveyors carrying with them a large accumulation of apparatus required for making astronomical and land measurements began the task of determining the exact boundary line. By August, 1799, the group had reached the Chattahoochee River. On August 23, they selected a site near the mouth of the Flint Rivr as a campsite. Near this marker, an observatory was set up. Here Ellicott made his calculations until difficutly arose with Indians residing in the area. On September 18, 1799, ellicott abandoned the camp and departed for East Florida to complete the survey.
Sponsors: Sponsored by gadsden county historical commission in cooperation with department of state
JOSHUA DAVIS HOUSE
Location:on the grounds of the Joshua Davis House.
County: Gadsden
City: Mt. Pleasant
Description: In the 1820's, settlers from Georgia, South Carolina and other states came to the new United States Territory of Florida in search of land to homestead. One such frontiersman was Thomas Dawsey, who by 1824 was residing in the Gadsden County area. In 1827 Dawsey purchased the 160 acres upon which this house stands from the United States Public Land Office, a common practice for homesteaders. Another pioneer in the region was Joshua Davis, who brought his family from Laurens County, South Carolina to a farm two miles west of Quincy ca. 1828. He soon moved to the North Mosquito Creek community located about a mile northeast of this site. Between 1830 and 1849, Joshua Davis acquired the Dawsey property and moved with his wife and five children into what would be their permanent home. By 1830, a road had been built through this area from Quincy to the Apalachicola River crossing at Chattahoochee. Stage-coaches carrying mail and passengers through this fertile and well-populated farming region traveled over what was known as "the upper road." Some evidence suggests the Joshua Davis House served as a stage-coach stop and perhaps as a horse-changing station. This house was the focal point of a cotton, tobacco, and corn plantation which by 1859 consisted of 1440 acres of land on which Joshua Davis had as many as 33 slaves, 6 horses, and 135 cattle. A map of 1857 designated this general locality as "Davis." After the death of Joshua Davis in 1859 and of his wife Esther in 1876, the house was occupied by their grand-daughter Esther and her husband Lieut. Mortimer B. Bates, C.S.A. This house has been used as a frontier home, tenant house, and storage facility. It was originally built as a one room, 18' by 27' dressed timber structure with a front porch and a heating-cooking fireplace at the west end. Early alterations included a rear porch, attic sleeping loft, and east room. Joshua Davis enclosed the rear porch into shed rooms opening onto a breezeway, refurbished the interior and exterior with hand-beaded siding, and is thought to have added a separated kitchen in the rear. The additions include several architectural elements not commonly found in Florida. This house, which was still the property of descendants of Joshua Davis at the time of its restoration in 1974, is included on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: Sponsored by David A. Avant, jr. and George Davis Avant in cooperation with department of state
THE QUINCY ACADEMY
Location:North Adams and King Streets
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: The Quincy Academy was incorporated in 1832 and was probably established as early as 1830. Private educational institutions were common in newly settled frontier areas. Education was provided at reasonable rates by the"Male Academy" and the "Female Institute." The original school building (located northeast of this site) burned in 1849, and in 1850, plans were made for the construction of a new academy. The Classic Revival building was soon completed and, with a brief interruption during the Civil War, continued to serve the educational needs of the Quincy community until 1912. During the next several decades, the old Quincy Academy building was utilized as a temporary courthouse, library, church meetinghouse, child-care center, and kindergarten. In 1931, the Quincy Woman's Club Library began to serve the public from quarters in the Academy. During the 1950's, the building was restored and renovated. In 1974, this structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places, a fitting tribute to its long service to cultural needs of the Quincy community.
Sponsors: sponsored by the quincy woman's club in cooperation with the department of state
SITE OF FIRST GADSDEN COUNTY COURTHOUSE
Location:U. S. 90 at Camilla St. on grounds of Talquin Elec
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: This antebellum home is related in style to the early Louisiana plantation houses of the lower Mississippi Valley. Designed to cope with the heat and dampness of the climate, its main living quarters were on the second floor. It rests on land once owned by Robert Forbes, first Gadsden County sheriff, whose house served as a county courthouse in the early 1820's. Later in the nineteenth century, the property passed into the hands of Hector and William Bruce, grandnephews of Forbes. In 1956, it was purchased by the Quincy Garden Club, and in 1972 was acquired by Talquin Electric Cooperative, Inc. who undertook complete restoration.
Sponsors: Talquin Electric Cooperative, Inc. in Cooperation with Department of State
OLD WASHINGTON LODGE No. 2 - QUINCY'S WOMAN'S CLUB
Location:King Street and Calhoun Street intersection
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: Settlers in the new U.S. territory of Florida (created in 1821) who were members of the Masonic order soon established lodges in their new communities. Washington Lodge No. 2, Free and Accepted Masons, created in 1828 was among the first Florida lodges. A Masonic building constructed in 1832 served the lodge as well as the community as a meeting place until it was destroyed by a storm in 1851. Construction of a new brick building began the next year and was completed by 1854. It was erected by Charles Waller, a Gadsden County builder-designer who constructed several other brick buildings in the Quincy area. For over half a century, the Washington Lodge hall was the scene of community activities. Although the appearance of the building has been changed by alterations including the addition of an exterior coat of stucco, it retains much of its original character. In 1922, the Masons acquired new quarters and the old lodge building became the property of the Quincy Woman's Club. Under its auspices, the Old Washington Lodge has continued to serve the cultural needs of Quincy. In 1975, the structure was added to the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: sponsored by the quincy woman's club in cooperation with department of state
OLD PHILADELPHIA PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
Location:Approx 4 miles North of Quincy on CR-272
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: Presbyterians came to this area from Georgia and the Carolinas as early as 1822. These worshippers built Philadelphia, a log meeting house, in 1828. It was served by itinerant ministers until 1832, when the Reverend Leander Kerr arrived. The log structure was replaced in 1859 by the present building, Gadsden County's oldest remaining meeting house. Philadelphia served until 1912 as a house of worship, a place of education, and a center of community life. Many Presbyterian churches in Florida and southern Georgia trace their origins to Philadelphia.
Sponsors: sponsored by old philadelphia endowment association in cooperation with department of state
GADSDEN COUNTY
Location:Jefferson Street, between N. Adams and N. Madison St. on Courthouse lawn.
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: Gadsden, Florida's fifth county, was formed in 1823. It once ran from Georgia to the Gulf of Mexico, from the Suwannee River to the Apalachicola River. Quincy, the county seat, was incorporated in 1828. Previously known as Middle Florida, the new county was named for Capt. James Gadsden, Army Engineer and later diplomat, who campaigned in this area under Andrew Jackson in 1818. Capt. Gadsden designed and built the fort on the Apalachicola River which bears his name, and in 1853 was responsible for the Gadsden Purchase which completed the boundaries of the continental United States. Indian Wars troubled this frontier area until 1840. Before the Civil War the county was noted for cotton, sugar cane, and tobacco. Later farmers also produced rice, wine grapes, livestock, and timber. By 1890 shade-grown Cuban tobacco had become the major industry, with production from field to finished cigar. Such famous brands as White Owl and King Edward were made here. Other important industries include the mining of fuller's earth and the growing to tomatoes. Gadsden County has also provided Governors, Supreme Court Chief Justices, and numerous other high state officials.
Sponsors: sponsored by gadsden county historical commission in cooperation with department of state
THE WHITE HOUSE / PLEASANTS WOODSON WHITE
Location:on W. King St. at Madison St.(S.R. 65)
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: Side 1: This house was constructed during the early 1840's for Joseph Leonard Smallwood. At that time, it was a one and one-half story structure. In 1849, Pleasants Woodson White married Smallwood's niece, Emily, and purchased the property. He had the house enlarged in 1856; it was remodeled in the Classical Revival style at the same time. The house is an excellent example of the style. Its matching porticos supported by Doric columns give it a dignified balance. The Whites were an active Quincy family. P.W. White served the Confederacy as Chief Commissary Officer for Florida and was politically active after the Civil War. Emily White organized and served as president of the Ladies Aid Society during the war, nursing and providing necessities to wounded soldiers. She was also involved in Methodist Church activities. The house, which was the White family home until 1921, has since served as the parsonage of Centenary Methodist Church. The White House was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on February 16, 1973. Side 2: White was born in Georgia in 1820, the son of a Methodist minister who soon moved his family to Quincy. Young White studied at Emory and began practicing law in Quincy in 1848. He was commissioned a major in the Confederate Army in 1861 and, as Chief Commissary Officer for Florida, commanded the important depot at Quincy. In 1863, despite his attempts at secrecy, White's difficulties in supplying beef cattle to the army became known. The shortages thus revealed influenced the military campaign of 1864. White became active in politics after the war and served as Judge of the Second Judicial Circuit, 1869-79. He also served as Commissioner of Lands and Immigration from 1881 to 1885, a period of railroad expansion in which his office was deeply involved. He became an attorney for the Florida Coast Line Canal and transport Company, which controlled vast acreage near Miami. White became an ardent booster of the South Florida climate and divided his last years between his citrus groves in Lemon city and his civic and business interests in Quincy. He died in 1919.
Sponsors: sponsored by centenary united methodist church in cooperation with department of state
DR. MALCOLM NICHOLSON HOME
Location:on SR 12, 7.4 miles Northwest of SR 65 between Qui
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: Located just north of this point is the Dr. Malcolm Nicholson Plantation Home. Built in the 1820's, it is one of the oldest remaining structures in Gadsden County. It is a one-story Gulf coast Cottage, with end-gables and a built-in porch. It rests on brick piers and has a "dog-trot" floor plan in which a covered passage joins two parts of the house. Nicholson was born in the Carolinas in 1790. He moved to Georgia and then to North Florida where, like many frontier practitioners he combined his activities as a physician and planter. He was one of the commissioners who chose Quincy as the county seat of Gadsden County, and a member of the group which selected the site for the Capitol in Tallahassee. Dr. Nicholson was appointed by the citizens of Gadsden County in 1836 to petition the President of the United States for protection against Creek and Seminole raids on the Florida frontier. He was a stockholder in the Union Bank and served that institution as an appraiser. Dr. Nicholson died in 1840 and is buried in the Nicholson Family Cemetery near here.
Sponsors: sponsored by dr. malcolm nicholson descendents in cooperation with department of state
ST. PAULS EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:10 West King Street
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: The earliest Episcopal Services were performed in Quincy in 1834 and Jackson Kemper was the first bishop to visit in 1838. St. Paul's Parish was organized and the first Vestry was elected in the same year. In 1839, the parish joined the Diocese of Florida and was incorporated by act of the Florida Territorial Legislature on February 28, 1839. The first church was erected on this site in 1839 and was consecrated on February 21, 1841, by James H. Otey, Bishop of Tennessee. The present structure is the second church building. It was erected in 1892, enlarged in 1914, remodeled in 1928, and enlarged again with a cloister and parish hall in 1951. The St. Paul's Episcopal Church is the oldest church in continuous use in the City of Quincy.
Sponsors: St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
THE QUINCY STATE BANK
Location:Washington St. at N. Adams St. on wall of Bank.
County: Gadsden
City: Quincy
Description: Pioneer commercial banking house in Gadsden County, E.P. Dismukes, President, opened 20 August 1889, under State Charter No. 1, issued twelve days earlier under the Act creating a State Banking System; original capital, $60,000. Became strong institution under Mark W. ("Pat") Munroe, President 1892-1940. Deposits one million dollars, 1919; doors never closed during Bank Crisis 1933; resources fourteen millions, 1964. Present building constructed and occupied 1961, under James J. Love, Chairman of Board.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with the Quincy State Bank
ROCKY COMFORT PLANTATION
Location:SR 65B and 267
County: Gadsden
City: Wetumpka
Description: Near this site stood Rocky Comfort, the plantation home of Bryan Croom, a native of North Carolina who settled in Gadsden County in 1826 with his family and slaves. Croom cultivated cotton and prospered to such an extent that he became on the largest landholders in middle Florida. In addition to his holdings in Gadsden, Croom owned Goodwood Plantation near Tallahassee. He was the brother of Hardy Bryan Croom, discoverer of the Florida Torreya tree.
UNITED STATES ARSENAL (1832-1861)
Location:Corner of E. Washington and Maple
County: Gadsden
City: Chattahoochee
Description: One-half mile to the north are the remains of the United States Arsenal erected by the United States Army Ordnance under an Act of Congress passed in 1832. The arsenal proper consisted of various buildings erected so that their exterior walls formed a quadrangle of four square acres. All the brick were made in the vicinity and construction was begun in 1834. It served as an arsenal of deposit prior to the Civil War, when it was seized by the Confederacy and used as a Camp of Instruction. Following the Civil War the Federal Government gave it to the Freedman Bureau in 1866. The buildings were given to the State of Florida in 1869 for use as a prison. It was placed in service as a mental institution in 1876.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc.

Glades

"LONE CYPRESS" AND EVERGLADES DRAINAGE
Location:Riverside Drive, near Three Mile Canal
County: Glades
City: Moore Haven
Description: Shortly after Florida became a state in 1845, its leaders began to consider draining the swampy areas of south Floirda to create prime farm land as an inducement to settlement. In 1850 Florida received title to all swamp and overflowed lands within its borders, but the young state did not have the funds to undertake drainage. Finally in 1881 the state convinced a wealthy northerner, Hamilton Disston, to drain the Everglades in return for half of the acreage he could reclaim. One of his projects was to improve the Caloosahatchee River and connect it with Lake Okeechobee by a canal which enters the lake near here. A lone cypress tree standing at the entrance to this canal served as a navigational aid for boatmen using the new waterways. Early in the twentieth century the town of Moore Haven, named for its founder James A. Moore, grew up around the "Lone Cypress" and the canal entrance. By this time the state itself had assumed responsibility for drainage, and in 1917-18 it constructed a lock at the canal entrance. In recent years state and federal governments have cooperated on the related problems of drainage, flood control and navigation. As a result, the Caloosahatchee Canal and River have been continually maintained and improved.
Sponsors: sponsored by calusa valley historical society in cooperation with department of state
HURRICANE OF 1928
Location:8898 W SR 78 SW
County: Glades
City: Moore Haven
Description: The Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928 was the most deadly hurricane ever to strike the state of Florida. An estimated 2,500 persons in South Florida died when the storm came ashore on September 16, 1928, near the Jupiter Lighthouse, and traveled west across Palm Beach County to Lake Okeechobee. Many of the hurricane’s fatalities, most of them migrant farm workers, occurred when the Lake Okeechobee dike was overwhelmed and the populated south side of the lake was flooded with a fifteen-to-twenty-foot storm surge. The floodwaters carried victims and survivors as far as ten miles from the lakeshore along nearly the entire south half of the lake, from Moore Haven to Pahokee. Noted Florida writer Zora Neale Hurston used the events surrounding the tragedy in her 1937 novel, “Their Eyes Were Watching God,” as she described the recovery and burial of the dead. The Ortona Cemetery contains the unmarked graves of several hundred victims of the 1928 hurricane, as well as victims of the 1926 hurricane that devastated Glades County. Several hundred African-American victims of the Okeechobee Hurricane were buried in a mass grave in the City of West Palm Beach’s pauper cemetery.
Sponsors: Representatives Denise Grimsley 2004-2012, Joseph R. Spratt 1996-2004, Florida House of Representatives, District 77, and the Florida Department of State

Gulf

SAINT JOESEPH CEMETERY
Location:S.R. 384A.
County: Gulf
City: Port St. Joe
Description: This site is one of three cemeteries of Saint Joseph. Many persons interred here were victims of yellow fever which plagued the city throughout July and August, 1841, causing its depopulation and abandonment. The dread disease, sparing neither rich nor poor, was brought into port by sailing ship from the Greater Antilles. Here many prominent territorial Florida statesmen, journalists and merchants succumbed. No markers remain of those buried in trenches.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with the Gulf County Historical Commission
FORT CREVECOEUR / FORT CREVECOEUR ABANDONED
Location:U. S. 98 at Columbus Street.
County: Gulf
City: St. Joseph Beach
Description: Side 1: In 1717, on this site, the French began erecting Fort Crevecoeur within Spanish domain. On February 8, 1718, Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne de Bienville, acting Governor of Louisiana, dispatched his brother, Lemoyne de Chateague, to complete this Fort. By May 12, the French occupied St. Joseph's Bay. Chateague reported to Bienville completion, on the mainland, opposite St. Joseph Point, the stockaded Fort Crevecoeur with four bastions and garrisoned. Simultaneously Juan Pedro Matamoros de Ysla, Governor of Spanish Florida, at Pensacola, indignantly protested this usurpation as St. Joseph's Bay belonged to Spain by earlier discovery and previous settlement. Side 2: The French Colonial Council, with unanimous discretion decided to burn Fort Crevecoeur and abandon St. Joseph's Bay. On August 20, Spanish Captain, Joseph Primo De Rivera, reported to the Spanish Governorship, at St. Augustine, the French had retired from their invasion. Whereupon Rivera was ordered to command St. Joseph's Bay. By March 10, 1719, Don Gregorio de Salinas Varona had been transferred to the Spanish Governorship of St. Joseph's Bay.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Historic of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with the Gulf County Historical Commission
FORT PLACE - ST. JOESEPH & IOLA RAILROAD
Location:South of Wewahitchka on S.R. 71
County: Gulf
City: Wewahitchka
Description: Fort Place, forerunner of Wewahitchka, located one-quarter mile East was constructed in the early 1830's as a refuge from hostile Indians. It consisted of a hewn log blockhouse equipped with portholes for firearms, and was enclosed within a two acre stockade. No remains of Fort Place are visible today. The St. Joseph and Iola Railroad, completed in 1839, was the third railroad to use steam locomotives in Florida, and was the longest in Territorial Florida.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with Gulf County Historical Commission
ST. JOSEPH CONFEDERATE SALTWORKS
Location:C.R. 30E, 1.1 miles north of C.R. 30A, south of St
County: Gulf
City: Port St. Joe
Description: A major Confederate saltworks, with daily capacity of 150 bushels, before completion, was located 200 feet north. Brick foundations were salvaged from ruins of the Old City of St. Joseph. Salt processed by evaporation of seawater was one of Florida's two chief contributions to the Confederacy. These saltworks destroyed September 8, 1862, by U.S.S. Kingfisher, by bombardment and landing party action. Destruction of Confederate saltworks was a comparable blow "to the Southern cause as the fall of Charleston."
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Gulf County Historical Commission
SHIPYARD COVE
Location:Monument Ave.(U.S. 98)& 5th St. in 1st Union Bank
County: Gulf
City: Port St. Joe
Description: With completion of St. Joseph & Lake Wimico Railroad, 1836, movement of cotton to shipside at St. Joseph, from the foremost cotton producing territory in the world, began here, thence to domestic and foreign ports. As a result, the young village soon became metropolitan. For this extensive operation a large shipyard was established. Site recorded, Lieutenant L.M. Powell, Government Survey, St. Joseph Bay, 1841.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Gulf County Historical Commission
No Title/ Listed as "BURIAL REGISTER" and "OLD ST. JOESEPH CEMETERY
Location:off of Garrison Ave.(C.R. 384) in Old St. Joe Ceme
County: Gulf
City: Port St. Joe
Description: The following persons are believed to be buried here: Dr. Thomas H. Thompson, native of Charlestown, Editor of the "Apalachicola Advertiser" - 1840 George Clark, of Boston-1841 Henry Langley, of Georgetown, Washington, D.C.- 1844 Captain George L.L. Kupfer, of Boston - 1840 Patrick McDonough and son John of Sligo, Ireland - 1841 William P. Broughton, son of George and Ann Broughton - 1850 Robert H. Stewart - 1837 Jacob A. Blackwell and his sister Amelia - 1841 Mrs. John Richards and her two children, Agnes and John Hon. Richard C. Allen, Calhoun County Delegate to St. Joseph Convention Mrs. Nancy Duval, wife of Ex-Governor W.P. Duval Mrs. George T. Ward and Georgianna, wife and daughter of Major G.T. Ward Mrs. S.S. Sibley, wife of S.S. Sibley, Editor of "The Floridian Mrs. Fleming Hixon, wife of Fleming Hixon, Att'y and Agt., Union Bank Dr. E.R. Gibson, Associate-Editor of the United State Telegraph, Washington, D.C. Thomas Bertrum, former Secretary of St. Joseph and Lake Wimico Railroad Mr. and Mrs. Moses, mother and father of Ralph G. Moses Bro. Hamilton, of the Methodist-Episcopal St. Joseph Station Bro. Seely, of the Methodist-Episcopal St. Joseph Station Editor Joseph B. Webb, Proprietor of the Florida Journal - 1841
Sponsors: St. Joseph Historical Society, City of Port St. Joe, Gulf County Historical Commission and the Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials

Hamilton

WHITE SPRINGS
Location: U.S. 41 between Kendrick & Wesson Streets. In 2002 moved to a spot near South Hamilton Elementary, 16693 Spring St. The marker is situated near a water tower which is near the school.
County: Hamilton
City: White Springs
Description: These sulphur springs were thought to have medicinal properties and were considered sacred by the Indians. Warriors wounded in battle reputedly were not attacked when they came here to recuperate. Settlers moved into the vicinity in 1826 and the springs became an antebellum resort noted for natural beauty and good cuisine. The village was a refuge during the War Between the States and many planters brought their families and slaves here for safety.

Hendry

FORT DENAUD
Location:S.R. 78-A at Caloosahatchee River bridge
County: Hendry
City: La Belle
Description: The combined pressure of growing white settlement in Florida and federal policy of relocating Indian tribes west of the Mississippi sparked the outbreak of the 2nd Seminole War in 1835. Controlling the coasts and campaigning in the heart of Seminole lands were the objectives of Major General Thomas Jesup in 1837. Captain B. L. E. Bonneville established Fort Denaud in 1838 as one of a series of posts linking American operations south of Tampa to the east coast. It was constructed on the south bank of the Caloosahatchee River 27 miles from Fort Myers on land owned by Pierre Danaud, a French Indian trader. The fort consisted of tents with a blockhouse in their midst. It served as a supply depot for troops in the Lake Okeechobee area and was utilized intermittently until the war ended in 1842. Fort Denaud was reopened in 1855, soon after the outbreak of the 3rd Seminole War. Additions included company quarters, hospital, guardhouse, sutler's store and stables. A few months after a fire ravaged the post in June 1856, another site on the north bank of the river tow miles west was chosen. The fort, which was abandoned in May 1858, gave its name to the nearby town of Denaud.
Sponsors: sponsored by calusa valley historical society in cooperation with department of state
FORT THOMPSON
Location:SR 80 near Collingswood Pkwy
County: Hendry
City: La Belle
Description: LaBelle's history begins here, along the Caloosahatchee River, on this old Fort Thompson site. Fort Thompson began c.1838 as a military post during the 2nd Seminole War, named for Lt. Colonel Alexander Thompson, who died in the battle of Okeechobee in 1837. The Confederates used the site during the Civil War to raise cattle for their troops. In 1879, former Confederate Captain Francis Asbury Hendry (1833-1917) acquired the property, making it his home in 1889. He established a cattle ranch and soon the town of LaBelle grew along its western boundary. In 1885, steamboat service carried passengers from Fort Myers to Fort Thompson, and in 1912, when LaBelle became a port on Florida's Intracoastal Waterway, it became a river paradise. In 1905, Edgar Everett Goodno (1858-1936) purchased Fort Thompson and built an ice plant and an electric plant to serve a growing population. By the end of the decade, the former fort had become the cattle and citrus town now known as LaBelle. Thomas Edison was known to have visited LaBelle, staying at the Fort Thompson Hotel. In 1924, Henry Ford purchased part of Goodno's property. It remained in Ford's name until 1942 when he sold it to one of Captain Hendry's cousins, Joseph B. Hendry.
Sponsors: the Labelle Heritage Museum, a chapter of the Calusa Valley Historical Society and the Florida Department of State
DOWNTOWN LA BELLE HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Corner of Park Ave and Bridge St.
County: Hendry
City: La Belle
Description: In 1895, prominent landowner and cattleman Captain Francis A. Hendry (1833-1917) platted a townsite at LaBelle, which was first settled as a center for cattle and citrus industries. A post office, general store, school, and a church were eventually built, and LaBelle became the first town and commercial center in what became Hendry County. Although Hendry is credited with settling LaBelle, E.E. Goodno (1858-1936), who purchased Hendry’s former land holdings in 1903 and financed many of the town’s first improvements, is recognized as the “Father of LaBelle.” LaBelle’s historic business district extends along and near Bridge Street from the Caloosahatchee River south to Hickpockee Avenue. At one time, both sides of the street were lined with commercial establishments, some of which featured living accommodations on the second floor. Sadly, many early downtown buildings were destroyed in a 1928 fire, but some have survived, including the Poole Store (1911), First Bank of LaBelle (1925), the Royal Poinciana/Newcomb Bakery (1911-1912--one of the buildings constructed for both commercial and residential use). The Downtown LaBelle Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: CITY OF LABELLE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Hernando

MASARYKTOWN
Location:398 Broad Street
County: Hernando
City: Masaryktown
Description: In 1924-26, a group of Slovak and czech immigrants moved down from New York and Pennsylvania to establish a farming community in Florida, and bought about 10,000 acres in Hernando County. They founded a town here, which they named after Thomas G Masaryk (1850-1937), "founding father" and first president of the independent republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 with the help of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. They named the town's streets for American presidents and for Slovak and Czech patriots and writers who contributed to the independence movement. Initial attempts at growing citrus and vegetables failed, but eventually a thriving egg poultry farming community developed. Slovak cultural traditions were maintained for more than one half century. The building on this sit was erected in 1925 as the "Masaryk Hotel" for initial housing of newly arrived settlers, and retained that name until 1997.
Sponsors: Masaryktown Board of Directors and the Florida Department of State
GRAVE OF CHARLOTTE WYNN PYLES CRUM
Location:Spece 2, tier 3, lot 18, Brooksville Cemetery
County: Hernando
City: Brooksville
Description: One of the area’s early white settlers, Charlotte Crum is the first known burial in the Brooksville Cemetery. Her death occurred immediately following the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), and is symbolic of the epic collision that occurred in Florida as diverse cultures struggled for control of the expanding American frontier. Born 1792 near Savannah, Georgia, Charlotte married Col. Samuel Robert Pyles who in 1824 moved his family to what later became Alachua County, Florida. Following Pyles’s 1837 death, Charlotte married Richard R. Crum who secured this portion of land through the Armed Occupation Act of 1842, settling at Chuccochattie, less than one mile south. While traveling nearby September 12, 1842, Charlotte, her daughter Rebecca Harn, granddaughter Mary Catherine Harn and escort John Francis McDonnell were fired upon by a party of Seminoles who were unaware of the war’s end and evidently retaliating for recent aggressive acts by white settlers eager to remove the area’s native population. In the ensuing struggle, all escaped but Charlotte, who was killed and whose death received sensationalized attention. She is buried here, less than one-eighth mile from her home in a grave once entombed with brick.
Sponsors: THE HERNANDO HISTORICAL MUSEUM ASSOCIATION, INC. AN D THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CHINSEGUT HILL
Location:22495 Chinsegut Hill Road
County: Hernando
City: Brooksville
Description: In 1842, South Carolinian Bird M. Pearson staked a claim on 5,000 acres and called it Tiger Tail Hill, one of the few surviving plantations in Florida and the one of the oldest houses in Hernando County. Pearson built the manor house’s east wing in 1847 and later residents expanded it, beginning in 1852. He raised citrus, cattle, and sugarcane. In 1904 Chicago residents Raymond (1873-1954) and Margaret Drier (1868-1945) Robins purchased the property and named it Chinsegut Hill, an Inuit word meaning a place where lost things are found. The estate served as a retreat from the couple’s tireless activism on behalf of workers, women, and the poor. Guests entertained here included Thomas Edison, Senator and Mrs. Claude Pepper, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, J.C. Penney and Helen Keller. During the Great Depression, the Robinses suffered severe losses and donated Chinsegut to the federal government, collaborating with the Department of Agriculture on an experimental station to benefit Florida farmers. In return, the couple could live there until their deaths. New Deal workers improved the property and built two cabins in 1933. In 1958, the University of South Florida acquired the property for use as a conference center.
Sponsors: THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FORT KING ROAD
Location:along S.R. 50. (See Comments)
County: Hernando
City: Ridge Manor
Description: Shortly after Florida became a U.S. Territory, Fort Brooke was constructed at the mouth of the Hillsborough River and Fort King was established near the present site of Ocala. In 1825, work was begun by the federal government on an overland route connecting those fortifications. This "Military Road" was improved and soon was known as the "Fort King Road." It was an important transportation and communication link during the Second Seminole War (1835-42), a conflict over the removal of Indians from Florida. This route remained a vital mail and wagon road during the 19th century development of central Florida. Presently, U.S. Highway 301 crosses the course of one of the oldest major roads in Florida, the Fort King Road.
Sponsors: sponsored by Hernando County historical commission in cooperation with department of state
HERNANDO COUNTY
Location:U.S. 41 at Courthouse in Brooksville.
County: Hernando
City: Brooksville
Description: Hernando County originally embraced Hernando, Pasco, and Citrus counties. It was created by the Territorial Legislature in 1843 and named for Hernando DeSoto. In 1844, its name was changed to Benton County in honor of Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, but his moderation during the Missouri Compromise caused extremists in the legislature to change the name back to Hernando. DeSoto, now Brooksville, was the first county seat. The present boundaries of the county were set in 1887.

Highlands

FORT BASINGER
Location:U.S. 98,west side of Kissimmee River Bridge.
County: Highlands
City: Fort Basinger
Description: Col. Zachary Taylor had Fort Basinger built in 1837, during the Seminole Wars, on the Kissimmee River 17 miles above its mouth. It was a small stockade which served as a temporary fort and supply station on the line of forts extending from Tampa to Lake Okeechobee. Named for Lt. William E. Basinger of the 2nd Artillery, who was killed in Dade's Massacre, the fort was abandoned at the end of the Indian wars.
ARCHIBOLD BIOLOGICAL STATION AT RED HILL
Location:123 Main Dr. near Archibold Rd.
County: Highlands
City: Venus
Description: These buildings were designed and built during 1930-1935 by Alexander Blair for the Red Hill Estate of John A. Roebling II, son of Washington A. Roebling, who built the Brooklyn Bridge. The industrial vernacular buildings (structures meant to house industrial activities) were constructed of poured concrete to withstand hurricanes and the humid sub-tropical conditions. The largest building, with its distinctive saw-tooth roof, features an original seven-unit storehouse and attached two-story residence. Other buildings include the garage, generator building, and the deep-well pump house. In 1941, Roebling donated the buildings and surrounding estate to Richard Archbold (1907-1976), a famous aviator, explorer and patron of science. Here he founded Archbold Biological Station, a world-renowned facility dedicated to ecological research and conservation. The Roebling buildings were converted to laboratories and offices. The Station manages a 9,000-acre preserve of international conservation importance, and harboring the Florida scrub, a globally threatened ecosystem. Archbold Biological Station at Red Hill was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007, for its historical significance in architecture, science, and conservation.
Sponsors: The Archibold Biological Station and the Florida Department of State

Hillsborough

OLD PEOPLES HOME
Location:1203 E. 22nd Ave Tampa, FL
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: Opened in 1924, The Old People’s Home was the largest publicly supported home for the elderly in Tampa and represented a major civic achievement. An all-woman Board of Managers founded the Home and the original by-laws stated that men could serve only as Trustees or Advisors. Designed and built by architect, A.H. Johnson (1857-1925), it was built on land donated by Peter O. Knight. The building is masonry vernacular with elements of the Colonial Revival style on its main façade. The Tampa Tribune stated: “The building contains, besides the many bedrooms, four sun parlors, dining room, reception room and kitchen on the first floor, two large airy wards, an infirmary and baths on the second floor and a laundry in the basement. It is equipped with elevators and refrigerating plant, faucets of ice water in the upstairs halls and infirmary, and running water in every bedroom.” The site includes Sarah Knight Park, named for Knight’s mother, and features a canopy of oak trees, gazebos, picnic benches and a shuffleboard court. The Old People’s Home continues to operate as a non-profit agency providing a caring home environment for elderly Tampa residents. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000.
Sponsors: THE HOME ASSOCIATION, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
W.T. EDWARDS HOSPITAL COMPLEX
Location:4014 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd.
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: The W.T. Edwards Hospital, erected in 1952, was one of three tuberculosis (TB) hospitals built in Florida after World War II, and was funded by a state cigarette tax and federal monies. The other hospitals were in Tallahassee and Lantana. The complex included 10 buildings, six of which were particularly significant: the hospital, laboratory, employee housing, laundry and heating plant, nurses’ quarters, and state medical director’s residence. The hospital, designed by Charles Kuhn, was a significant example of the International Style popular in the post-war years. It was a long, narrow, concrete building with many windows, designed to provide interior air circulation and sunlight. The buildings were steam heated, and air conditioned except in the patients’ rooms. At the time, air conditioning was thought to be unhealthy for TB patients. The Tampa hospital was the only facility in the state to treat children with TB and to be equipped to admit patients under Florida’s compulsory isolation law, which provided that, for public safety, those who refused treatment due to religious beliefs could be confined and treated against their will. With the decline in the occurrence of TB, the hospital closed in 1974.
Sponsors: HILLSBOROUGH COMMUNITY COLLEGE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
IL CIMITERO DELL’UNIONE ITALIANA
Location:26th St. & 23rd Ave.
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: L’Unione Italiana, founded in 1894 in Ybor City, institutionalized the Italian funeral in Tampa when in 1896 it purchased this property from the prominent African-American Armwood family and dedicated it as a cemetery. The first Italians were buried here in 1893. Also buried here is Blanche Armwood (1890-1939), a nationally known educator. The Italian cemetery includes a parcel belonging to the Societa de Mutuo Soccorso (Mutual Aid Society). Ceramic photographs on grave markers and tombstones inscribed in Sicilian and Italian pay homage to Sicily, where the stonecutters perfected their craft in granite and marble. A cherished set of rituals governed the Italian funeral. Hundreds of people walked in a cortege, often pausing for a final tribute in front of the deceased’s house and the Italian Club where flags of Italy and the United States stood at half mast. A brass band led them to the cemetery followed by family and paesani (countrymen). This ritual celebrated the decedent’s service to the community. In the early years, each club member contributed one dollar to the bereaved family. Later, the club established a $300 survivor benefit.
Sponsors: THE ITALIAN CLUB CEMETERY, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
TAMPA UNION STATION
Location:601 Nebraska
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: By 1902, the Seaboard Air Line [SAL] was formed and the Atlantic Coast Line [ACL] had taken over the rail system of Henry B. Plant. Tampa Union Station (TUS), built in 1912, was designed by architect J.F. Leitner in Italian Renaissance style, and served both railroads. The companies contributed $250,000 to build the station, which was managed by the Tampa Union Station Company. During the Depression, America’s passenger railroad earnings fell by half. Higher revenues during World War II were offset by the costs of overworking their stock to meet war needs. To increase profits, they reinvested in sleeker, more modern rolling stock, resulting in the Streamliner Era. Notable trains that served TUS then included the ACL’s West Coast Champion, South Wind, the Southland and the SAL’s Silver Meteor, Silver Star and Sunland. In 1971, Amtrak began operating the nation s passenger rail services and today runs trains out of Tampa Union Station. In 1991, the non-profit Tampa Union Station Preservation & Redevelopment, Inc. purchased the 1.97-acre terminal and baggage building, renovating in it 1998. Ownership was transferred to the City of Tampa in 1999. The station is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: TAMPA UNION STATION PRESERVATION & REDEVELOPMENT, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CIRCULO CUBANO (CUBAN CLUB)
Location:2010 Avenida Republica de Cuba
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: Late 19th and early 20th century Cuban immigration to the United States was impressive for the craft talents brought to the country. Along with their Spanish counterparts, skilled Cuban cigar makers made Tampa’s hand-rolled cigars world famous. As early as 1899 Cuban immigrants formed recreational societies with varying degrees of success, and in 1902, Cuban workers founded El Circulo Cubano as a mutual aid society to bind all Cuban residents of Tampa into a fraternal group, to offer assistance and help to the sick. When fire destroyed the first clubhouse in 1916, members immediately initiated plans for its replacement. The present four-story, yellow brick building with Neo-Classical design elements sits on the original site at 14th Street and 10th Avenue. Constructed in 1917, the building contained a theater, pharmacy, library, ballroom, and cantina. Imported tile, stained glass windows and elaborately carved scraffito spandrels decorated the structure. The ballroom ceiling displayed elaborate murals. The clubhouse provided an elegant gathering place for members and served as a unifying force in the Cuban community. The National Register of Historic Places listed El Circulo Cubano in 1972.
Sponsors: HISTORIC TAMPA/HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY PRESERVATION BOARD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CENTRO ESPANOL De TAMPA
Location:E. 7th Avenue in plaza at N 16th St.
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: Chartered on September 7, 1891, El Centro Espanol was the first Latin club organized in Ybor City. As a mutual aid society, it provided early Spanish immigrants with a framework by which they maintained their identity and culture while supplying social privileges and death and injury benefits. Financed by stock pledges of $10 each by the original 186 Charter Members, the society opened the first club building in June 1892 on land purchased by Ignacio Haya at 16th Street and 7the Avenue. The membership soon outgrew the original building. By 1909 club officers embarked on a building campaign to build two new clubhouses, one in Ybor City and one to accommodate members in West Tampa. Completed in 1912, El Centro Espanol de Tampa sits on the site of the original structure on 7th Avenue. The long two-story rectangular building houses a cantina and ballroom at its south end separated by a foyer and stair hall from the theater at its north end. The parapet of the stage house steps above the roof line of the main building at the north end of the site. The red brick edifice reflects the French Renaissance Revival style with Moorish and Spanish influence. In 1988 the Department of the Interior designated El Centro Espanol de Tampa a National Historic Landmark.
Sponsors: HISTORIC TAMPA/HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY PRESERVATION BOARD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GERMAN-AMERICAN CLUB
Location:2106 Nebraska Avenue
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: Organized in 1901, the German-American Club was one of the few non-Latin ethnic clubs in Tampa. Club members laid the cornerstone for a building on the northeast corner of Nebraska Avenue and 11th Street on February 23, 1908, followed by a grand opening on January 1, 1909. Fine classical details and proportions marked the three-story building, with concrete bock molded to appear as tooled stone masonry. With a stage for speakers or theatrical productions, a swimming pool and a bowling alley, the building served Tampa’s German and Jewish population until its sale in 1919. From 1919 to 1924, it housed Tampa’s Labor Temple Association. The Young Men’s Hebrew Association bought the building in 1924 and remained until 1944. Focusing on education and recreation for Tampa’s Jewish community, the association held gym, art, and music classes, and outdoor sports and leisure activities. Various groups including an insurance company and the Hispanic organization, Los Caballeros de la Luz, occupied the building after 1944.
Sponsors: TAMPA/HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY PRESERVATION BOARD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARATMENT OF STATE
L'UNIONE ITALIANA (ITALIAN CLUB)
Location:1731 7th Avenue
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: The nucleus of Tampa’s Italian colony arrived from New Orleans and Sicily in 1887. Founded in 1894, the primary purpose of L’Unione Italiana was to promote social and fraternal exchange among its members, and to provide medical benefits and burial expenses for its members. Health care benefits provided by Ybor City’s social clubs represent early examples of America’s health maintenance organizations and one of the oldest examples of cooperative medicine in the country. L’Unione Italiana is considered the forerunner of more than 1,400 Italian mutual aid societies founded in the United States. In 1914 fire destroyed the first club house built on the northwest corner of Seventh Avenue and Eighteenth Street. By 1918 the Society built the present three-story Neoclassical building across 7th Avenue from the original site at a cost of $80,000. The structure embraces the Italo-Greco tradition embodied in the ancient Greek temples found in the province of Agrigento, Sicily. Its theatre, ballroom, library and cantina were always beehives of activity. It stands today as a source of pride and commitment to early Italian immigrants.
Sponsors: HISTORIC TAMPA/HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY PRESERVATION BOARD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
EL CENTRO ASTURIANO DE TAMPA
Location:1913 Nebraska Avenue
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: Spanish immigrants from the province of Asturias formed the Centro Asturiano de Tampa in 1902 as a mutual aid society dedicated to meeting the recreational, social and medical needs of its members. In an effort to broaden the concept of cooperative medicine, the club operated a hospital, El Sanatorio del Centro Asturiano, until its closing in 1988. The society built the present three-story yellow brick and stone building on the corner of Palm and Nebraska Avenues in 1914 after a fire destroyed the original club house building. Designed in the Neo-Classical style, the building features stylized classical columns and a sweeping stone staircase leading to the main entrance. Major interior spaces include a grand theater, ballroom, and cantina with a 50-foot onyx bar. With a membership open to all Latins, El Centro Asturiano quickly became the center of Spanish theater and opera hosting some of the finest opera performers in the nation. The National Register of Historic Places listed the Centro Asturiano building in 1974.
Sponsors: HISTORIC TAMPA/HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY PRESERVATION BOARD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SOCIEDAD LA UNION MARTI-MACEO
Location:1226 7th Avenue
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: Afro-Cuban cigar makers founded this society in 1900 as Los Libres Pensadores de Marti y Maceo. Founders had been members of El Club Nacional Cubano, an organization of Black and White Cubans involved in Cuban independence. Afro-Cubans were forced to withdraw in response to racial segregation. Ruperto Pedroso, well-known Afro-Cuban patriot, was among the 23 original founders. Meetings of the organization began in the parlor of Pedroso’s boardinghouse at 13th Street and 8th Avenue (present site of Marti Park). In 1904, medical benefits were added when the club merged with La Union, resulting in the new name, La Union Marti-Maceo. In 1909, members completed construction of a two-story club house at 11th Street and 6th Avenue. With an average membership of about 300, the club offered full medical benefits and a stipend for sick members, as well as social, cultural and educational activities. During the depression of the 1930s, many Afro-Cubans left Tampa. Membership declined and benefits were reduced, but the club continued in operation. In 1965, Urban Renewal demolished the original building, and the members moved to the present location at 7th Avenue and 13th Street. By the late 1960s, there were few members left and it appeared that the organization would soon cease to exist. However, in the early 1970s, a large number of people who had left Ybor City as children during the depression returned as retirees. The size increased to over 100 members, reviving the organization.
Sponsors: HISTORIC TAMPA/HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY PRESERVATION BOARD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
YBOR CITY HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:1200 Block of E. 7th Ave
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: Vicente Martinez-Ybor, a wealthy Spanish Cigar manufacturer from New York and Key West, began development of Ybor City in 1885. On April 12,1886, 500 Cuban cigar makers boarded the sidewheeler Hutchinson in Key West and sailed to Tampa. Over 3,000 workers arrived by the end of 1886. Cigar factories and home construction flourished and business thrived. Ybor City became known as the "Cigar Capital of the World". The Ybor City Historic District includes more than 1,300 buildings, nearly a thousand of which are Historic. The buildings include the largest collection of cigar factories and related industrial structures in the United States; a major collection of commercial and commercial-residential structures; a group of ethnic clubhouses; and historic worker housing, many structures, built between 1886 and World War 1, display Spanish and Cuban influences, such as wrought-iron balconies, even though many architects in the area were "Anglos". The Ybor City Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. For its importance in the Nation's Immigration Movement. The National Park Service declared Ybor City a National Historic Landmark District in 1990.
Sponsors: Sponsored by City Of Tampa Ybor City Development Corporation and Florida Department of State, Sandra B. Wortham, Secretary Of State.
TAMPA AS PORT OF EMBARKATION FOR SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Location:Corner of West Shore Boulevard and Interbay Boulev
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: From April to June, 1898, Tampa served as port of embarkation for U.S. Troops on their way to Cuba. Some 30,000 troops arrived in Tampa and 16,000 embarked from Port Tampa on June 7. The Tampa Bay Hotel was headquarters for the force's leaders including General Miles and Shafter and Colonel "Teddy" Roosevelt. The city also swarmed with visiting civilians including author Richard Harding Davis and Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross.
THE FOUNDING OF THE CIGAR INDUSTRY IN TAMPA
Location:Corner of 9th Avenue and 14th Street, Ybor City.
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: In 1886 two cigar factories were completed at Tampa signaling the founding of the industry in the area. Pioneer manufacturer was Vincente Martinez Ybor, a native of Spain, who had made cigars at Havana and Key West. Ybor's move to Tampa was prompted by better transportation and favorable terms offered by Tampa's Board of Trade. Due to the efforts of Ybor and his associates, Tampa became a world tobacco manufacturing center.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with Greater Tampa Chamber of Commerce
TAMPA BAY HOTEL
Location:West Kennedy Boulevard, University of Tampa Campus
County: Hillsborough
City: Tampa
Description: Henry B. Plant built this ornate Moorish structure at a cost of $3 million. Opened in 1891, it became the social and cultural center of early Tampa. During the Spanish American War it was headquarters for troops going to Cuba and house such visitors as Col. Theodore Roosevelt, Clara Barton, Richard Harding Davis and Gen. Nelson Miles. Purchased by the City of Tampa in 1905, it has served as the main building of the University of Tampa since 1933.
RUSKIN COLLEGE PRESIDENT'S HOME
Location:S.R. 674 and U.S. 41
County: Hillsborough
City: Ruskin
Description: Ruskin College opened in 1912 as a coeducational industrial and liberal arts college. It was located on part of a large tract of land purchased by Dr. George McA. Miller beginning in 1907 for the purpose of establishing a cooperative college and a planned community modelled on the philosphy of British social thinker, John Ruskin. Ruskin believed in making education abailable for everyone. Dr. Miller had previously established two other Ruskinian colleges in the mid-West and was devoted to the educational principle of combining intellectual endeavors with manual labor. His wife, Adeline Dickman Miller, designed the Swiss chalet style structure located near this marker. It was constructed in 1914 and was the only one of Ruskin College's original buildings to survive a fire in 1919. By that time the cooperative college had declined due to loss of students during World War I. In 1940, the Miller House was deeded by that family to the Ruskin Woman's Club. This structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. It remains a symbol of the utopian origins of the community of Ruskin.
Sponsors: sponsored by the Ruskin woman's club in cooperation with department of state

Holmes

HOLMES COUNTY
Location:Virginia and Oklahoma Streets, on courthouse groun
County: Holmes
City: Bonifay
Description: Holmes County, noted for agriculture and timber, was created in 1848. The first county seat was at Hewett's Bluff, later known as Bear Pen. Cerro Gordo and Westville also served as county seat. Bonifay, the present site, was selected in 1905. Controversy surrounds the county's name. One claim credits a North Carolinian name Holmes who settled in the area around 1830. Another contends it was named for an Indian chief who had been given the English name of Holmes.
KEITH CABIN
Location:1320 C.R. 179
County: Holmes
City: Pittman
Description: In 1880, William Thomas Keith homesteaded ten acres upon which this house stands. In 1886 he filed a homestead entry with the U. S. Public Land Office and in the fall of that year, built this cabin that became home for himself, his wife, mother, and eight children. It became the focus of a cotton and tobacco farm that eventually grew to more than 190 acres. By 1893, improvements included a plaza, smokehouse, corn crib, enclosed shed rooms, and a well. The Keith Cabin was originally built as a one room, Louisiana Roof style split log structure with a wraparound porch, a fireplace, and a separate kitchen. This style of architecture is a rare form of 19th century construction found only in the Gulf States from east Texas to South Georgia. It is characterized by a front and rear porch formed by long logs that extend beyond the main block of the house at each gable end to support the broad roof overhangs. Keith served with the Confederate Army and was an accomplished farmer, lumberjack, mail carrier, store merchant, and medical practitioner. His life and home are excellent examples of the rural lifestyle of early Holmes County and Northwest Florida. The Keith Cabin is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: THE HOLMES COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETYAND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Indian River

BIRTHPLACE FOR EQUAL SUFFRAGE FOR WOMEN IN FLORIDA
Location:On Broadway, block #99; lots 12-14
County: Indian River
City: Fellsmere
Description: “The population of Fellsmere is of a high type of intelligence, with lofty ideals and wise execution. Progressive in all things, perhaps no better indication of the fact may be given than the unanimous vote of the town granting unrestricted suffrage to women.” Fellsmere Tribune, March 8, 1916. At a February 1915 meeting at the Dixie Theater, Fellsmere citizens accepted the articles of incorporation unanimously. The charter included a unique proposal that women be granted full and equal privilege for suffrage in municipal elections. Local bills seldom received close scrutiny from legislators, and the equal suffrage provision went unnoticed. In signing the act that created the town of Fellsmere, Governor Park Trammell, in effect, gave women the right to vote in its municipal elections. In the June 19, 1915 city election, Mrs. Zena M. Dreier was the first woman to cast a ballot in Fellsmere, in all of Florida, and south of the Mason-Dixon Line. The town residents took much pride in this unique woman’s right, and urged neighboring municipalities to follow the ‘Fellsmere Way’ to equal suffrage. In 1919, a U.S. Constitutional amendment granted suffrage to women. But history will note that Fellsmere led the way.
Sponsors: THE NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR WOMEN--INDIAN RIVER AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
VETERANS MEMORIAL ISLAND SANCTUARY
Location:Near Riverside Park
County: Indian River
City: Vero Beach
Description: River travel was vital to the early human activity of Florida and the Indian River area. In the early 1900s, efforts began to dredge the Indian River. By the 1930s, the U.S. Corps of Engineers routinely maintained this channel called the Intracoastal Waterway. After World War II the channel was once again slated for dredging and Alex MacWilliam, Sr., a veteran and member of the Florida Legislature, proposed a special project and persuaded the federal government to realign the existing Vero Beach channel to make way for a modern drawbridge (the first Merrill P. Barber Bridge) and to create a memorial island with the surplus dredging material. Lest We Forget are the words used in the dedication of this island on May 3, 1964. This one man and hundreds of citizens in Indian River County did not forget and 17 years later created Veterans Memorial Island Sanctuary. The Vero Beach Beautification Society and the Garden Club coordinated the beautification of the property. Today the Stars and Stripes wave proudly over this Island Sanctuary which can be seen from the deep channel of the Intracoastal Waterway and the two modern bridges now spanning the Indian River.
Sponsors: THE INDIAN RIVER COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY, THE VETERANS MEMORIAL ISLAND SANCTUARY ADVISORY COMMITTEE,AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
U.S. NAVAL STATION, VERO BEACH WORLD WAR II
Location:Vero Beach Municipal Airport
County: Indian River
City: Vero Beach
Description: Site of the Main Hanger and Control Tower of the Vero Beach Naval Air Station (NAS) that was commissioned on 24 November 1942 to provide Navy and Marine flight training base for over 2700 men 300 WAVES and women Marines. The previously city-owned airport expanded from 100 acres to 2500 acres and contained self-supporting facilities for a population equal to the size of Vero Beach. The purpose of the NAS was constantly revised from originally training dive-bomber pilots to daytime pilots and ultimately to nighttime fighter pilots. Ingenuity of the maintenance crews was required to keep planes operational due to the shortage of repair parts. Almost 200 men received training on the Brewster SB2A Buccaneer and 1400 men on the Grumman F4F Wildcat, F6F Hellcat, F7F Tigercat. Although extensive safety procedures were established, records show over 100 lives were lost in flight training accidents. Training diminished after VJ Day (14 August 1945), but as of 2 September 1945, records show 237,102 hours of flight time had been provided since the first flight in December 1942. The Vero Beach NAS was placed in caretaker status in June 1946 and deeded back to the city.
Sponsors: the Indian River County Historical Society, the City of Vero Beach and the Florida Department of State
McKEE JUNGLE GARDENS
Location:350 U.S. 1
County: Indian River
City: Vero Beach
Description: This is the original site of McKee Jungle Gardens, one of Florida's earliest tourist attractions. McKee Gardens was founded in 1932 by Vero Beach pioneer Waldo Sexton and Cleveland industrialist Arthur G. McKee. They engaged William Lyman Phillips, a landscape architect who designed Fairchild Tropical Gardens and Bok Tower Gardens, to enhance and develop the 80 acres of dense tropical vegetation. The gardens contained a collection of native and imported tropical plants, an aviary, resident monkeys, and an alligator named "Ole Mac." One of the most impressive components of Phillips' design was the magnificent Cathedral of Palms, a colossal stand of more than 300 royal palms planted in precise rows. At its height of popularity the garden attracted 100,000 visitors annually, but closed in 1976, unable to compete with the allure of new theme parks nearby. Most of the acreage became a golf course and condominiums. The remaining 18 acres, now known as McKee Botanical Garden, were saved from destruction by the Indian River Land Trust and the citizens of Indian River County, and serves as an example of environmental stewardship and horticultural inspiration. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places-January 1998
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Indian River Land Trust Indian River County Historical Society Indian River County Tourist Development Council and The Florida Department of State
FELLSMERE GRADE
Location:Co. Rd. 507, near road to Goodwin Wildlife Mangement Area, Fellsmere Grade
County: Indian River
City: Fellsmere
Description: Fellsmere, the northernmost town in St. Lucie County in 1919, had a population of over 800 people. The county built the first public road to cross the St. Johns River marsh in St. Lucie County (now Indian River County). Promote as the Fellsmere-Tampa cross state road, this road allowed travel between the interior and the coast. From 1919 until the 1940's, this road served as an important transportation route from Fellsmere, across the river to Kenansville, the sawmill at Holopaw, and the cattle markets of Kissimmee, but it never reached Tampa. During these decades it became a state road (SSR 170) and provided a corridor to Central Florida and a recreational access to the St. Johns River marshes. The town of Fellsmere was dependent on the sportsmen attracted to these resources. In the late 1940's the bridges burned across the river and the Fellsmere Grade ended in the marsh six miles from this site. Today this road serves the public as a recreational access.
Sponsors: THE ST. JOHNS RIVER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SEBASTIAN
Location:U.S. 1 at Sebastian Inlet
County: Indian River
City: Sebastian
Description: Settled in the 1870's, Sebastian became an important trading and fishing center during the era of the river steamers. To improve commerce and fishing, pioneers in 1886 attempted unsuccessfully to link the ocean with the river via the Sebastian Inlet. A channel was successfully cut in 1895, but a storm filled the inlet with sand shortly afterwards. In 1921, it was reopened only to be closed again by erosion. Jetties were constructed later to protect the channel permanently.
SITE OF FORT VINTON
Location:S.R. 60 and S.R. 609 intersection, near I95 west o
County: Indian River
City: Vero Beach
Description: A few miles southwest of this marker is the site of Fort Vinton. As white settlers moved into Florida, demands increased for the removal of the Seminole Indians to a western reservation. The Seminoles did not wish to leave, and in 1835 the conflict known as the Second Seminole war began. The 1838-39 campaign of that war was planned with the major objective of driving Indians away from settled areas and into the southern part of Florida. New posts were to be built where needed and others, such as Fort Pierce, were to be reoccupied. Supply outposts were needed for field campaigns, and early in April, 1839, such a post, called Fort or Post No. 2, was constructed about twenty miles northwest of Fort Pierce. This fortification was abandoned by or before 1842, when hostilities ended. Early in 1850, when another concerted effort to force the remnants of the Seminoles to emigrate got underway, it was reactivated as Fort Vinton. The post was named for Captain John R. Vinton, who had served in the area during the earlier conflict and had died in the Mexican War. Fort Vinton, an outpost of Fort Capron at Indian River Inlet, was soon abandoned (May, 1850) and is not known to have played a role in the hostilities of the later 1850's.
Sponsors: sponsored by treasure coast chapter national society daughters of the american revolution in cooperation with department of state
CITY OF VERO BEACH
Location:Corner of 21st Street and 16th Ave
County: Indian River
City: Vero Beach
Description: The pattern of community development which occurred in Vero Beach provides insight into some important aspects of Florida's history. Although the coastal waters in the region attracted fishermen, settlement of this area did not occur until the 1880's. during that decade, the problem of lack of transportation which had deterred settlers was solved by railroad construction. In 1891, a post office named Vero was established at the home of Henry Gifford who had settled on the site in 1888. When the railroad was extended south to Lake Worth in 1894, a depot was built at Vero. With the railroad came tourism and a growing interest in the area. At that time, large scale drainage of swamp land such as that which surrounded Vero was being undertaken in Florida. An example of the way in which investors took advantage of the newly recognized potential of swampy areas may be found in the creation of the Indian River Farms Company. In 1909, Herman T. Zeuch of Davenport, Iowa visited the Vero area. He saw land that could be drained and sold to citrus farmers and cattle raisers. A corporation, the Indian River Farms Company, was chartered in 1912 with stockholders who were chiefly residents of Zeuch's home town. In 1913, the town of Vero was platted at the Company's direction. In 1915, the Vero Woman's Club was founded, an act which signified the vitality of the new community. A clubhouse, located near this marker, was built the next year on land donated by the Indian River Farms Company. The planned drainage program was completed in 1917. In that year, maintenance and extension of the drainage area was given over to the State of Florida. The name of the community was changed to Vero Beach in 1925, when the town became the county seat of newly created IndianRriver County. The Indian River Farms company was dissolved in 1936. Vero Beach has remained the center of this productive citrus growing region.
Sponsors: Sponsored by vero beach woman's club in cooperation with department of state
SITE OF SURVIVORS' AND SALVAGERS' CAMP - THE 1715 FLEET
Location:south of Sebastin Inlet State Recreation Area on A
County: Indian River
City: Orchid Island
Description: Late in July, 1715, a hurricane destroyed a fleet of eleven or possibly twelve homeward bound merchant ships carrying cargoes of gold and silver coinage and other valuable items from the American colonies to Spain. About 1500 men, women, and children who survived the disaster and reached the shore made their camp along the barrier island near the place where the fleet's flagship had sunk. Governor General Corcoles sent a relief party composed chiefly of Indian auxiliaries from St. Augustine to provide subsistence for the survivors. These auxiliaries also gave protection and aid to the salvagers who used the campsite while working to recover the valuable cargo from the sunken vessels. Archaeological work at the site revealed that the salvagers seem to have erected some temporary structuresfor use as storehouses for the recovered gold and silver. While the salvage operation was in process, Henry Jennings, an English pirate, sailed to the site, drove off the guards and seized a large quantity of the recovered coins which he carried away to Port Royal, Jamaica. But the great majority of the treasure was safely regained and moved to Havana by the Spanish salvagers.
Sponsors: Sponsored by treasure coast chapter nsdar in cooperation with department of state
RIOMAR CLUBHOUSE - SAINT EDWARDS SCHOOL
Location:2225 Club Drive
County: Indian River
City: Vero Beach
Description: The Riomar Club chose this site for its clubhouse which was completed and opened in 1930. Ladies were attired in flowing formal gowns and the men in strikingly-starched white linen suits. A center for social activities for the area, the club drew many permanent residents and winter visitors to Vero Beach. The building is a Spanish-design clubhouse reminiscent of the style of Palm Beach. The exterior is stucco with interior pecky cypress beams. Purchased in 1965 for the purpose of starting an independent school, affiliated with the Episcopal Church, Saint Edward's School opened with 33 students in Grades 5-8. In 1972, the Upper School campus was opened on A-1-A south of here, and the Riomar building continued to house Grades Kindergarten through Grade 6, adding Pre-Kindergarten in 1983. The building was renovated in 1988 with the exterior maintaining the original character. On November 3, 1988, Bishop William Folwell dedicated the newly renovated building, and with his pastoral staff he marked the threshold with the sign of the cross and gave a blessing.
Sponsors: Saint Edward's School in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
THE FELLSMERE RAILROAD
Location:South Carolina Ave and N. Broadway St.
County: Indian River
City: Fellsmere
Description: The standard-gauge Fellsmere Railroad was completed in 1910 with 60 lb. rail to replace the old Sebastian & Cincinnatus narrow-gauge railroad built between Sebastian and Fellsmere. The Fellsmere Farms Company used the 10 mile long railroad from September 1910 until May 1, 1911 for carrying logs to the Florida East Coast Railway in Sebastian and for transporting supplies, materials, equipment, and heavy machinery used for excavating drainage canals to Fellsmere. The railroad officially opened to the public on May 1, 1911, and ran four passenger trains daily with only two on Sunday, to and from Sebastian and Fellsmere. On January 23, 1913 the 12’ x 32’ Fellsmere Depot was opened for service, with Edward Nelson Fell, the founder of Fellsmere, purchasing the first ticket. The depot was built on the South side of the mainline north of the intersection of Broadway and South Carolina Ave. By April 1915, the railroad was extended another 6 miles west of Fellsmere to Broadmoor (a now non-existent town), In June 2, 1924 the Trans-Florida Central railroad (dubbed the “Dinky Line”) took over railroad operations. On November 30, 1952, the railroad officially ceased operations after 42 years of service.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Indian River Historical Society, The Fellsmere Community Redevelopment Agency, and The Florida Department of State.
THE FELLSMERE PUBLIC SCHOOL
Location:22 S Orange St
County: Indian River
City: Fellsmere
Description: The Fellsmere Public School, the first masonry school building in what is now Indian River County, was constructed during 1915 and 1916 at 22 South Orange Street. The 22,680 square foot, two-story school with a raised basement was designated by Frederick Homer Trimble, a former Methodist missionary architect who had worked in Fuzhou, China. Trimble, who began his architectural career in the United State in 1915 with the Fellsmere School, designed several building in Fellsmere and Vero Beach, and over 150 buildings in South Florida. Trimble also designed the first buildings at Florida Southern College in Lakeland. The bid to construct the school was awarded to Arthur F. Sanders, a Fellsmere contractor, on May 4, 1915 by the St. Lucie County School Board. Trimble donated the plans for the Fellsmere school but was paid $100 per month to oversee its construction. The school's construction was delayed for several months before funding was obtained from the sale of bonds. By September 1915 Sanders' crews had constructed the Fellsmere Short Line Railroad from the Fellsmere Farms Railroad north of South Carolina Avenue down to the center of Cypress Street to the school site. A special railcar build tin Palatka was used to haul materials to the school on 4x4 heart-of-pine rails spiked to 2x8 crossties. Work began on the school's foundation in October 1915, and was completed in mid-November 1915. On January 31, 1916, the school's cornerstone was laid under the direction of the Grand Masonic Lodge. The Fellsmere, Public School was completed the same year at a cost of $40,000. The school's doors opened to 136 students on October 2, 1916. Principal Anderson A. Price, Assistant Principal Ina C. Elder, and five women teachers, Miss Jesse M. Hunter (the first teacher in Fellsmere, 1912), Miss Neva M. Hunter, Mrs. A.A. (Lula) Price, Miss Ethel Jones, and Miss Agnes Helseth provided instruction for grades 1-12. The Fellsmere School is the oldest public school building in Indian River County, and remained active as a school until 1964. It was later used as the Fellsmere City Hall and Police Station. It is the birthplace of the annual Fellsmere Frogleg Festival. In 2010, the City of Fellsmere restored the school for use as a Cit Hall/Government Center/Boys and Girls Club at a cost of $3.060,000. On October 19, 2010, the Fellsmere Public School building was once again re-opened to the public.
Sponsors: City of Fellsmere, Indian River County Historical Society and the Florida Department of State
THE MARIAN FELL LIBRARY
Location:65 North Cypress Street
County: Indian River
City: Fellsmere
Description: The Merian Fell Library, the oldest library in Indian River County, opened its doors to the public on May 1, 1915 at 63 North Cypress Street, Fellsmere, Florida. Construction of the library was made possible by Marian Fell, daughter of Edward Nelson Fell (the founder of Fellsmere) through royalties she received from translating literary works of Russian author and playwright Ashton Chekov. Born in 1886, Marian Fell was educated in private schools in the United States, Paris, and Russia. Between 1912 and 1916, Saribner's published five of Marian Fell's translations, some of the first Russian literature to appear in English. The Fell family is believed to have resided directly across the street from the library, at 88 Cypress Street, from 1915 to 1917. North of the library were two grass tennis courts belonging to the Fellsmere Tennis Association, where the 1916 Fell Cup was held. The Fell Library is typical of many architecturally modest library buildings constructed in small Florida towns during the early twentieth century, and has been used for readings, recitals, meetings, social events, and children's programs since it opened. The library is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: Indian River Country Historical Society The Mary Carter Memorial Fund The Fellsmere Community Redevelopment Agency and the Florida Department of State

Jackson

GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON IN FLORIDA - 1818
Location:Florida Caverns State Park, near boat/canoe launch
County: Jackson
City: Marianna
Description: American desire for the acquisition of Florida grew after 1800 as U.S. frontiers expanded. Border incidents provided motivation for General Andrew Jackson's 1818 expedition against Florida's Seminole Indians. Jackson's army destroyed Indian stronghold in the Apalachee Region. On May 11, 1818, during a 12 day march from Fort Gadsden on the lower Apalachicola River to the Escambia River, Jackson crossed the Chipola River's Natural Bridge near here. Pensacola surrendered to Jackson later that month. This foray into Spanish territory created serious repercussions at home and abroad but paved the way for U.S. acquisition of Florida from Spain.
Sponsors: sponsored by the florida state society, united states daughters of 1812, through the courtesy of mrs. esther a. poppell, colonel william carroll lee chapter, in cooperation with the departmetn of state
JACKSON COUNTY
Location:U.S. 90, on Courthouse grounds.
County: Jackson
City: Marianna
Description: On August 12, 1822, the year after the United States received possession of the Floridas, an Act of the Territorial Legislative Council divided West Florida into two counties - Jackson and Escambia. At that time, Jackson County included all territory between the Choctawhatchee and Suwannee Rivers, and area which now encompasses land in seventeen North Florida Counties. Jackson County is named in honor of Andrew Jackson, Governor of the Territories of East and West Florida. The county seat is Marianna, incorporated November 5, 1828.
Sponsors: Jackson County Historical Commission in Cooperation with Department of State
SYLVANIA PLANTATION
Location:on C.R.164, 4.2 miles E. of its intersection with
County: Jackson
City: Marianna
Description: Near this site stood "Sylvania", the plantation home of John Milton, Florida's Civil War governor, who settled in Jackson County in 1845. Milton's holdings consisted of 2,600 acres, a manor house, a school and family chapel, barns, blacksmith shop, and quarters for 50 slaves. Chief crops were cotton and corn. Here Gov. Milton, exhausted by his labors for the Confederate cause, took his life at the end of the war.
BATTLE OF MARIANNA
Location:U.S.90(E. Lafayette) & S.R.167(S. Jefferson) at Co
County: Jackson
City: Marianna
Description: On September 27, 1864, Gen Asboth's force of 700 Federal calvary from Pensacola arrived in the Marianna area to forage and secure Negro recruits. Confederate forces of a few hundred home guardsmen barricaded the streets of Marianna and withstood the first assault but Confederate casualties were 26, Federal about 55. Marianna was spared, but St. Luke's Church, situated in the middle of the battle, was burned.
WHEN THE LIGHTS CAME ON
Location:5282 Peanut Rd.
County: Jackson
City: Graceville
Description: On May 30, 1936 President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) signed into law the Rural Electrification Act which, 19 months later, would allow for the formation of West Florida Electric Cooperative (WFEC) and supply electricity for several hundred rural Graceville area residents. This federal act created the Rural Electrification Administration (REA), a branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which provided low interest loans to rural groups desiring to form their own electric cooperatives. On December 10, 1937, over 700 rural residents around Graceville joined together and formed WFEC. They borrowed $194,000 from REA to finance construction of the initial lines, related equipment and office facility. The first office was located in Marianna in 1938. In 1939 the office was moved from Marianna to Graceville and electricity came to these rural residents during that year. WFEC purchased this property in 1946 where the building now stands. Construction began on the building in 1948, and WFEC opened for business here in 1949. Over the years WFEC has expanded this building to its present configuration. This structure is a symbol of progress and a testament to those determined rural residents who, through electricity, helped bring this area into the modern age of the 20th century and provided a better quality of life for many.
Sponsors: THE WEST FLORIDA ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GILMORE ACADEMY
Location:2871 Orange St.
County: Jackson
City: Marianna
Description: In 1922, Robert T. Gilmore (1879-1948), born in Monticello, founded Gilmore Academy, one of Jackson County’s first African-American high schools. Trustees of Marianna’s African-American community purchased this three-acre site in 1907 and raised $2,500 of the $4,500 needed to qualify for a Rosenwald Fund grant to build a two-story, limestone, six-teacher school. Created by philanthropist Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932) and educator Booker T. Washington (1856-1915), the fund financed the building of 5,395 schools between 1912 and 1932 to address the dismal state of education for southern blacks. After graduating its first class in 1931, the Academy was renamed Jackson County Training School (J.C.T.S.) As enrollment grew, grades 1-6 moved to the nearby Baptist Academy. In 1952, 85 years after the Colored School Society petitioned the state to build a school for newly freed slaves, the County built an elementary school on South Street. A high school was built on the same site in 1956, and Gilmore Academy closed. In 1970, 16 years after desegregation, J.C.T.S. became Marianna Middle School. Although the schools were separate and unequal, principals, faculty and staff helped thousands of students become productive citizens.
Sponsors: BY THE GILMORE ACADEMY-JACKSON COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SAINT LUKE BAPTIST CHURCH
Location:4476 Jackson St.
County: Jackson
City: Marianna
Description: This African-American church was founded under a brush arbor on the banks of the Chipola River in August, 1867 under the leadership of Rev. Samuel Brown. Shortly after organizing, one of the members who owned a blacksmith shop allowed his shop to be used as the first permanent home of the Saint Luke Baptist Church. In 1890, Rev. William King and congregation selected the present site and a wooden structure was erected. The years that followed were glorious years for the members of Saint Luke and the surrounding area. The church was used for religious and educational purposes. In 1921, under the leadership of Rev. King David Britt (1882 – 1959), the present brick structure was erected. The church was completed under the leadership of Rev. L. C. Herring, Rev. L. B. Brown, and Rev. Dr. A. H. Parker (1907 – 1995). The design of the building follows the Gothic Revival Style with its pointed, arch leaded stained glass windows and towers on either side of the central nave. The church is located on one of the highest points in central Marianna. Even though the building was vacated by the congregation in 1984, it continues to be a main focal point in Marianna.
Sponsors: THE SAINT LUKE BAPTIST CHURCH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Jefferson

LAMONT COMMUNITY
Location:Lot east of post office
County: Jefferson
City: Lamont
Description: Lamont began existence in 1848 when a U.S. post office was established at Beasley’s Store, which also served as a horse changing station on the stagecoach line between Tallahassee and St. Augustine. After the Civil War, the small settlement that had grown up in the area was known locally by the unusual name of “Lick Skillet” and as McCane’s Store. By the time its name was officially changed to Lamont in 1885, the town had grown to 180 residents, with two general stores, two grist mills and three churches. The community thrived briefly after the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad built a line through the town in 1926. The town’s residents worked in sawmills and turpentine stills, grew pecans and processed watermelon seeds for planting. With the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s, the town’s industries failed and many residents were forced to move away. Today Lamont’s past is reflected by a former post office, built c. 1910, and several historic churches and houses.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ROSEWOOD
Location:U.S. 19 between St. Joe and Morris Rd.
County: Jefferson
City: Capps
Description: This excellent example of a "Carpenter Classic" style farmhouse was probably built c. 1836 for Burwell McBride shortly after he moved to Jefferson County from South Carolina. He was the grandfather of Margaret McBride who married Asa May, a wealthy cotton planter. Asa and his wife received the house and land from Margaret's father in 1848. May was one of the wealthiest planters in North Florida, at one time owning more than 3,000 acres of land in Jefferson County alone. Rosewood was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.
Sponsors: Florida Department of State
THE TOWN OF MONTICELLO
Location:U. S. 19, on grounds of Post Office.
County: Jefferson
City: Monticello
Description: Jefferson County became Territorial Florida's 13th county in January, 1827. In December of that year, the town of Monticello, named in honor of Thomas Jefferson's famous Virginia home, was laid out and lots began to be sold. During the 1830s and 1840s, Monticello developed into the social, governmental, and economic center of Jefferson County. Post- Civil War fires destroyed most of the early commercial buildings, but a number of dwellings erected during those years survive. After the Civil War, economic adversity delayed further construction in Monticello until the 1880s. Most downtown commercial buildings date from the last quarter of the 19th century. The Monticello Historic District, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, contains over forty buildings dating from the 19th century. These structures reflect the typical development of a North Florida town of the period. Unlike other Florida towns of the same era, 19th century Monticello remains largely intact. The town provides fine examples of Greek Revival, Classic Revival, and Stick style architecture.
Sponsors: sponsored by the jefferson county historical association in cooperation with department of state
JEFFERSON COUNTY SESQUICENTENNIAL
Location:U. S. 19 & U. S. 90 on Courthouse lawn.
County: Jefferson
City: Monticello
Description: When Florida's Territorial Legislative Council established Jefferson County in January, 1827, settlers from the seaboard states already had begun to develop cotton plantations in this area. In December, 1827, the county seat received the name Monticello in honor of Thomas Jefferson's famous Virginia home. Jefferson County provided many of territorial Florida's most prominent leaders, including representatives to Congress and the Legislative Council, territorial judges, and the state's first elected governor, William D. Moseley. Jefferson County citizens were instrumental in establishing the Democratic party in Florida and in attaining statehood in 1845. As southerners who advocated states' rights and opposed the abolition of slavery, they took leading roles in Florida's 1861 secession from the Union and in the military service of the Confederacy. For decades after the Civil War, Jefferson County reflected north Florida's economic changes and problems, attaining prominence in agriculture and related light industries. In more recent times, the county has continued its significant participation in Florida's development in the political and agricultural arenas.
Sponsors: sponsored by jefferson county historical association in cooperation with department of state
HOWARD ACADEMY ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (LATER HOWARD ACADEMY HIGH SCHOOL) SECOND STREET
Location:1145 2nd Street
County: Jefferson
City: Monticello
Description: This historic marker recognizes Howard Academy Elementary/Junior High School, which eventually became Howard Academy High School. In 1957, the first phase of Howard Academy Elementary and Junior High School was constructed on Second Street. The school operated as an elementary and junior high school until 1961, when the facility was expanded to accommodate Black students in Grades 1-12. The establishment of this school resulted the closure of many of the two-and three-room schools in rural areas. In addition, children had better and safer accommodations, including a spacious library, work areas for specialty classes, such as home economics and choral music, facilities that were not always available at the school on Chestnut Street. The new school also had a gymnasium and football field. The combining of grades did not impact the school’s administration since Eddie L. Simpkins and George W. Pittman continued in their roles as principal and assistant principal, respectively. When the district implemented its desegregation plan in the 1970-71 academic year, the Howard Academy High School site became the district’s only middle school—Howard Middle School.
Sponsors: JEFFERSON COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICT THE JEFFERSON COUNTY RETIRED EDUCATORS ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HOWARD ACADEMY HIGH SCHOOL-CHESNUT STREET
Location:Mamie Scott Dr. Near Cypress St.
County: Jefferson
City: Monticello
Description: Howard Academy High School’s Building 1 opened on Chestnut Street in 1936 with one structure containing several classrooms. In 1940, a similar, second building was constructed and financed by the county, parents and The Julius Rosenwald Fund. Rosenwald, President of Sears, Roebuck and Co., donated funds to build thousands of schools, shops, and teachers’ homes in the South. With the construction of Building 2, Building 1 was used as the elementary and junior high school and Building 2 served as the senior high school. Howard Academy was the first official high school for African-American students in the county. This was true until a combination elementary and junior high school was built on Second Street in 1957. The Chestnut Street location served grades 9-12 students until 1961 when the elementary/junior high school on Second Street was expanded for students in all 12 grades. After 1961 the Chestnut Street Buildings were not used for several years. However when schools were integrated in the early 1970’s, the Chestnut site again served elementary students until the elementary school could be built. Currently, Building 2 is leased to the Boys and Girls Club; Building 1 is a storage space for the school district.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE JEFFERSON COUNTY THE JEFFERSON COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICT AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ELIZABETH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Location:Grooverville Rd. near Rains Rd
County: Jefferson
City: Monticello
Description: The Elizabeth School, a three-room, vernacular shingle-clad building , was a school for black students on Groover Road in 1938 and was funded by parents and the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Miles Edward Groover (1887- 1966) and his wife, Daisy Black Groover (1889-1984) donated two acres of land to the Jefferson Co. Board of Public Instruction, now the Jefferson Co. Public School District. Groover, who began teaching public school in 1902, is listed in the 1915 Florida Education Directory as principal at a monthly salary of $20. The Groover’s daughter, Doris Groover Herring (1918-2006), also taught at the school. Daisy’s sister, Mamie Black Scott (1892-1970), was district supervisor of Negro Schools and later Supervisor of Negro Education (1927-1962). Her salary was provided by the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation. (Anna T. Jeanes had set aside one million dollars to fund a program for fostering education in small, African-American rural schools.) Three teachers staffed the school, one as both principal and teacher. The school once educated students in 12 grades, but when student transportation began in 1949, grades included only 1-6 and continued until it closed in 1964.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE JEFFERSON COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Lafayette

LAFAYETTE COUNTY
Location:Lafayette U.S. 27 between Fletcher St. and Monroe St. on courthouse lawn.
County: Lafayette
City: Mayo
Description: Lafayette County was created December 23, 1856, from Madison County. The county was named in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette, the French citizen who rendered invaluable assistance to the Colonies during the Revolutionary War. The famed Suwannee River forms the entire eastern boundary of the county. The county courts first met at the house of Ariel Jones near Fayetteville. The county seat was moved from New Troy to Mayo in 1893. Dixie County was created from the lower part of the county in 1921.
Sponsors: Sponsored by lafayette county development authority in cooperation withdepartment of state
MAYO, COUNTY SEAT OF LAFAYETTE COUNTY
Location:Lafayette County Courthouse grounds
County: Lafayette
City: Mayo
Description: Established in 1874 by John B. Whitfield, Mayo was named in honor of James M. Mayo, a colonel in the Confederate Army and father of Nathan Mayo, who served as State Commissioner of Agriculture from 1923 to 1960. Mayo became the county seat of Lafayette County in 1892, after the courthouse in the previous county seat at New Troy was destroyed by fire. A two-story wood frame courthouse was completed in 1894 but was moved in 1907 to its current site at the corner of Fletcher and Bloxham Streets to make way for the present Classical Revival style courthouse which was completed in 1909. A small commercial district in the vicinity of the courthouses is noted for its historic turn-of-the-century architecture.
Sponsors: Florida Department of State

Lake

VILLA CITY
Location:Lake Emma Road, 3 miles north of Groveland
County: Lake
City: Groveland
Description: On this site in 1885, George Thomas King, founder of Villa City, built an estate that was the showplace of the area. By 1895, the town had a post office, school, church, hotel, photographic studio, dispensary and 35 homes. The citrus based community flourished until the Big Freeze of 1894-95. A warm spell, after a devastating Dec. 29 freeze, filled the trees with sap. Snow then fell in the evening of Feb. 7, 1895. The frozen trees exploded when the warming sun returned. Their hopes and dreams broken, the settlers left. The last original house, the Gano House, was demolished in 1968, but the beauty of the area remains.
Sponsors: VILLA CITY HOMEOWNERS ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MILNER-ROSENWALD ACADEMY
Location:1560 N. Highland St.
County: Lake
City: Mount Dora
Description: Milner-Rosenwald Academy served African-American school children from 1926 to 1962. When fire destroyed the old school in 1922, parents and community leaders, led by Mamie Lee Gilbert (1886-1976) and Lula Butler, raised money for a new one. Seed money came from the Rosenwald Foundation, founded in 1913 by philanthropist Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932) to build black schools in the South. Matching funds came from Rev. Duncan C. Milner (1841-1928), Mount Dora, committed foe of racial injustice. Despite the inequity of segregation, Milner-Rosenwald was a source of community pride. Its graduates were leaders, scholars, writers and contributing members of society. Many today remember favorite teachers and activities--the marching band, the glee club, the Maypole Festival, the state championship girls' basketball team. As enrollment grew, a new Milner-Rosenwald Academy was built, at 1250 Grant Ave. The old academy housed the community's first kindergarten, the East Town branch library, the youth center and, later, the Head Start program. After integration in 1970 the Milner-Rosenwald Academy was renamed Mount Dora Middle School and the name Milner-Rosenwald Academy became a cherished part of Mount Dora's history.
Sponsors: THE NORTHEAST BLACK HISTORY COMMITTEE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WITHERSPOON LODGE OF FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, No. 111
Location:Corner of Grant Ave. and N. Clayton St.
County: Lake
City: Mount Dora
Description: The Witherspoon Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, No. 111, is one of Florida’s oldest functioning African American lodges. Established in 1898, it followed the tradition of Prince Hall (1735-1807), who opposed racial oppression in Colonial New England and founded the first African American Lodge in the United States. The Witherspoon Lodge bought this frame vernacular style building in 1903 and has met here since then. Masonic rites require that meetings be held on the second floor. The building also houses the Order of the Eastern Star, the Masonic women’s auxiliary. The Masons, the world’s largest fraternal organization, are committed to community service, mutual aid and the pursuit of free thought. In Mount Dora, the Witherspoon Lodge has provided help and shelter to various community organizations. In 1922, fire destroyed the city’s one-room segregated school for African-American children (Public School No. 66, first established in 1886). The Witherspoon Building served as a schoolhouse until the construction of the Milner-Rosenwald Academy in 1925. The Witherspoon Building has also served as the temporary assembly place for two churches, the Weaver Memorial Church of Christ and the Holiness Church
Sponsors: WITHERSPOON LODGE OF FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, NO. 111 AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FORT MASON
Location:Larkin Park, Hwy. 19
County: Lake
City: Umatilla
Description: During the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), troops under the command of Brig. Gen. Abraham Eustis left Volusia County headed toward the Withlacoochee River as part of a military action in response to the December 28, 1835 massacre of Major Francis L. Dade and his command near Bushnell. In March 1836 the troops camped nearby while a bridge was constructed over the Ocklawaha to the west. They built a fortified stockade about one mile south of this location, on the east side of Smith Lake. It was named Fort Mason, most likely to honor Lt. Col. Pierce Mason Butler who led the expedition and after whom Fort Butler, near Astor, was also named. After hostilities ended, Fort Mason became a supply base to support and encourage settlement in the area, which would later become Lake County. With the coming of the railroad in the1880s, a town on the north shore of Lake Eustis took its name from Fort Mason.
Sponsors: LAKE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HOLY TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:on Spring Lake Road north of Fruitland Park.
County: Lake
City: Fruitland Park
Description: Founded in 1886 by a group of young English men who came to this area to plant citrus groves, this church was opened in December, 1888. Earlier services were held at a barn on nearby Lake Geneva, midway between Fruitland Park and Chetwynd, a town two miles north of here no longer in existence. Despite severe economic and population losses following the freezes of 1894-95, this church remained open, and in 1976 descendants of the founders were still active in the congregation. The lych gate, rare in Florida, was added in 1889. The edifice is an unspoiled example of "carpenter gothic" architecture. In 1975, it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: sponsored by holy trinity episcopal church in cooperation with department of state
JOHN P. DONNELLY HOUSE
Location:Donnelly St. between 5th & 6th Ave.
County: Lake
City: Mount Dora
Description: John P. Donnelly, a native of Pittsburg, came to Mount Dora in 1879. In 1881, he married Annie McDonald Stone, a prominent landholder in the community. Successful in a number of real estate and business ventures, Donnelly built this imposing Queen Anne style house in 1893. He was among the founders of the local yacht club, and served as the city's first mayor in 1910. In 1924, he sold the land for the park named for his wife, who had died in 1908. He died in 1930. The Donnelly House, now owned by Mount Dora Lodge #238, F&AM, was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on April 4, 1975.
Sponsors: Mount Dora Lodge No. 238, F. & A.M. in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
FORT BUTLER
Location:two miles west of St. Johns River Bridge, S.R. 40
County: Lake
City: Astor
Description: Located on the west bank of the St. Johns, Ft. Butler was built in 1838 during the Seminole Wars. It consisted of a crude log stockade and barracks for the garrison. The Fort was one of the military installations designed to protect the St. Johns River, which served as an important artery of communication with the garrisons in central Florida. On the opposite bank, near the frontier settlement of Volusia, stood Ft. Call.
MONTVERDE ACADEMY
Location:17235 7th Street
County: Lake
City: Montverde
Description: Montverde Academy was founded by Hermon Palestine Carpenter in 1912 as the Montverde Industrial School for students of limited means. A native of Boyle County, Kentucky, Carpenter (1877-1958) came to Florida in 1912 and decided to found a school at Montverde. Carpenter, like many educational reformers of the time, believed that there was a need for a “practical” type of education and established his school with the purpose of training boys and girls both in the classroom and in a trade. The school held its first day of classes on September 23, 1912, in a two-room building. Students were expected to attend classes and work on campus in various capacities, such as tending the school farm, or working in the school's broom factory or cannery to help pay their tuition. Over time, Montverde Academy slowly phased out the work requirement as it grew in recognition as a boarding and day school. In 1921, the school became known as the Montverde School, and in 1962 was renamed the Montverde Academy. It is now a prominent college preparatory boarding and day school.
Sponsors: Montverde Academy and the Florida Department of State

Lee

'TWEEN WATERS INN
Location:15951 Captiva Drive
County: Lee
City: Captiva
Description: ‘Tween Waters Inn was established on Captiva Island by F. Bowman and Grace B. Price in 1931. They started the inn with a single building and expanded it over the next 30 years, adding guest cottages, a marina, and other buildings as they built their remote tourist destination into a favorite winter resort for wealthy northerners. Bowman Price provided guided fishing trips for guests and Grace Price offered entertainment and dining in the inn’s Old Captiva House. The inn’s visitors included Anne Morrow Lindbergh, wife of famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, who drew inspiration from captive for her bestselling book Gift from the Sea (1955) and J.N. “Ding” Darling, a conversationalist and renowned editorial cartoonist who won Pulitzer prizes in 1924 and 43. Darling wrote and drew while staying at “Tween Waters Inn for seven winter seasons between 1935-36 and 1941-42. He also helped to establish Sanibel National Wildlife Refuge, which was named in his honor in 1967. In 1976, Tween Waters Inn was purchased by Rochester Resorts, Inc/, which restored its historic cottages for the inn’s continued use as a resort. ‘Tween Waters Inn was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011.
Sponsors: Sponsored by ‘Tween Waters Inn and the Florida Department of State
BONITA SPRINGS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Location:10701 Dean Street
County: Lee
City: Bonita Springs
Description: This school contains two historic building and is a rare example of a historical school that continues to serve its original function. The rural village of Bonita Springs, originally called Survey, grew during the Florida Land Boom of the 1920s and this brick structure replaced the previous one-room schoolhouses. The original three-room school was built in 1921 and the first principal was Miss Alma McDonald. A local contractor utilized local oak and cypress lumber to complete the masonry vernacular structure. The school expanded in 1927 by adding a two-story building with auditorium. The addition features the Mediterranean Revival architectural style common from 1915-1930, and is a combination of Spanish, Italian, Moorish and Byzantine influences. In the early 1940s the two buildings were united and a cafeteria was an integral part of the community for generations. The school was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1999, the first property in Bonita Springs to be so listed.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the City of Bonita Springs and the Florida Department of State.
THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF BOCA GRANDE
Location:421 4th Street West
County: Lee
City: Boca Grande
Description: The First Baptist Church of Boca Grande is the oldest church building on Gasparilla Island and housed one of the island’s two oldest congregations. In the early 1900s, phosphate companies decided to use the port of Boca Grande as a primary shipping point. The Seaboard Airline Railroad laid track to the southernmost tip of the island, and soon the island’s population grew enough to support a ministry. In 1909, the First Baptist Church was organized. At first, services were held outdoors conducted by circuit riding preachers twice a month. Between 1911 and 1912, a building committee was organized. Construction of the church was funded by a loan from the Florida Southern Baptist Missions Board and by congregational donations. In 1915, the church, an example of balloon-frame Carpenter Gothic style architecture, was completed. The Seaboard railroad donated a locomotive’s bell for the church that is still in use today. In 1928, the building was enlarged to accommodate Sunday school classrooms, and in 1934, a parsonage was built as a residence for a full-time pastor. In 2009, the First Baptist Church celebrated its 100th anniversary and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: The First Baptist Church of Boca Grande and the Florida Department of State
"IN THE NAME OF HUMANITY" - Koresh
Location:Koreshan State Park
County: Lee
City: Estero
Description: Dr. Cyrus Read Teed, Founder of the Koreshan Unity and President of the Koreshan University of Chicago, established in 1892 his "College of Life" in Estero, Florida, as a cooperative community in the spirit of Christ's teaching. "We live inside the World," the Koreshans believe, as the Earth is the Universe, with life and the celestial bodies and spheres manifest inside the World. Measurements of the concave curvature of the Earth were derived by the Koreshan Geodetic Staff in 1897 at Naples. In "The Cellular Cosmogony" by Koresh, Universology is explained. This and other books, magazines, and newspapers were printed in the Guiding Star Publishing House at Estero. Through the Koreshan Nursery the garden came to fame for its subtropical plant life. Mechanics, arts, and music were taught, and sports cultivated. In 1961 the Koreshan Unity corporation deeded 305 acres of their landholdings to the State of Florida as "a gift to the people".
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with The Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc.
BILLY BOWLEGS
Location:951 Marsh Ave Billy Bowlegs Park (see comments)
County: Lee
City: Fort Myers
Description: Seminole Chief Billy Bowlegs refused to move West in 1842 following the Second Seminole War. An 1853 State law making Indian residence illegal caused increased pressure against the Seminoles in the Big Cypress Swamp. In December, 1855, army surveyors from Fort Myers injured crops of Bowleg's plantation. This began the Third Seminole War often called the Billy Bowlegs War. He surrendered after three years when his people were promised financial aid. In March, 1858, Bowlegs and 165 Seminoles left peacefully for Oklahoma.
HARNEY'S POINT
Location:2051 Cape Coral Pkwy E
County: Lee
City: Cape Coral
Description: Near here on the Caloosahatchee River a band of 160 Indians attacked the Fort and Trading Post at four o'clock on the morning of July 23, 1839. In the raid led by Chief Chekaika of the Spanish Indians, thirteen soldiers died and fourteen, including Col. William S. Harney in command of operations, escaped down river. A year later Col. Harney returned and destroyed Chekaika in the Everglades.
FORT MYERS
Location:1st Street & Jackson Street on grounds of Federal
County: Lee
City: Fort Myers
Description: In this vicinity, Caloosa Indian villages were located in ancient times. Around this site, in the Seminole War of 1841-1842, a fort was established and named for Lieutenant John Harvie. The fort was reestablished in 1850 and named Fort Myers, honoring Lieutenant Abraham C. Myers. This Seminole War ended in 1858. During the War Between the States, Fort Myers was once more re-activated as a base to round up wild cattle to supply beef to Federal gunboats patrolling the Gulf off Sanibel.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with the Southwest Florida Historical Society
MILITARY CEMETERY
Location:Corner of Fowler St. and 2nd St.
County: Lee
City: Fort Myers
Description: During the Seminole Wars, this was the site of a military cemetery for soldiers of Fort Harvie, 1841-42, and Fort Myers, 1850-58. The cemetery was located outside the breastworks of the respective forts which were in the vicinity of the present Federal Building in downtown Fort Myers. When Fowler Street was cut through, the graves were moved to the civilian cemetery on Michigan Avenue.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with the Southwest Florida Historical Society
FIRST STREET, FORT MYERS
Location:First Street,between Hendry and Jackson St.
County: Lee
City: Fort Myers
Description: The post-Civil War era brought South Florida its first wave of settlers. In 1866, Manual A. Gonzalez and Joseph Vivas took up residence at recently abandoned Fort Myers. Arrival of other settlers led to the establishment in 1876 of a post office. First Street, delineated in the original 1876 town plan occupied a central position in community development. By 1901, frame buildings housing stores and offices lined downtown First Street. Banks, a theatre, a church, a school, and the Keystone Hotel, which first welcomed Thomas Edison in 1886, occupied locations along its route. Railroad construction and tourism, twin forces for growth in late 19th century Florida, contributed to community expansion. The paving of First Street to ease the way for tourists and automobiles and the construction of "modern" buildings replacing many frame structures reflected early 20th century attitudes among many Floridians. Electrification of the city street lights in the early 1920s symbolized the onset of Florida's Boom Period, an era of rapid growth especially significant in South Florida history. Fort Myers' palm-lined First Street has continued to embody the appeal of sub-tropical Florida.
Sponsors: sponsored by nicholas meriwether chapter, national society colonial dames xvii century in cooperation with department of state
THE ATTACK ON FORT MYERS
Location:2031 Jackson Street, Southwest Florida Museum of History
County: Lee
City: Fort Myers
Description: In December 1863, the Army post of Fort Myers, inactive since 1858, was reoccupied. The fort served as a supply depot for the Federal blockade squadron. Troops from the fort often raided Confederate supply depots in the state's interior, since Florida beef fed the Confederate army. To discourage these raids, Confederate Major William Footman led 275 men of Florida's "Cow Cavalry" from Fort Thompson (LaBelle) to the very gates of Fort Myers. Shortly after noon of February 20, 1865, Major Footman approached the fort under a flag of truce and gave the Federals 20 minutes to surrender. After Captain James Doyle, commander of the garrison which consisted of the Union 2nd Florida Cavalry, the 110th New York Infantry, and the 2nd U.S. Colored Infantry, refused, the Confederates bombarded the fort with their field piece. They were answered by Fort Myers' three cannons. The cannonade and musketry continued until after nightfall, when Footman and his Confederates withdrew under cover of darkness. Casualties on both sides were light.
Sponsors: sponsored by col. abraham c. myers camp #1322 sons of confederate veterans in cooperation with department of state
SANIBEL LIGHTHOUSE
Location:Lighthouse Park on Lighthouse Road at Island's S.
County: Lee
City: Sanibel Island
Description: The first permanent English-speaking settlers on Sanibel Island arrived from New York in 1833 as part of a colony planned by land investors. Although that settlement was short-lived, the initial colonists petitioned the U.S. government for the construction of a lighthouse on the island. No action was taken on that proposal at the time. By the late 1870's, seagoing commerce in the area had increased in volume. The U.S. Lighthouse Bureau took the initiative in requesting funds for a lighthouse for Sanibel Island, and in 1884, construction of the tower began. The station was lighted for the first time in August, 1884. The significance of the Sanibel Lighthouse lies in the regular and reliable service it has provided for travellers along Florida's West Coast. Since 1950, the U.S. Coast Guard property at the lighthouse has been a wildlife refuge.
Sponsors: Sponsored by nicholas meriwether chapter n.s. colonial dames xvii century in cooperation with department of state
GASPARILLA INN & CLUB
Location:E. Railroad Ave. Between 7th and 5th St.
County: Lee
City: Boca Grande
Description: The Gasparilla Inn, built by the Boca Grande Land Company, subsidiary of a national phosphate company that was an early major island land holder, opened in 1911. Under the leadership of company principal, Peter Bradley (1850-1933), the hotel provided an upscale winter destination for wealthy guests. Tampa architect Frances Kennard (1865-c. 1938) assisted in the hotel’s 1912 enlargement and again in 1915 when its size doubled. The grounds were landscaped by the nationally known landscape firm, the Olmsted Brothers, and included a bath house, band shell, greenhouse, tennis courts, golf course and staff dormitories. A New York firm decorated the interior with furnishings purchased in Philadelphia. The Inn drew wealthy fishermen and industry tycoons such as J.P. Morgan and Henry DuPont who enjoyed the Inn’s seclusion and impeccable service. In 1930, Florida land baron Barron Collier (1873-1939) purchased the hotel, adding a grand new entrance, an 18-hole golf course and several cottages. By the 1960s, the Inn’s condition had declined. Longtime Gasparilla Island resident and champion, Bayard Sharp (1913-2002), purchased the property, restored it and added modern amenities to ensure that the Inn’s traditions would continue.
Sponsors: THE SHARP FAMILY, THE BOCA GRANDE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
EDISON & FORD WINTER ESTATES
Location:2350 McGregor Blvd.
County: Lee
City: Fort Myers
Description: In 1885 world-famous inventor Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) first visited Fort Myers. In 1886 he built his winter home, “Seminole Lodge,” a second home for a friend/partner, and a laboratory. He brought his bride, Mina Miller Edison (1865-1947), to honeymoon and vacation here in 1886. The homes were designed by Edison and pre-cut by two firms in Maine and shipped to Fort Myers. In 1916 industrialist Henry Ford (1863-1947) purchased the estate next door, “The Mangoes,” in order to spend more time with his good friend and mentor, Thomas Edison. These two prominent figures vacationed here until Edison’s death in 1931, and Mina continued to vacation here until 1947. The City of Fort Myers purchased the Ford estate in 1988 as an addition to the Edison Historical Site. Mina generously deeded the estate to the City of Fort Myers for $1.00. In her dedication ceremony on March 6, 1947, she stated: “My faith and belief in the sincerity of the people of Fort Myers prompts me to make this sacred spot a gift to you and posterity as a Sanctuary and Botanical Park in the memory of my honored and revered husband, Thomas A. Edison, who so thoroughly believed in the future of Fort Myers.”
Sponsors: CITY OF FORT MYERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Leon

MISSION SAN LUIS
Location:2020 Mission Road
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Mission San Luis, established by Spanish members of the Order of Friars Minor (the Franciscans), served the Apalachee Indians located in present day Leon and Jefferson Counties. Its name may have been a tribute to Luis Horruytiner, the governor who began the mission effort. San Luis was established shortly after 1633 at Xinayca near the present State Capitol and the Hernando de Soto winter campsite of 1539-40. The mission was moved in 1656 to Talimali, an important Apalachee town. For three generations, Mission San Luis was the religious and military administrative center for the Apalachee region. In addition to 1500 Apalachees, the Mission was home to the Deputy Governor, soldiers, friars and Spanish settlers. On July 31,1704, two days before Colonel James Moore and a column of Carolina militiamen and Creek warriors reached Talimali, the mission, town and fort were evacuated and burned to keep the enemy from using them. Colonel Moore destroyed many mission villages and enslaved thousands, forever ending Apalachee’s Fransiscan missions. Apalachee descendants now live in Louisiana and remain Roman Catholic. The State of Florida purchased the Mission San Luis site in 1983 to protect it for future generations.
Sponsors: THE COLONIAL DAMES
DALE MABRY FIELD
Location:Tallahassee, Appleyard Drive
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: In October 1940, hundreds of laborers began clearing swampland for temporary quarters for Dale Mabry Army Air Base, named in honor of a young Tallahassee dirigible pilot who died in 1922 after serving in World War I. In 1941, America entered World War II. The need for a place to train pilots prompted the federal government to set a 90-day completion deadline. Eventually, the base became a nearly self-sufficient city, with several runways, barracks, officers’ quarters, mess hall, hangers, a hospital, a church and a bowling alley. Some sections of the base’s asphalt runway are still visible, as are several concrete tie-down pads. Over 8,000 pilots from Europe, China and the United States trained here in P-39s, P-40s, P-47s and P-51s. This marker is at the edge of the NW/SE runway near the point where planes took off or landed. Over a dozen pilots died in accidents while learning how to fire at targets such as a giant, plywood “bull’s eye” at Alligator Point to the south. During 1943, 79,000 family members came to Tallahassee, then a town of 16,000, to visit pilots-in-training. The base was deactivated in 1945 and served as a commercial airport until 1961, when Tallahassee Regional Airport opened.
Sponsors: TALLAHASSEE COMMUNITY COLLEGE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD CAPITOL OF FLORIDA
Location:400 S. Monroe St. In front of Old Capitol
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: The first two sessions of the territorial legislature were held at St. Augustine and Pensacola. The hazards of traveling between cities 400 miles apart prompted legislators in 1824 to locate a new capital at Tallahassee, between the two cities. Log buildings that housed the government made way in 1826 for a two-story masonry structure. This was succeeded in 1845 by what is now the core of the present historic capitol. A dome and wings were added in 1902, and further additions made in 1923, 1936 and 1947. The building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 and restored to its 1902 appearance in 1982.
Sponsors: Florida Department of State
THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS
Location:West end of Copeland Street, Westcott Building,
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: The Florida State University campus is the oldest continuously used site of higher education in the state of Florida. In 1851, the Florida Legislature authorized the establishment of two state seminaries, on east and one west of the Suwannee River. Eager to attract the western seminary, the city of Tallahassee, under the leadership of Intendent (Mayor) Francis Eppes, offered to donate four city lots on which to locate the school and provide $2,000 a year for its operation. The site chosen for the new institution was the crest of "Gallows Hill," located about a half mile west of the center of town. The West Florida Seminary opened in 1857, the first classes being held in a wood frame building erected by the city. Eppes, the grandson of Thomas Jefferson, served for eight years as president of the seminary's governing board. In 1901, the name of the school was changed to Florida State College and in 1909 it became the Florida State College for Women. The Florida Legislature transformed the college into a fully coeducational institution in 1947, creating The Florida State University.
Sponsors: florida heritage landmarksponsored by the florida state universityand florida department of statesandra b. mortham, secretary of state
THE JOHN GILMORE RILEY HOUSE
Location:419 E. Jefferson St.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: John Gilmore Riley was born in 1857, the son of Sarah and James Riley. He was not formally educated, but was instructed by his Aunt Henrietta. Riley became principal of Lincoln Academy, Tallahassee’s first local high school for African Americans in 1893 and served until retiring in 1926. He was a life-long member of St. James CME Church and Grand High Priest of the Royal Arch Masons of Florida. He owned a significant amount of property in Tallahassee near the Capitol Center. Riley died in 1954, the same year that the Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court decision was rendered. Records indicate that the site on which the Riley House sits was sold to John Gilmore Riley by Aaron Levy on August 17, 1885 for $125. The two-story wood fame house was built in 1890. It was the home for the Riley family until 1973 when they sold it to the City of Tallahassee. The house was placed on t he National Register of Historic Places in 1978, and was restored with joint funding from the City of Tallahassee and the Department of the Interior. In 1982 the Florida NAACP partnered with the Riley Foundation to purchase the house.
Sponsors: THE JOHN G. RILEY FOUNDATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MAJOR GENERAL DAVID LANG
Location:Old City Cemetery
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: David Lang was born on May 9, 1838 in Camden County, Georgia. After graduating from the Georgia Military Academy in 1857, he moved to Florida and worked as a surveyor for Suwannee County. At the outbreak of the Civil War he enlisted as a private and rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel of the 8th Florida Infantry. He commanded the Florida Brigade (2nd, 5th, and 8th regiments) at the battle of Gettysburg, PA, (July 1-3, 1863), including Pickett's Charge, where the brigade suffered 43% casualties. Lang surrendered at Appomattox with the brigade. After the war he married Mary Campbell, with whom he had four children. He worked as a civil engineer before being appointed Adjutant General of the State Militia (1885-1894). When Florida got a new constitution in 1885, Lang asked the legislature for changes in militia law, including increased funding for training camps, provided U.S. Army pay scales for militiamen on active duty and established tougher controls over militia units. He established the Florida State Troops as the official State military force and organized the first statewide summer encampment. After serving as the private secretary for Governors Mitchell and Bloxham, Lang died on December 13, 1917.
Sponsors: Florida National Guard, the Department of Military Affairs, and the Florida Department of State.
PLANTATION CEMETERY AT BETTON HILLS
Location:Betton Rd. between Trescott Dr. and W Randolph Cir.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: The site is all that remains of a much larger cemetery for African Americans dating from the pre-Civil War era through the 1940s. It was the main burial ground for black slaves and servants from the Betton Plantation as well as other surrounding plantations. The plantation system grew in North Florida as cotton plantations to the north depleted their soil from overuse. Prominent early plantations in this region included Goodwood, Waverly, and Live Oak. Turbett Betton was a prominent Tallahassee merchant who purchased roughly 1,200 acres from the Lafayette estate, lying between Thomasville and Centerville Roads. Shortly after Betton’s death in 1863, the land was purchased by Guy Winthrop. The emancipation of the slaves ruined the cotton industry and many planters turned their land into quail hunting plantations. In 1945, the Winthrop family began subdividing the property for a new housing community called Betton Hills. Henry Watson, buried at the back of the lot with his wife, was one of Winthrop’s servants. However, most of the burials were marked with a simple wooden cross or flowers, and so no longer remain. Evidence of a burial site is marked by elongated depressions in the earth covered with altered vegetation.
Sponsors: Betton Hills Neighborhood Association and the Florida Department of State
FLORIDA A & M UNIVERSITY
Location:S. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. at Lee Hall
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Founded in 1887 as the State Normal College for Colored Students, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU) is the only historically state supported educational facility for African Americans in Florida. It has always been co-educational. In 1890, the second Morrill Act was passed. This enabled the school to become the Black Land Grant College for the State of Florida. In 1891, the college was moved from its original location west of town to its present location, which was once the site of “Highwood,” Territorial Governor W.P. Duval’s slave plantation. It is on one of the highest hills in Tallahassee. The school was known as Florida A & M College from 1909 until 1953, when it attained university status. On May 6, 1996, the historic Florida A and M College campus was listed in the National Register of Historic Places based on the school’s historic significance and the architectural style of its buildings. The designation also recognized the national achievements and contributions of FAMU students, alumni, faculty and staff. In 1997, in national competition, FAMU was named “College of the Year” in Time Magazine’s Princeton Review.
Sponsors: The Black Archives, Research Center and Museum at FAMU and the Florida Department of State
DE SOTO WINTER ENCAMPMENT SITE 1539-1540
Location:De Soto State Park, De Soto Drive
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: In 1539, a Spanish expeditionary force led by Hernando De Soto landed in the Tampa Bay area. Nearly 600 heavily armed adventurers traveled more than 4000 miles from Florida to Mexico intending to explore and control the Southeast of North America. The route of de Soto has always been uncertain, including the location of the village of Anhaica, the first winter encampment. The place was thought to be in the vicinity of present day Tallahassee, but no physical evidence had ever been found. Calvin Jones’ chance discovery of 16th century Spanish artifacts in 1987 settled the argument. Jones, a state archaeologist, led a team of amateurs and professionals in an excavation which recovered more than 40,000 artifacts. The evidence includes links of chain mail armor, copper coins, the iron tip of a crossbow bolt, Spanish olive jar shards, and glass trade beads. The team also found the jaw bone of a pig. Pigs were not native to the New World and historical documents confirm that the expedition brought swine. These finds provided the physical evidence the 1539-40 winter encampment, the first confirmed de Soto site in North America. From this location, the de Soto expedition traveled northward and westward making the first European contact with many native societies. Within two centuries, most of the southeastern native cultures were greatly diminished by the affects of European contact and settlement.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLORIDA A & M UNIVERSITY
Location:FAMU way and Railroad Ave.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Founded in 1887 as the State Normal College for Colored Students, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU) is the only historically state supported educational facility for African Americans in Florida. It has always been co-educational. In 1890, the second Morrill Act was passed. This enabled the school to become the Black Land Grant College for the State of Florida. In 1891, the college was moved from its original location west of town to its present location, which was once the site of “Highwood,” Territorial Governor W.P. Duval’s slave plantation. It is on one of the highest hills in Tallahassee. The school was known as Florida A & M College from 1909 until 1953, when it attained university status. On May 6, 1996, the historic Florida A and M College campus was listed in the National Register of Historic Places based on the school’s historic significance and the architectural style of its buildings. The designation also recognized the national achievements and contributions of FAMU students, alumni, faculty and staff. In 1997, in national competition, FAMU was named “College of the Year” in Time Magazine’s Princeton Review.
Sponsors: The Black Archives, Research Center and Museum at FAMU and the Florida Department of State
FLORIDA A & M UNIVERISTY
Location:Intersection of W. Palmer and S. Adams St.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Founded in 1887 as the State Normal College for Colored Students, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU) is the only historically state supported educational facility for African Americans in Florida. It has always been co-educational. In 1890, the second Morrill Act was passed. This enabled the school to become the Black Land Grant College for the State of Florida. In 1891, the college was moved from its original location west of town to its present location, which was once the site of “Highwood,” Territorial Governor W.P. Duval’s slave plantation. It is on one of the highest hills in Tallahassee. The school was known as Florida A & M College from 1909 until 1953, when it attained university status. On May 6, 1996, the historic Florida A and M College campus was listed in the National Register of Historic Places based on the school’s historic significance and the architectural style of its buildings. The designation also recognized the national achievements and contributions of FAMU students, alumni, faculty and staff. In 1997, in national competition, FAMU was named “College of the Year” in Time Magazine’s Princeton Review.
Sponsors: The Black Archives, Research Center and Museum at FAMU and the Florida Department of State
THE UNION BANK OF FLORIDA
Location:On Appalachee Pkwy near Monroe St.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Completed in 1841, the Union Bank is Florida's oldest surviving bank building. The business was chartered in 1833 as a planter's bank from which plantation owners could borrow against their land and slave holdings. The bank operated in a private house called "The Columns" until 1841. With John Gamble as its first and only president, it served as Florida's major territorial bank. The bank failed in 1843 because of crop failures, the Second Seminole War, and unsound banking practices. After remaining unused for nearly 25 years, the building reopened in 1868 as the National Freedman's Saving and Trust Company, serving emancipated slaves and refugees. Starting in 1874, the building functioned in a variety of ways -- as a church, shoe factory, beauty shop, and dance studio. Originally located near the southwest corner of Adams Street and Park Avenue, the structure was moved to this site in 1971. The Union Bank building was restored and opened to the public as a museum in 1984.
Sponsors: The Union Bank Restoration Committee and the Museum of Florida History
KNOTT HOUSE
Location:301 E. Park Ave.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Evidence points to George Proctor, a free black man, as the probable builder of this structure in 1843.The house was a wedding gift for Catherine Gamble, the bride of attorney Thomas Hagner. In 1865 the house was used as a temporary Union Headquarters by Brigadier General McCook. On May 20, 1865, McCook read the Emancipation Proclamation from the front steps of the house, declaring freedom for all slaves in the Florida Panhandle. After the Civil War a locally prominent physician, George Betton, bought the house, bringing with him a young buggy driver named William Gunn, a former slave. When Gunn expressed an interest in learning medicine, Betton funded his study at medical school and helped him establish a practice in Tallahassee. Gunn became Florida’s first black physician. In 1928 the Knott family acquired the house, had the front columns added and lived here until 1985. William Knott served the State of Florida for over 40 years as its first State Tax Auditor, as Comptroller, and Treasurer. His wife Luella Knott was an artist, musician, and poet. She named hr home “ The House That Rhymes,” and filled it with Victorian era furnishings. Almost every piece is adorned with a poem narrating history and moral lessons, written with charm and wit. Luella was also a political activist. The sale of alcohol was banned in the state’s capital for over fifty years, in part because of Mrs. Knott’s involvement with the temperance movement.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
JOHN W. MARTIN HOUSE
Location:1001 DeSoto Drive
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: John Martin was born in Plainfield, Marion County, Florida on June 21, 1884. He was admitted to the Florida Bar in 1914. He joined the Democratic Party and toured the state making speeches in support of President Woodrow Wilson before and during World War I. From 1917 until 1923 Martin served three terms as Mayor of Jacksonville. In 1924 he ran and was elected Florida’s 24th Governor, serving from January 1925 until January 1929, during the height and collapse of the Florida Real Estate Boom. Martin was the first candidate to solicit the women’s vote. At the bottom of his political advertisements was the phrase “The Ladies are Especially Invited.” During his administration he proposed a change in the state constutitujion to allow the state to provide direct assistance to public elementary schools. This was ratified by the voters in 1926. Wildlife conservation programs were also begun in the state, with the restocking of quail and deer and the establishment of fish hatcheries. Martin’s house, called Apalachee,” was constructed in the early 1930’s on his 27 acres. It is of the Georgian Revival style. In 1941, Martin sold the property to local developers who incorporated all but approximately six acres into a new subdivision called Governor’s Park. Martin moved back to Jacksonville where he lived until his death in January 1958.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WILHELMINA JAKES AND CARRIE PATTERSON: INITIATORS OF THE TALLAHASSEE BUS BOYCOTT
Location:On the campus of Florida A&M University
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: On May 26, 1956, two Florida A&M University (FAMU) students, Wilhelmina Jakes and Carrie Patterson boarded a crowded Tallahassee city bus and sat in the only seats available, in the front next to a white female passenger. The bus driver ordered them to the back of the bus, but they refused. Outraged, the driver pulled the bus over and called the police. The two students were arrested and charged with “placing themselves in a position to incite a riot.” The next night a cross was burned on their lawn. In response, FAMU students, led by SGA President Brodes Hartley, held a mass meeting and voted to stop riding city buses. This sparked the ten-month-long Tallahassee Bus Boycott, the second major successful economic protest of the Civil Rights Movement. Other citizens embraced the boycott. Local religious leaders and community members founded the Inter-Civic Council (ICC) and elected Rev. C.K. Steele, pastor of Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, as president. The ICC expanded the boycott, which ended in March 1957. Months of defiant walking, carpooling and legal battles and the fortitude of Jakes, Patterson and other FAMU Freedom Fighters, helped sustain America’s promise of equal rights and justice for all citizens.
Sponsors: FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITYAND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD BRADFORDVILLE SCHOOL HOUSE
Location:3439 Bradfordville Rd.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: The Bradfordville School is a one-room school house built c. 1884-1893, where many generations of children, in elementary to eighth grade classes, received their primary education. It is an example of one-room schools once scattered throughout the area that gave rural children educational opportunities that would otherwise not have been available. The school is a wood frame vernacular structure with a whitewash exterior. The majority of the windows are six over six double hung sash wood. Now gone are two outbuildings used as restroom--one for girls and one for boys. The school was originally located at the intersection of Thomasville and Bradfordville Roads on property owned by the Lester family. In 1906 it was purchased by the Leon County Board of Public Instruction for the sum of $1.00. Declining attendance forced its closure in 1930. In 1940 ownership was transferred to the Leon County Commission. The building has been moved twice in an attempt to preserve it. The first move was in 1997 when a road expansion was planned for Thomasville Road. The second was in 2005 when the land was sold and it was moved to its present site. The building is currently used as a community center under the management of Leon County.
Sponsors: THE LEON COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
VILLAGE OF MICCOSUKEE
Location:Veterans Memorial Pkwy between Cromartie Rd. and Murray Ln.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: In 1778 the British mapped this once thriving community, originally called Mikasuki, with sixty houses, a square, 28 families and 70 gunmen. The village was first settled by Native Americans of Creek descent who were often in armed conflict with white settlers. In 1818 Andrew Jackson and his men invaded, defeating the forces of village leader Kinhagee. Most of the Native Americans fled, but the area’s fertile soil drew settlers and the area was soon resettled. A U.S. Post Office was built in 1831, as were churches, schools, and general stores. The town became a prime location for some of the area’s largest cotton plantations. After the Civil War, agriculture remained the mainstay, and by 1887 a railroad served the community. In the 1890s, wealthy northern industrialists began purchasing large tracts of land to use as winter quail hunting estates, taking thousands of acres of land out of agricultural production. Yet the community continued to thrive until the boll weevil insect infestation of 1916 and the Great Depression (1929-1935) destroyed Leon County’s agricultural base. The rail line ceased operations by the mid-1940s, leaving the Miccosukee community of today rich in turn-of-the-century charm.
Sponsors: LEON COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS
OLD FORT BRADEN SCHOOL
Location:1500 Blountstown Hwy.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Fort Braden was established in 1839 as a military outpost during the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). At the end of the war the fort was abandoned, but the small farming community that had developed nearby continued. A school in the Fort Braden area was first mentioned in an 1847 Tallahassee Floridian article reporting tax collections at the Fort Braden schoolhouse. Early education in rural Leon County was provided at small, one-room schools. The education these schools offered was inferior to that of urban areas. Yet over the next 80 years, many of these schools were built in Fort Braden and around the county. Consolidation of the schools was proposed at the turn of the 20th century, but did not start until the 1920s when motorized school buses and improved roadways made it possible to transport students to a centralized location. In 1926, the four-classroom Fort Braden School was constructed, featuring an inset entrance and double doors with molded accents. The school served as an education facility and community center for the next 66 years until 1993 when the new Fort Braden School replaced it. Today, the Old Fort Braden School continues to serve the citizens of Fort Braden as a community center.
Sponsors: LEON COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS
JACKSONVILLE, PENSACOLA AND MOBILE RAILROAD
Location:918 Railroad Ave.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: The Jacksonville, Pensacola and Mobile Railroad Company Freight Depot, built in 1858, is one of the oldest railroad buildings in Florida and the oldest still used as a passenger rail station. The one-story depot was built when Tallahassee was the center of Florida’s cotton trade. By 1885 the two-story addition was added. Middle Florida (now North Florida), with its rich agriculture lands, grew rapidly in the 19th century. By 1890, Leon County was the top producer of livestock, sweet potatoes, corn and cotton in the state. With cotton in great demand, Tallahassee was the region’s commercial hub, shipping 16,686 bales of ginned cotton in 1860. Wagons brought the cotton from local plantations to be processed. It then went by rail to the coast for shipping. A new rail line between Pensacola and Jacksonville provided access to ports and made transporting both freight and passengers easier. In 1905 a passenger station was built across from the original one. It was used continuously until 1971 when, for the first time in 113 years, passenger service ended. Tallahassee was a freight only stop until 1992 when passenger services resumed, with the old freight depot used as the passenger station.
CHAIRES HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of N/S Co. Rd. 154 Y E/W Co. Rd. 54
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: The community of Chaires was established in the 1820s during Florida’s Territorial Period (1821-1845). The community is named after Green Hill Chaires, who, along with his two brothers, Benjamin and Thomas Peter, came from Georgia and established vast plantations in Eastern Leon County. Chaires’ plantation eventually grew to 20,000 acres with a home on Lake Lafayette. It was later destroyed and his wife, two of his children and several of his slaves were massacred in 1839 during the Second Seminole Indian War (1835-1842). He then built a house called Evergreen and his brother, Thomas Peter, built a house called Woodlawn. In 1851, Green Chaires built the state’s first plank road, which connected upland plantations to the Gulf Coast shipping communities of Newport and St. Marks. The establishment of Railroad Station #1 in 1857 and the Chaires Post Office in 1858 contributed to the sense of community. By the turn of the century, Chaires was the commercial hub for the area, with a cotton gin and packinghouse, public schools, stores and churches. Today, Chaires retains much of its turn-of-the-century character. In December 2000, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: THE LEON COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERSS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GOVERNOR W.D. BLOXHAM HOUSE
Location:410 North Calhoun Street
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Side 1: This Federal-style building was constructed in 1844 by Richard A. Shine, a prominent builder and mason who constructed the south wing of Florida’s Capitol in 1845. In 1881, Mary C. Bloxham, Governor Bloxham’s wife, acquired the property. Governor Bloxham, the owner of a plantation west of Tallahassee, used the house as a town residence during his two terms as governor, 1881-1885 and 1897-1901. The house was used by Governor Edward A. Perry, 1885-1889. In 1911, when Governor Bloxham died, Gertrude M. Bloxham, his second wife, became its owner and in 1913 sold it. A number of ownerships and uses followed, including as a rooming house and hotel. In 1977, the Florida Heritage Foundation purchased the property and developed plans for restoration of the house, but was unable to raise sufficient funds. In 1979, one of its members, Frances Cushing Ervin, purchased the property and restored the house to its original architectural style and elegance. Side 2: Governor Bloxham’s career of public service was extensive and included representing Leon County in the Florida House of Representatives, serving as Florida’s Secretary of State and Comptroller and as United States Surveyor-General for Florida. He was a popular war veteran, having organized an infantry company in Leon County in 1862 and served as its commander throughout the Civil War. Governor Bloxham, Florida’s first native-born governor, is remembered for founding the Florida Normal and Agricultural College for Colored Students, now Florida A & M University, and for restoring to fiscal solvency Florida’s Internal Improvement Trust Fund by selling four million acres in the Everglades. He was governor during the Spanish-American War when Florida served as a principle staging area and its ports were major embarkation points for United States military activities in Cuba.
Sponsors: THE TALLAHASSEE TRUST FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION
THE MISSION OF SAN PEDRO Y SAN PABLO DE PATALE
Location:North CR-158 at the site of the Patale Mission.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Side 1: In 1633, the province of Apalachee in Spanish Florida received its first full-time resident missionaries. The Franciscan Mission of San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale which was located about one hundred yards north of this marker was one of the first missions with a resident priest to be established in the region after that date. Like other Spanish missions in Florida, this outpost of Spanish domination was designed to convert and "civilize" the Indians. It also served as a center for the civil and military authority of Spain on the frontier. Archeological investigations at the site in 1971 revealed the structural remains of the mission church and other buildings and a cemetery for the burial of Christians containing some 64 graves. Side 2: The mission of Patale evidently continued as an important segment of the mission system until its destruction in June, 1704. By that time, the colonial rivalry between Spain and England had become very keen. In 1703-1704, Colonel James Moore of South Carolina led an English expedition to destroy the Spanish Apalachee missions. On June 23, 1704, Patale was attacked and captured by the English who then used the mission as a base of operations. A counterattack by the Spanish and their Indian allies in July resulted in another victory for the English. After this, the Patale mission site seems to have been abandoned. But during the decades of its existence, it played an integral part in the military, political, and religious background of the Tallahassee area.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Fred O. Dickinson, Jr. In Cooperation With Department of State
OLD PISGAH
Location:on CR-151 (Moccasin Gap Road).
County: Leon
City: North of Tallahassee
Description: Side 1: Missionaries sent by the South Carolina Conference of theMethodist Episcopal Church held services for the Centreville community settlers at this site in the early 1820's. John Slade, known as the "Father of Methodism in Florida," organized the "Society" at Pisgah on May 3, 1830, with thirty-four charter members. During the Ante-Bellum period, Pisgah became one of the leading churches in Middle Florida. Charter members Jacob Felkel and his wife Rose Anne deeded seven acres to the church's trustees on December 12, 1858, for $125.00. Under the leadership of presiding elder Simon Peter Richardson and the pastor, Robert Hudson Howren, the present building was erected at that time at a cost of $5,200. Side 2: Pisgah is one of the oldest remaining church structures in Florida. Architecturally significant, it is representative of early church design. Special features include hand-hewn box pews and galleries lighted by clerestory windows. The new sanctuary was dedicated on May 1, 1859, by the Reverend Richardson, who returned in 1863 to serve as pastor. While at Pisgah he was elected Captain of the Centreville "Old Guard" the local home defense unit. Pisgah has served as a cultural center for the community hosting political rallies, temperance meetings, musical programs and lectures as well as religious services. Since 1924, an annual homecoming has been observed on the first Sunday in May with state-wide educational, political, or religious leaders conducting the service.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Old Pisgah United Methodist Church In Cooperation With Department of State
THE TALLAHASSEE DEMOCRAT
Location:Magnolia Drive in front of the Tall. Democrat Bldg
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Florida's capital has never been without an alert, vigorous press. Tallahassee's first newspaper, the Florida Intelligencer, was founded on February 19, 1825, nine months before the city was incorporated. The Tallahassee Democrat traces its ancestry to March 3, 1905, when John G. Collins founded his Weekly True Democrat. He explained the name showed dedication to "true and tried doctrines of the Old Time Democracyàas distinguished fromàmischievousàfads and fallacies of the day." Collins sold the newspaper to Milton A. Smith in 1908. On April 6, 1915, Smith changed its name to the Daily Democrat. Lloyd C. Griscom became owner in 1929, and Knight Newspapers, Inc., purchased it on March 1, 1965. The structure you see is the newspaper's third plant, opened in May, 1968. Earlier plants were located at 115 S. Adams and 100 E. Call St.
Sponsors: sponsored by the tallahassee democrat in cooperation with department of state
BATTLE OF NATURAL BRIDGE - March 6, 1865
Location:Natural Bridge Historic Site, Natural Bridge
County: Leon
City: South of Tallahassee
Description: Site of decisive repulse of Federal forces by Confederate Militia in joint U.S. Army and Navy Operation to take St. Marks. The Army landing at lighthouse was prevented from getting to rear of St. Marks by Confederate opposition at Newport and Natural Bridge. The Federal Flotilla ran aground during ascent of River: it did not reach St. Marks. Their next objective would have been Tallahassee. Federals (Number = 893*, Killed = 21, Wounded = 89, Missing = 148), Confederate (Number = 595, Killed = 3, Wounded = 23, Missing = 0). COMMANDERS: Brig. Gen. William Miller – Confederates, Commander R.W. Shutelt – U.S. Navy, Brig. Gen. John Newton – U.S. Army. *Of Whom 500 Were Reported To Have Been At Natural Bridge
Sponsors: Florida Department of State
OLD CITY CEMETERY
Location:Old City Cemetery between Call St. & Park Ave.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: The present boundaries of the Old City Cemetery were established by the Florida Territorial Council in 1829. Many pioneers and their slaves are buried here, although some early Tallahasseans were buried several hundred feet east of this site. The cemetery also contains graves of Confederate and Federal troops (white and Negro), some of the fatalities from the Battle of Natural Bridge, 1865, which marked the end of the ill-fated Northern attempt to seize the capital during the War Between the States.
Sponsors: In Cooperation With Anna Jackson Chapter UDC No. 224, Susan Bradford Eppes Chapter C of CO No. 26
PRINCE AND PRINCESS MURAT
Location:on Call Street, St.John's Episcopal Cemetery.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Prince Achille Murat was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte and the son of General Jochaim Murat, King of Naples. He settled in Florida in 1825, and as attorney, county judge, and director of Tallahassee's Union Bank, he played an active role in public life. Princess Catherine Willis Murat was the great grandneice of George Washington. Their plantations, "Lipona" and "Econchatti," were centers of social activity. Twin marble obelisks mark their graves in St. John's Episcopal Cemetery. The Murat seal is on the surrounding wall.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials In Cooperation With Florida Society Colonial Dames XVII Century
BELLE VUE - HOME OF THE PRINCESS MURAT
Location:Rankin Avenue on grounds of Tallahassee Museum of History & Natural Science
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Former home of Catherine Daingerfield Willis, great-grandniece of George Washington and widow of Archille Murat, Prince of Naples and nephew of Napoleon. During the Second French Empire she was recognized as a princess and financially assisted by Napoleon III, whose court she visited. She lived in this house from 1854 until shortly before her death, on August 6, 1867. The house, moved to this site in 1967 from its original location on the Jackson Bluff Road, is an excellent example of indigenous Southern architecture.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Murat House Association, Inc.
SAINT CLEMENT'S CHAPEL CHURCH OF THE ADVENT
Location:Piedmont Drive
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Built in the town of Lloyd in 1890, this Episcopal chapel was dedicated as St. Clement's Church on June 14, 1895, by Edwin Gardner Weed, 3rd Bishop of Florida. William Betton of Tallahassee designed and built the structure at a cost of $3,500. The furnishings are the original ones, including the pine pews and reed organ. The Bishop's Chair, oldest in Florida, dates from 1838 and is the only one in existence that the first five Bishops of Florida all used. The chapel was moved to this site and rededicated on November 29, 1959, by Edward Hamilton West, 5th Bishop of Florida.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with the Church of the Advent
LEON COUNTY
Location:301 South Monroe St. In front of County Courthouse
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Originally part of Escambia and later Gadsden Counties, Leon was created by the territorial legislature in 1824. Named for Juan Ponce de Leon, discoverer of Florida, it became antebellum Florida's most prosperous and populous county, Cotton thrived in its fertile soil. Tallahassee, the county seat, has been the state capital since 1824. It is the home of Florida State University (1857) and Florida A&M University (1887).
Sponsors: In Cooperation with Leon County Commissioners
LEWIS BANK
Location:South Monroe St. at the Lewis State Bank Bldg.
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Founded in 1856 by B.C. Lewis as a private banking business, the oldest bank in Florida has grown with the city and section, in size and services rendered. Since its founding, sons have followed fathers in the profession.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with Lewis State Bank
LEON HIGH SCHOOL
Location:550 East Tennessee Street
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: The first Leon Academy opened in 1827, three years after Tallahassee's founding, and operated until the mid-1840s. In 1869, the Leon County Board of Public Instruction established separate schools for whites and blacks. In 1871, the county opened the Leon Academy as a public school for whites and, in 1885, constructed a two-story brick building on Tennessee Street between Duval and Bronough streets. The Board of Public Instruction passed a resolution in 1903 establishing a 12-grade high school known as Leon Graded and High School. A new school was dedicated on Park Avenue in 1911. On March 27, 1927, the Board of Public Instruction purchased 31.7 acres of McDougal Pasture for $22,000. Efforts by Mode L. Stone, Tallahassee's supervising principal of public schools, and a 1935 bond referendum and a loan from the Emergency Administration of Public Works led to the construction of the present school in 1936. Architect M. Leo Elliott designed the Mediterranean Revival/Italian Renaissance style building with its distinctive barrel tile roof with wide eaves and decorative rafter tails. The school had 50 classrooms, a cafeteria, kitchen, library and an auditorium. The new Leon High School was dedicated on May 28, 1937.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Leon High School Foundation and the Florida Department of State
HICKORY HILL CEMETERY OF WELAUNEE PLANTATION
Location:Miccosukee Greenway
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Hickory Hill Cemetery is the main burial ground for African-American families that lived and worked on Welaunee Plantation. Welaunee was established by Udo Fleischmann, a banker and sportsman and member of the Fleischmann baking goods manuafacturing family from New York, and his wife Jeanne Kerr Fleischmann, who donated land for the cemetery. The Fleischmanns began leasing and purchasing former antebellum cotton plantation land in Leon County during the first two decades of the 20th Century. Tenant farming was common in Leon County for more than half a century, but had collapsed by 1950 when many tenant farmers began to leave as land was sold or used for quail hunting. Hickory Hill Cemetery reflects the ethnic backgrounds, religious beliefs, and settlement patterns of the black community of Welaunee Plantation, and includes grave markers dating from 1919 to 1947. For instance, Mason jars may sometimes be found at the graves of members of the Masonic order. Other folk practices include graves marked with pieces of iron, a wagon axle, or a simple glass container. Hand-fashioned markers can be found on the western side of the cemetery.
Sponsors: Mount Olive Missionary Baptist Church, New Zion Primitive Baptist Church, Testerina Primitive Baptist Church, The Trust for Public Land and the Florida Department of State
THE "LURAVILLE LOCAMOTIVE"
Location:3125 Conner Blvd
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: Its specific identity lost to time and the Suwannee River, the Luraville Locomotive is one of the nation's oldest "iron horse" steam locomotives. Most likely built between 1850 and 1855, the oft-modified 10-ton wood-burning American 4-0-0 steam locomotive played a role in Florida's early logging history. At one time the engine may have sported a cowcatcher and perhaps was used to pull passenger cars. It became a tram engine c. 1890 and was used to haul logs for the Bache Brothers Lumber Company to its sawmill near Luraville, Suwannee County. The locomotive's working career ended sometime around 1900 when the engine sank to the bottom of the Suwannee River while being loaded onto a barge at or near the Live Oak and Gulf Railroad's Suwannee River terminus at Peck. In 1979, a team headed by Luraville resident James Lancaster hoisted the remains of the locomotive and two sets of iron wheels from the river bottom. The locomotive was subsequently purchased and presented to the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for safekeeping and preservation. The partially restored engine now rests in front of a load of bald cypress logs, a fitting monument to an important era in Florida's history.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Florida Society of American Foresters The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, the Florida Division of Forestry The generosity of Pat and Peggy Goyke and The Florida Department of State
WEST CAMPUS OF THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY - TALLAHASSEE BRANCH OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Location:Intersection of Mabry St and Ridgeway St
County: Leon
City: Tallahassee
Description: After World War II, many veterans returning to Florida sought a college education through the GI Bill. The all-male University of Florida (UF) experienced record enrollment as thousands of veterans applied to the university. Unable to accommodate all of the students, UF asked the veterans if some would be willing to attend the Florida State College for Women (FSCW) in Tallahassee. In September 1946, the Florida Legislature authorized the opening of the Tallahassee Branch of the University of Florida (TBUF). This was the first time male students attended FSCW since the school became a women’s institution in 1905. To house the more than 500 male students, FSCW purchased land and buildings west of the main campus. This area had been the location of Dale Mabry Field, the city’s first airport and a World War II Army Air Corp training field. Former barracks and officers’ headquarters were converted into student housing, classrooms, and other administrative buildings for the expanded campus. One year later, FSCW became the coeducational Florida State University (FSU), which continued to use the “West Campus” to accommodate the university’s students.
Sponsors: The Florida State University Emeritus Alumni Society and the Florida Department of State

Levy

ATLANTIC TO GULF RAILROAD
Location:S.R. 24 in Cedar Key at a wayside park.
County: Levy
City: Cedar Key
Description: Florida was provided with its first cross-state railroad in 1861 when the Florida Railroad Company line reached Cedar Key. Overcoming early financial troubles, the line had begun construction from Fernandina, on the Atlantic, in 1856, but building was intermittent. It had been incorporated in 1853 with David L. Yulee as president. The railroad received land grants from Federal and State governments.
JOHN MUIR AT CEDAR KEY
Location:12231 S.W. 166th Court, State Museum at Cedar Key
County: Levy
City: Cedar Key
Description: John Muir, noted naturalist and conservation leader, spent several months in Florida in 1867. He arrived at Cedar Key in October, seven weeks after setting out from Indiana on a "thousand-mile walk to the Gulf." Muir's journal account of his adventure, which was published in 1916, two years after his death, includes interesting glimpses of the quality of life in the post-Civil War south. "The traces of war," he wrote, "are not only apparent on the broken fields, mills, and woods ruthlessly slaughtered, but also on the countenances of the people." Florida deeply impressed the twenty-nine year old Muir. He remembered the "watery and vine-tied" land where "the streams are still young," which he had seen and sampled on his way from Fernandina. It was while recovering from a bout with malaria in Cedar Key that Muir first expressed his belief that nature was valuable for its own sake, not only because it was useful for man. This principle guided John Muir throughout his life. In early 1868, he left Cedar Key and eventually settled in California, where he helped establish the Yosemite National Park and, in 1892, the Sierra Club, which became one of our nation's best known environmental organizations.
Sponsors: sponsored by florida chapter of the sierra clubin cooperation with department of state
ROSEWOOD, FLORIDA
Location:State Road 24, Rosewood
County: Levy
City: Rosewood
Description: Side 1: Racial violence erupted in the small and quiet Rosewood community January 1-7, 1923. Rosewood, a predominantly colored community, was home to the Bradley, Carrier, Carter, Goins, and Hall families, among others. Residents supported a school taught by Mahulda “Gussie” Brown Carrier, three churches, and a Masonic lodge. Many of them owned their homes, some were business owners, and others worked in nearby Sumner and at the Cummer Lumber Mill. This quiet life came to an end on January 1, 1923, when a white Sumner woman accused a black man of assaulting her. In the search for her alleged attacker, whites terrorized and killed Rosewood residents. In the days of fear and violence that followed, many Rosewood citizens sought refuge in the nearby woods. White merchant John M. Wright and other courageous whites sheltered some of the fleeing men, women and children. Whites burned Rosewood and looted livestock and property; two were killed while attacking a home. Five blacks also lost their lives: Sam Carter, who was tortured for information and shot to death on January 1; Sarah Carrier; Lexie Gordon; James Carrier; and Mingo Williams. Those who survived were forever scarred. Side 2: Haunted by what had happened, Rosewood residents took a vow of silence, lived in fear and never returned to claim their property. That silence was broken seventy-one years later. In 1994 survivors, including Minnie Lee Langley, Arnett Turner Goins, and Wilson Hall, filed a claims bill in the Florida Legislature. A Special Master, an expert appointed by the Speaker of the House, ruled that the state had a “moral obligation” to compensate survivors for the loss of property, violation of constitutional rights, and mental anguish. On May 4, 1994, Governor Lawton Chiles signed a $2.1 million compensation bill. Nine survivors received $150,000 each for mental anguish, and a state university scholarship fund was established for the families of Rosewood and their descendants. A fund was also established to compensate those Rosewood families who could demonstrate property loss. This Historic Marker was dedicated by Governor Jeb Bush in May, 2004.
Sponsors: THE REAL ROSEWOOD FOUNDATION, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE CEDAR KEYS: PENCILS, LUMBER, PALM FIBER AND BRUSHES
Location:947 3rd. St., corner 3rd & G Sts.
County: Levy
City: Cedar Key
Description: Side 1: Harvesting redcedars (a form of juniper) for pencil manufacturing, along with pines and baldcypress for lumber, was of great importance to the Cedar Keys and the early development of North Florida in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1849, German entrepreneur J. Eberhard Faber (1830-1884) arrived in New York hunting splinter-free wood for pencils. He found abundant redcedar in Florida’s Gulf Hammock/Waccasassa Bay area between the Suwannee and Withlacoochee Rivers. He bought land and timber, floated logs to the Keys, and shipped logs to the family factory in Germany. In 1858, Faber built a slat mill on Atsena Otie (Depot Key), directly south of this location, and shipped slats instead of logs. In 1862, he built the Faber pencil factory on New York’s East River (near the current site of the United Nations) and supplied it with slats from his Cedar Keys mill, a practice facilitated by the 1861 completion of David Levy Yulee's (1810-1886) Florida Railroad connecting the Keys and Fernandina Beach. Side 2: The Eagle Pencil Company followed Faber’s lead, building its New York factory in 1868 and supplying it with redcedar slats from its own mill built on this site in 1876. This industry flourished on the Cedar Keys until the local resources were depleted and the slat mills were destroyed by a hurricane in 1896. Augmenting Cedar Key’s redcedar-for- pencils industry of the era were other forest-based products. Yellow pine and baldcypress lumber was milled on the Keys by Suwannee Lumber and Fenimore Steam and Planing mills on Atsena Otie and Way Key, respectively . Cabbage (sabal) palms were harvested and used for dock pilings locally and as far away as Key West. Later (1910-1952), the Standard Manufacturing Company developed a process, established a mill, and produced brush fibers and Donax® whisk brushes from young cabbage palms. Palm fibers were shipped nationwide and as far as Canada, Germany, and Australia. The rich and diverse forest resources of the Cedar Keys and surrounding area, and the entrepreneurial energy of many were central to the settlement and development of the “Cedar Keys.” They provided homes and livelihood for thousands, products needed and enjoyed around the world, and a proud legacy for Florida.
Sponsors: FLORIDA SOCIETY OF AMERICAN FORRESTERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Liberty

TORREYA TREE
Location:Torreya State Park
County: Liberty
City: Rock Bluff
Description: In this vicinity on the Apalachicola River, Hardy Bryan Croom, pioneer Florida planter and botanist, discovered one of the rarest of coniferous trees, Torreya taxifolia circa 1835, and named it for Dr. John Torrey, prominent American botanist. Only four other species exist, but they are in the widely separated areas of China, Japan, and California. Croom's promising botanical career ended in 1837 when he perished in the wreck of the steamship "Home" off Cape Hatteras.

Madison

CAPTAIN RICHARD G. BRADFORD
Location:SW corner of Range & Basin Streets, in front of Co
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: Captain Richard G. Bradford of Madison was killed October 9, 1861, during the Battle of Santa Rosa Island. This battle was fought in an attempt to capture Fort Pickens which protected Pensacola Harbor. Bradford was the first Confederate officer from Florida to die in the War Between the States. In his honor the Legislature voted to change the name of New River County to Bradford County. Gov. John Milton signed the law December 6, 1861.
PIONEER HICKSTOWN BAPTIST CHURCH - FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF MADISON
Location:On Base St. between Orange and Meeting St.
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: Begun here for God's glory in 1835, the church was named Madison Baptist Church in 1854 and received its present name in 1922. Founders were Abraham Moseley and R.J. Mays. Early pastors were B. Fiddler, W.B. Cooper, H.Z. Ardis, and first deacon Elisha Smith. The Florida Baptist Convention formed the State Board of Missions here December, 1880. Members were S.B.Thomas, Sr., J.M. Beggs, B.F. Wardlaw, C.W. Stephens, J.F.B. Mays, W.W. Hall, C.V. Waugh, T.E. Langley and W.N. Chaudoin.
Sponsors: The First Baptist Church of Madison in Cooperation with Department of State, Bureau of Historic Preservation
THE FOUR FREEDOMS MONUMENT
Location:Four Freedoms Park, Corner of Base & Range St.
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: The Four Freedoms were stated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his Annual Message to Congress, January 6, 1941. Freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear everywhere in the world, became the ideals of American policy. The memorial, symbolizing these aspirations of mankind, was designed by Walter Russell, given by Women's National Institute, and dedicated to the memory of World War II hero, Captain Colin P. Kelly, Jr., June 14, 1944.
Sponsors: Madison County Memorial Post No. 68, The American Legion in Cooperation with Department of State, Bureau of Historic Preservation
ST. JOHNS SEMINARY OF LEARNING
Location:202 North Duval Street.
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: Madison Lodge Number 11, F.& A.M. founded the St. Johns Seminary of Learning on the southwest corner of this block in 1850. This institution became the basis for Madison High School in 1886. W.B. Cates established the Florida Normal Institute here as part of Madison High School in 1907. The building adjacent to this marker was the dormitory of the Florida Normal Institute. The Institute trained many teachers for all of Florida before closing in 1927.
Sponsors: Madison Lodge Number 11, Free and Accepted Masons in Cooperation with Department of State, Bureau of Historic Preservation
THE FLORIDA MANUFACTURING COMPANY - world's largest sea island cotton processing plant
Location:900 South Range Street.
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: Captain John L. Inglis began in this area The Florida Manufacturing Company in 1874. This plant ginned as many as ten thousand bales of Sea Island Long Staple Cotton in one year. The thread was widely used for general purposes and making English broadcloth. The plant was acquired by J.& P. Coats in 1890. The compression of seed was added later to ginning and baling of cotton. Activities ended with the coming of the Mexican Boll Weevil in 1916. This warehouse is the only remaining building of the manufacturing complex.
Sponsors: Coats & Clark Inc. in Cooperation with Department of State, Bureau of Historic Preservation
THE TOWN OF GREENVILLE (frontier sandy ford)
Location:one block south of U.S. 90 in front of Baptist Chu
County: Madison
City: Greenville
Description: Begun as Sandy Ford, 1850, Samuel Williams was the first postmaster in 1854. Called Station 5 on the Pensacola-Georgia R.R., the name Greenville, for Greenville, S.C., came in the 1860's. Elijah Hays helped its expansion after 1876. Incorporated in 1907, W.D. Griffin was the first mayor. An orange producing center prior to 1895, its chief supports now are timber, cattle, and flue-cured tobacco.
Sponsors: The Town Council of Greenville in Cooperation with Department of State, Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties
MADISON OAK RIDGE CEMETERY
Location:601 N.W. Washington Street.
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: An early community cemetery, Oak Ridge presents a profile of North Florida history. Located on approximately eleven acres, the cemetery was established on land donated by two pioneer citizens. Buried here are : William Archer Hammerly, Master Builder; Angus Paterson, former mayor of Madison and delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1885; Cary Augustus Hardee, Governor of Florida; Colin P. Kelly, Jr., World War II hero; and 31 Confederate Soldiers killed at the Battle of Olustee.
Sponsors: T.J. Beggs, Jr., and Sons in Cooperation with Department of State, Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties
FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH 1898 SANCTUARY
Location:Orange & Pickney Streets.
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: This structure represents an adaptation of the Queen Anne style of architecture to local ecclesiastical needs and traditional building materials. Both the stimulus for constructing a new sanctuary and the idea for its basic design are attributed to the Reverend Stephen Crockett, an Englishman who served as pastor at the time. Crockett's design is unusual for the time and place; however, its most unusual facet remains hidden until the visitor enters: the interior plan is octagonal. The sanctuary was moved to this location in 1956. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.
Sponsors: sponsored by first baptist church, madison, florida in cooperation with department of state
THE WARDLAW-SMITH HOUSE
Location:U.S. 90 (Base and Washington Streets).
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: The Wardlaw-Smith House was erected in the early 1860's for Benjamin F. Wardlaw, a prominent local citizen. Following the Civil War Battle of Olustee in February, 1864, it served as a Confederate hospital. This fine example of Greek Revival architecture was acquired in 1871 by Chandler Holmes Smith in whose family it remained for a century. The architectural significance of the Wardlaw-Smith House has been recorded by the Historic American Buildings Survey and it is listed in the prestigious National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: The Madison Rotary Club in Cooperation with Department of State
CITY OF MADISON - frontier newtown or madison courthouse
Location:South Rutledge at South Horry on City Hall grounds
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: Madison was founded on land secured from Madison C. Livingston, May 2, 1838, and established as the county seat after its removal from San Pedro. An early political center, it was along the escape route of Confederate Secretary of War John C. Breckenridge in 1865. The town played a prominent role in the development of tobacco, livestock raising, and conservation in North Florida. Home of the North Florida Junior College, the area's economy is based on agriculture and industry.
Sponsors: The Madison City Commission in Cooperation with Department of State
DREW MANSION SITE / THE TOWN OF ELLAVILLE
Location:Vicinity of Suwannee River State Park on U.S. 90,
County: Madison
City: near Ellaville
Description: Side 1: Located approximately one-half mile to the northwest is the site of the Drew Mansion, home of George F. Drew, Governor of Florida during the difficult period of readjustment following Civil War Reconstruction, 1877-1881. Built in the late 1860's, the two story mansion with it's beautiful color-matched oak parquet floors was surrounded by formal gardens and was one of the first homes in the area to have modern facilities. This once elegant landmark of Florida's past was destroyed by fire in 1970. Side 2: Closely related to the career of Governor George F. Drew was the sawmill and manufacturing complex of Ellaville, established by Drew in the mid-1860's. The present Route 90 led through this town of several hundred people. The ruins of the sawmill are on the west bank of the Withlacoochee River near its confluence with the Suwannee. Ellaville flourished as long as Yellow Pine lasted. It declined after 1900 and ceased to exist when the Post Office closed in 1942.
Sponsors: The Family of Robert L. Millinor in Cooperation with Department of State
JOHN C. McGEHEE
Location:C.R. 158 southwest of Madison in the Oakland Cemetary
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: Migrating from South Carolina, John Charles McGehee settled in this area of Madison County in the early 1830's. Shortly after his arrival, McGehee began acquiring property. By the outbreak of the Civil War his holdings consisted of nearly three thousand acres. In addition to his agricultural interests, McGehee was a shareholder in the Union Bank of Tallahassee. In 1838 McGehee was appointed to the St. Joseph Convention which drafted Florida's first Constitution. McGehee was nominated to serve as Judge of the Court of Madison County in 1841. As a wealthy slave owner, McGehee became involved in the Southern Rights Association, an organization which opposed federal interference with the rights of the States. A fervent secessionist, McGehee was elected permanent chairman of the Secession Convention which voted 62 to 7 to take Florida out of the Union. After the Civil War, McGehee was involved in railroad construction until his death in 1881. Judge McGehee was buried in the Oakland Cemetery located near the site of this marker.
Sponsors: Sponsored by madison county historical society in cooperation with department of state
DIAL-GOZA HOUSE
Location:105 NE. Marion St.
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: This late Victorian mansion was built c. 1880 for Major William H. Dial (1830-1905), a Confederate veteran of the Civil War. Dial was a surveyor who moved from South Carolina to Madison, Florida in the 1850s. This house is one of the finest examples of the Italianate style in north Florida. The building features bay windows, a roof cupola and an unusual bow porch on the main facade. It is lavishly decorated with bracketed cornices, window pediments and other distinctive late 19th century millwork. The house was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.
Sponsors: Florida Department of State
RAY CHARLES CHILDHOOD HOME
Location:443 SW Ray Charles Avenue
County: Madison
City: Greenville
Description: This house is a reconstruction of the home where musician Ray Charles (1930-2004) lived with his mother, Aretha Williams, and adopted grandmother, Margaret "Muh" Robinson. Shortly after his birth in 1930 until about the age of five. "RC," as Ray was known by his friends, recieved his first piano instruction from Wiley Pitman, owner of the nearby Red Wing Cafe. Ray and his mother later moved into a small house behind the cafe. At age seven, Ray's sight failed and he was sent to the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind in St. Augestine. The modest wood frame vernacular house he grew up in was probably constructed in the 1920s. It had no electricity or indoor plumbing. Meals were prepared on a wood-burning stove. A fireplace in one of the four small rooms provided warmth, and open windows and doors allowed breezes to cool the house. Because of advanced deterioration, the abandoned house was scheduled for demolition. In 2006, the Town of Greenville purchased the structure to preserve the memory of Ray Charles. With a grant for the Florida Bureau of Historic Preservation, the Town completed the reconstruction of the house in 2008.
Sponsors: The Town of Greenville and the Florida Department of State
SUWANNEE RIVER JUNIOR COLLEGE
Location:CR-350A between SW atwater Dr. and SW. Christmas Tree Dr.
County: Madison
City: Madison
Description: Florida's modern commuinty college system partially owes it development to a statewide system of 12 all-black junior colleges that developed a parallel to a system of white junior colleges during the era of segeration. These institutions were very important for a generation of black Floridians whose access to higher education was limited because of segeration and economic hurdles. Established in 1959, Suwannee River Junior College (SRJC) provided the black residents of north florida and south Georgia with post-secondary level educational and cultural enrichment opportunities. Like most other black community college insitutions founded in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the college had a short life span, lasting only seven years. The Suwannee River Junior College is the first college of any in Florida to have a female president. Jenyethel Merritt, a fixture in the local educational establishment, served as president of SRJC for five of the college's seven years. The college closed its doors in 1966, merging with formerly all-white North Florida Junior College.
Sponsors: Madison County Board of Commissioners and The Florida Department of State

Manatee

THE ANNA MARIA CITY PIER
Location:S. Bay Blvd. at City Pier
County: Manatee
City: Anna Maria
Description: Built in 1911, the Anna Maria City Pier welcomed visitors and residents to the island city arriving by steamship. The 776-foot-long pier accommodated paddle wheelers such as the Favorite and the Mistletoe prior to the construction of the first bridge from the mainland in 1922. The pier was commissioned by the Anna Maria Beach Company and was the brainchild of “Will” Bean, whose father homesteaded a large tract of land in 1893, and Charles Roser. Roser is credited by some with having developed the recipe (or baking process) for the famous Fig Newton cookie which he sold c. 1898 to the National Biscuit Company, now Nabisco. Bean and Roser built Anna Maria’s first church and bathhouse in 1913 on the Gulf of Mexico, along with cottages for their families and others. In a building barged down from Parrish, the city’s early promoters handed out flashy brochures of a young lady wearing a short dress, high heels, pearls, and holding a fishing pole reading “Anna Maria Beach, Florida’s Famous Year-round Resort.” Some of the island city’s first buildings survive today on Pine Avenue, a heritage area made possible by the construction of the Anna Maria City Pier over 100 years ago.
Sponsors: The Anna Maria Island Preservation Trust, Inc. and the Florida Department of State
9TH AVENUE BRIDGE WEST
Location:9th Avenue at Wares Creek
County: Manatee
City: Bradenton
Description: At this location over Wares Creek once stood one of the oldest concrete arch deck bridges in the State of Florida. Designed by noted local civil engineer Freeman H. Horton, the former 9th Avenue West bridge was constructed during World War II by the Bradenton Public Works Department using federal funds. The bridge was a relatively late example of a concrete arch deck bridge, a structurally more complex design than girder or slab construction. The 36.4-foot long bridge linked the Ballard Park neighborhood abutting Wares Creek, and served a vital role in providing safe, convenient east-west travel within the city. In addition to being well-known for his bridge design, Horton also holds the distinction of being the first Manatee High School alumnus to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In his design for the 9th Avenue West Bridge, Horton used an unusual zigzag handrail that is found on only one other Florida bridge, the 7th Avenue West Bridge over Wares Creek, which he also designed. When the 9th Avenue West Bridge was replaced in 2012, its distinctive original handrail was preserved and incorporated into the design of the new bridge.
Sponsors: The City of Bradenton and the Florida Department of State
BRADENTON DEPOT
Location:426 Manatee Ave. West
County: Manatee
City: Bradenton
Description: The Atlantic Coastline Railroad Company Passenger and Freight Depot Bradentown Florida, built c. 1925, became the Bradenton Depot when Bradentown dropped the w from its name. The historical significance on local and state levels was tremendous as its completion created a terminus of rail, road and water travel in Southwest Florida, connecting freight shipments from the piers on the Manatee River and shipping of agricultural products north, along with bringing passengers and tourists south during the expansion boom. The depot served the area from the time of the economic boom, through the depression, up to and including the great Florida growth period. Its era of significance was from 1925 to 1952. The 9,000-square-foot Mission/Spanish Colonial Style Revival building was constructed at a cost of approximately $80,000 and still stands on its original location. The building fell into disrepair in the 1990s, with the roof falling in and facing condemnation. It was purchased by Daniel B. Pope, M.D., of Bradenton. With a great love of railroad tradition, he brought the depot back to its original glory with red tiled roof, and white stucco trimmed in red brick.
Sponsors: THE BRADENTON DEPOT INVESTMENT COMPANY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
PASSAGE KEY - GATEWAY TO HISTORIC TAMPA BAY
Location:North Bay Blvd in Bay Front Park.
County: Manatee
City: Anna Maria Island
Description: Less than a mile to the north lies Passage Key, marking the southerly entrance into Tampa Bay. Since Ponce de Leon explored this coast in 1513, this island has served to guide ships into the great bay beyond, called by early Spanish explorers "Bahia del Espiritu Santo." After being named "Isla de San Francisco y Leon" by the Spanish in 1757, and renamed "Burnaby Island" by the English in 1765, it was later called "Pollux Key," corresponding with the name "Castor Key" given to nearby Egmont Key. The island finally became known as "Cayo del Paseje" in 1783, during the second Spanish occupation. This is the origin of today's name - Passage Key. Formerly much larger than it is today, the island contained a fresh water lake surrounded by large trees. During the early 1830's Passage Key was the site of a fishing "rancho" operated by Baltimore sea captain, William Bunce. The island was later a haven for refugees seeking safety from marauding Indian war parties. The fresh water lake, probably spring fed, was a watering station for coastal voyagers. In 1836, the U.S. Schooner Grampus and Revenue Cutters Washington and Jefferson anchored close ashore while their guns and shore parties protected settlers from the Indians. Passage Key was designated a migratory bird refuge by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1905. The island thereafter served for a time as the home of Captain Asa N. Pillsbury, Jr., a National Audubon Society warden, who in 1910 reported 102 species of birds sighted on the island. Captain Pillsbury remained warden of the island until 1921 when, during the night of October 25-26, the island disappeared under a hurricane-spawned tidal wave. Since then the island has gradually re-emerged and is once again a sea bird sanctuary, having been declared a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System by the U.S. Department of Interior.
Sponsors: sponsored by florida maritime historical socciety, inc. dewey a. dye, jr. in cooperation with department of state
BRADEN CASTLE RUINS
Location:Braden Castle Drive and Plaza St. E.
County: Manatee
City: Bradenton
Description: Dr. Joseph Addison Braden, physician and native Virginian, came from Tallahassee to the Manatee River in the early 1840's. By 1850 he had acquired approximately 900 acres of land and built a steam operated sugar and grist mill. In that year using slave labor and local materials he constructed his "Castle" - a large two story structure. The walls were poured "tabby" composed of lime, sand, crushed shells, and water. In February 1856 the "Castle" was attacked unsuccessfully by Seminoles. Later abandoned it was destroyed by a woods fire in 1903. The ruins were purchased by the Camping Tourist of America in 1924.
Sponsors: The Manatee County Historical Society in Cooperation with Department of State
GAMBLE SUGAR CANE MILL
Location:S.R. 683 (Ellenton Gillette Road)
County: Manatee
City: Ellenton
Description: In 1842, as the Second Seminole War drew to a conclusion, Major Robert Gamble, Jr. established a sugar cane plantation along the banks of the Manatee River, as did others including Hector and Joseph Braden, William Craig and William Wyatt. By 1850 Major Gamble's plantation included over 3,000 acres of land, one hundred slaves, and a sugar mill that housed the best sugar processing machinery then available in the south. During the 1840's and early 1850's, Gamble was the leading producer of sugar and molasses in Florida. Falling prices and steadily mounting debts finally forced Major Gamble to sell the plantation to two Louisiana planters in 1858. With the outbreak of the Civil War, these men terminated their operation, and after selling most of the slaves and machinery, they abandoned the plantation. In 1873, the Mansion and approximately 3,000 acres of land were purchased at public auction by George Patten but the sugar mill was not restored to operation at this or any subsequent time.
Sponsors: Sponsored by The Manatee County Historical Society In Cooperation With The Department of State
GILLETTE COMMUNITY
Location:3301 Moccasin Wallow Road
County: Manatee
City: Gillette
Description: This area, known originally as Frog Creek, received its first American settlers before the Civil War. Many of them came from Alabama, northern Florida, and Georgia. Among the Georgians was Daniel Gillett, who brought his family to Frog Creek in the late 1840s. Like many other area pioneers, Gillett raised cattle and citrus. He and his descendants were so closely identified with the Frog Creek settlement that it became known as Gillette, and a post office bearing that name existed here from 1895 to 1910. Benevolence, a Baptist church, formed the stable institutional backbone of the community. Formally organized in 1868, Benevolence loaned its facilities to other religious and secular groups in the area, emphasizing frontier cooperation rather than competition, and provided inspiration and leadership to nearby Baptist and other congregations. Gillette First Baptist Church is the present - day successor to Benevolence. Gillette has been known through the years as an agricultural community, producing winter vegetables, cattle, and citrus.
Sponsors: sponsored by gillette go getters 4-h club in cooperation with department of state
PALMA SOLA
Location:Riverview Boulevard at boat ramp east of the end of 59th St.
County: Manatee
City: Palma Sola
Description: In 1868, firearms manufacturer James Warner moved his family from Springfield, Massachusetts, to Manatee County, where he hoped to regain his health. He built a home on the shore of the Manatee River about half a mile east of this marker. The Warners were among the earliest northern families to settle in this area after the Civil War: Warner's Bayou bears their name. James Warner died about a year after his arrival, leaving his wife, Eleanor, and several children. In 1884, a son, Warburton S. Warner, founded a town, Palma Sola, on a portion of the family homestead. He promoted it as "the youngest and largest town in Floridaàmade up largely of New England people, where no liquor is sold." The name "Palma Sola" commemorated a single tall date palm that dominated the skyline on Snead Island, directly across the river from McNeil Point. The central section of town, which consisted of a huge sawmill and the homes of the men who operated it, was located on the point. The town also boasted the two-story Palma Sola Hotel, a general store said to be the largest between Cedar Keys and Key West, a long wharf, and an ice house large enough to hold a schooner-load of New England pond ice. Large quantities of pine and cypress lumber were shipped to New England, and the Palma Sola area also achieved some note as a shipping point for produce and livestock. Warburton Warner's hopes for Palma Sola were never completely fulfilled. He sought to sell land in an area extending from the Manatee River southward to Sarasota Bay, and from the range line starting at Shaw's Point, eastward to today's 34th Street, at prices ranging from five to twenty dollars per acre. Palma Sola grew and prospered for a time but began a gradual decline after the sawmill was destroyed by fire. Palma Sola's former central section is now a residential area. Warburton Warner's home, "Sans Terre," still stands on the shore of the Manatee River a short distance to the east, a reminder of Manatee County's pioneer days.
Sponsors: sponsored by manatee county historical society in cooperation with department of state
FIRST SETTLER'S HOMESITE
Location:105 15th St. E., on grounds of Meadowbrook Manor,
County: Manatee
City: Bradenton
Description: Side 1: Located a few yards from this spot near the banks of the Manatee River is the site of the log home of Josiah Gates. Gates was the first Anglo-American settler in the entire Manatee area which at that time extended southward to the Caloosahatchee River and eastward to the Kissimmee River. After the Second Seminole War, the Armed Occupation Act of August 4, 1842, opened Central Florida to American settlers. Gates, a native of South Carolina, moved his family here from Fort Brook (Tampa) early in 1843. Side 2: In 1851, Josiah Gates replaced his first dwelling with a twenty room, three story frame home located a few yards further back from the river on this same site. The "Gates House" served newly arrived settlers and visitors as a hotel in the wilderness. Josiah Gates became a prosperous farmer as well as a successful innkeeper. He was also active in local government after Manatee County was created in 1855. He died in 1871. Neither of the two structures built by Josiah Gates is still standing.
Sponsors: sponsored by Manatee County Historical Society In cooperation with department of state
GAMBLE MANSION AND PLANTATION
Location:U.S. 301 on grounds of the Gamble Plantation State
County: Manatee
City: Ellenton
Description: Side 1: At the close of the Seminole War in 1842, this frontier was opened to settlement. Major Robert Gamble and other sugar planters soon located along the rich Manatee River valley, and by 1845 a dozen plantations were producing for the New Orleans market. The Gamble Mansion, built principally of native materials, 1845-1850, is an outstanding example of antebellum construction and stands today as a monument to pioneer ingenuity and craftsmanship. The plantation included 3500 acres, numerous outbuildings, slave quarters, and wharf from which sugar and molasses were shipped by schooner and steamboat. Side 2: The Gamble sugar mill, one of the South's largest, was destroyed by Union raiders in 1864. Ruins are located 1/2 mile north on State Road 683. During the Civil War the mansion was the home of Captain Archibald McNeill, famous Confederate blockade runner. Judah P. Benjamin, Confederate Secretary of State, took refuge here during May 1865 while making his escape from Federal troops following defeat of the Confederacy. The mansion was rescued from decay in 1923 by the Judah P. Benjamin Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with the Judah P. Benjamin Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy
ATZEROTH HOME SITE
Location:728 Bay Shore Drive
County: Manatee
City: Terra Ceia Island
Description: Side 1: This is the home site of Joe and Madam Joe Atzeroth, first permanent settlers of Terra Ceia Island. With their daughter Eliza, a physician friend, and dog Bonaparte, they arrive via Tampa April 12, 1843. Living first in a tent, then a palmetto thatched hut, they finally built a two-room log cabin. They grew tobacco and vegetables and sold them to the garrison at Ft. Brooke (Tampa). In 1880 Madam Joe received a $10 award for growing the first pound of coffee in this country. Side 2: Terra Ceia Island was a dense jungle when the Atzeroths arrived to homestead 160 acres. Panthers and other wild animals abounded. Their log house was built of split cedar planks and moss and clay filled the cracks. The doors and glazed windows were imported from New Orleans. The family survived the many harsh rigors of frontier life. Mr. Joe participated in the 3rd Seminole War and Civil War. After his death in 1871, Madam Joe moved to Fogartyville.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
"BEAN'S POINT" / EARLY LEGEND
Location:310 North Bay Boulevard in Bayfront Park.
County: Manatee
City: Anna Maria Island
Description: Side 1: In May 1894, Anna Maria Island's first modern-day pioneer-George Emerson Bean-took up a homestead, signed by President Wm. McKinley, that embraced the island's entire north point. Other daring settlers, such as Samuel C. Cobb and John R. Jones, came shortly after, clearing the island's dense jungle to build homes. In 1913, George W. Bean, son of Anna Maria's first pioneer, founded the Anna Maria Development Company. This opened the island to its expansion as a uniquely appealing summer and winter resort for visitors as well as year round home for an increasing number of residents form almost every state of the union. Side 2: Earliest known dwellers of Anna Maria Island were Indians of the Timucuan Tribe, whose burial mounds, filled with tribal artifacts, were found years later. According to tradition, Ponce de Leon in 1513 visited this key (then joined to what is now Longboat Key) and in honor of his sponsor King Charles II, gave the island his queen's name. In 1539, Hernando DeSoto is said to have made his first new world landing near here. Replenishing his ships' water casks, the explorer then passed around Anna Maria's north point and sailed to the Manatee River, launching his historic expedition to the Mississippi River.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Manatee County Historical Society
PALMETTO BAPTIST CHURCH / DR. M.B. HARRISON
Location:11th Ave. W. between 5th and 4th St. W.
County: Manatee
City: Palmetto
Description: Side 1: The Palmetto Baptist Church was organized on January 5, 1892, and a few months later its first building was erected on this site. The Reverend R.H. Whitehead, under whose leadership the church was constituted, became its first pastor. Dr. M.B. Harrison and W.H. Harrison were elected deacons. They also were named trustees, together with John W. Mitchell, M.C.Davis, and W.M. Rowlett. There were 22 charter members, 18 of who transferred from the Benevolence Baptist Church, then located on Frog Creek several miles north of Ellenton. The original frame structure was replaced by the present brick building in 1926. Side 2: Micajah Berry Harrison (1844-1912) was a native of Greenville County, South Carolina. He served 4 years in Hampton's Cavalry, CSA, and took part in 29 battles. He was a graduate of the South Carolina Medical College. Dr. Harrison moved to Alachua County, Florida, in 1875, to Oak Hill (Parrish) in 1880, and to Palmetto in 1889. He bought the house across the street in 1890, and resided there until his death. He was the first doctor on the north side of the river, the first Worshipful Master of the Palmetto Masonic Lodge, and President of the first Palmetto City Council.
Sponsors: First Baptist Church of Palmetto in Cooperation with Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
PALMETTO
Location:Riverside Drive West
County: Manatee
City: Palmetto
Description: Side 1: S.S. Lamb came here with his family from Mississippi in a covered wagon and barouche and purchased this property on February 3, 1868. Lamb laid out and named Palmetto. The Lamb home, which stood about 100 yards west of here, was built by Juliann (Madam Joe) Atzeroth, who acquired the property in 1850. A log cabin under the six oaks about sixty yards southwest of the house was used as a store by Madam Joe. It later became Palmetto's first public school, and the first religious services were held there. The first post office, established September 15, 1873 stood at 319 Ninth Avenue. Side 2: The first shipping dock was built at the foot of Ninth Avenue by Joel Hendrix several years after he came here in 1871. The narrow-gauge Palmetto Terminal Railroad was built in 1895 to haul produce from farms northwest of town to the dock. When the locomotive broke down, a flat car with canopy was pulled on the track by four horses. The town's first three stores stood just east of Ninth Avenue on Riverside Drive. The city was incorporated in June 1893. P.S. Harllee was the first mayor. Manatee County State Bank, the county's first, was established in 1899 at the northeast corner of this block in Palmetto's first brick building.
Sponsors: Manatee County Historical Society and Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
FIRST MANATEE COUNTY COURTHOUSE / MANATEE METHODIST CHURCH-ESTABLISHED 1849
Location:1404 Manatee Ave. E. in Manatee Historical Park
County: Manatee
City: Bradenton
Description: Side 1: Manatee County was created by legislative action signed January 9, 1855, from Hillsborough, St. Lucie, and Monroe Counties. Five years later, in 1860, Josiah Gates and Mary, his wife, deeded to Manatee County a parcel of land located here to be the county seat and a courthouse built thereon. The building was completed the same year at a cost of $700 and served as a courthouse and school until 1866 when the county seat was moved to Pine Level. Side 2: Oldest church of any denomination south of Tampa on Florida's west coast. Lot located here was sold to John W. Curry, Ezekiel Clazier and James G. Cooper in 1866 for the Manatee Methodist Church. It is believed that the church ownership of this represents the longest private ownership of land in Manatee County.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Manatee County Historical Society
MANATEE MINERAL SPRING
Location:14th Street East between 2nd Ave E and 4th Ave E.
County: Manatee
City: Bradenton
Description: Here flowed a spring which had been used by Indians and was found by Manatee's first white settler, Josiah Gates, who settled nearby in January 1842. It served Branch Fort, when the early settlers camped nearby for protection from the Seminole raid of 1856. During this encampment, the first child born (March 4, 1856) was Furman Chairs Whitaker, who became Manatee County's first native born doctor, practicing here from 1896, until shortly before his death in 1945. In the early 1900's the spring became the center of a small park which included a picnic pavilion.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Manatee County Historical Society
MAJOR ADAMS CEMETERY
Location:Corner of 3rd St. W. and 9th Ave W.
County: Manatee
City: Bradenton
Description: This plot was donated by Major Alden Joseph Adams to the village of Manatee in 1892 "to be used as a burying ground forever." It was first called New Cemetery. Members of pioneer families, including Major Adams, are interred here. The property is now owned by the City of Bradenton. Major Adams moved into this area in 1876, and his homesite was on the Manatee River a few blocks northeast of here.
Sponsors: Erected by the Judah P. Benjamin Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy and Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
MANATEE BURYING GROUND
Location:15th St. East and 6th Ave E.
County: Manatee
City: Bradenton
Description: This is one of the oldest organized burying grounds on the Gulf Coast of Florida. The property was deeded on May 30, 1850, and since 1892 only immediate members of families already interred here can be buried in the cemetery. The property is now owned by the City of Bradenton. Buried in this cemetery are members of Florida pioneer families, soldiers of the Seminole Indian Wars, and of the Confederate and Union forces. Numbered among them are three members of the Florida Secession Convention-Ezekiel Glazier, James G. Cooper, and Dr. John C. Pelot, temporary Chairman of the Convention-and Brig. Gen. John Riggin, aide to General Ulysses S. Grant.
Sponsors: Erected by the Judah P. Benjamin Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy and Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials

Marion

SITE OF THE DISCOVERY OF PHOSPHATE IN FLORIDA
Location:County Road 40, between Kennesaw and Vogt Spings Rd.
County: Marion
City: Dunnellon
Description: One block to the south is the site of the discovery of hard rock phosphate in Florida by Albertus Vogt in 1889. It made Dunnellon a boom town and first center of the industry. The Tiger Rag, Early Bird and Eagle mines were among the most valuable. The Marion County Phosphate Co. was the first to operate extensively. Phosphates are still mined in the area, but since 1900 the center of production has shifted elsewhere.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Dunnellon Garden Club
FORT KING
Location:S.E. 39th Avenue (Fort King Road), Ocala.
County: Marion
City: Ocala
Description: On a nearby knoll stood Fort King, important military outpost during the removal of the Florida Indians. Adjacent to a Seminole Agency established in 1825, it was named for Col. William King and first occupied in 1827. Outside its stockade, on December 28, 1835, warriors led by Osceola ambushed and killed Gen. Wiley Thompson and four others. On this same day, troops marching to the fort's relief perished in the Dade Massacre. In 1844, after the Seminole War ended, Fort King became the temporary seat of newly created Marion County.
OCALA DEMANDS
Location:S.E. First Avenue, City Park Square in Ocala.
County: Marion
City: Ocala
Description: In December, 1890, Ocala was host to a meeting of the National Farmers' Alliance. Sessions, attended by 88 delegates and hundreds of visitors, were held at the Opera House and the Semi-Tropical Exposition Building. A state-wide agricultural exposition was held in conjunction with the meeting. The delegates adopted the famous "Ocala Demands", a platform outlining political and economic reforms considered necessary by the Alliance.
THE OLD COURTHOUSE SQUARE
Location:The city block bordered on the north by Silver Springs Blvd., on the east by SE 1st Ave., on the south by SE 1st Street and on the west by S. Magnolia Avenue.
County: Marion
City: Ocala
Description: Designated as a Public Square in the original Ocala plat of 1846, this location was the site of Marion County’s first permanent courthouse built in 1851. It was a two-story frame building of Colonial design. The second courthouse was erected on this site in 1884, a two-story brick cube. Public dissatisfaction caused a third courthouse with more adequate space to be built in 1906. It was of Roman design with a clock dome and veneered walls of Indiana sandstone. In 1965, when public efforts to save it failed, it was demolished. This site was given by Marion County to the City of Ocala in a property exchange, becoming a city park, thus retaining its function as a Public Square as planned by the city’s founders.
Sponsors: THE MARION COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MARSHALL PLANTATION SITE
Location:NE 7th St. CR 314 on w. side Ocklawaha River
County: Marion
City: Ocala
Description: A short distance north of here stood the sugar plantation of Jehu Foster Marshall, established in 1855. At the start of the Civil War in 1861, Marshall was named a colonel in the Confederate Army and soon commanded one of General Wade Hampton’s infantry units, the 1stSouth Carolina Rifles. Colonel Marshall was killed during the Second Battle of Manassas in August 1862. The plantation continued in operation under the supervision of his widow, Elizabeth Anne DeBrull Marshall, until March 10, 1865, when Union troops staged a surprise raid. The Marshall Plantation and the sugar mill were burned to the ground. The raid was conducted by elements of the 3rdUnited States Colored Infantry ,led by the black Sergeant Major Henry James. The Ocala Home Guard pursued the Union force and during the running battle, two of the home guard members were killed. After crossing the Ocklawaha River, the raiders set fire to the bridge. Company H, 2nd Florida Cavalry, lead by Captain J.J. Dickison, encamped at nearby Silver Springs, soon gave chase and succeeded in driving the Union troops into St. Augustine, and reclaiming all property seized during the raid.
Sponsors: MARION COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MARION COUNTY CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL MARKER
Location:Veteran's Memorial Park
County: Marion
City: Ocala
Description: On May 1, 1908, the John J. Dickison Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) dedicated this monument to honor the Confederate dead. To erect the monument, the UDC collected $1,500 from its members, schoolchildren (donating pennies), and the general public. The namesake of the UDC chapter, Captain J. J. Dickison, was a Marion County resident who served as a captain in the Second Florida Cavalry during the Civil War. Confederate monuments such as this were erected throughout the South after the war. The granite-tiered monument was fabricated by the McNeel Marble Works of Marietta, Georgia, a nationally-recognized manufacturer of marble stonework and large funerary art and memorials in the early twentieth century. It stands 23 feet high and is topped by a carved marble Confederate soldier locally referred to as “Johnny Reb.” Moved several times during its history due to expansions of the Marion County Courthouse, the monument found a permanent home at this location in 2010.
Sponsors: The Marion County Historical Commission, The Marion County Board of County Commissioners, and the Florida Department of State

Martin

MOUNT ELIZABETH MOUND
Location:1707 NE Indian River Drive
County: Martin
City: Jensen Beach
Description: Mount Elizabeth Mound was constructed approximately 4,000 years ago during the Late Archaic Period by Florida bands who selected this site for a ceremonial shell midden-mound. It was occupied 4,000-800 years ago by ancient peoples who first subsisted by hunting large land animals, and then later on a diet of smaller animals and shellfish as they established villages and towns along waterways where fresh water was available. The abundant shells that make up a large part of the mound were harvested from the nearby Indian River Lagoon and the Atlantic Ocean. This site is the southernmost evidence of fiber-tempered pottery along Florida’s east coast. After European contact, these and most Florida natives died of disease or war with Creeks, and their British allies. After Florida was transferred from Spanish to British control in 1763, these remaining Native Floridians were given the option of staying in Florida or going to Cuba. They chose to go to Cuba and boarded a ship in Biscayne Bay in the fall of 1763, thus ending the history of a proud people who had lived here for 5,000 years.
Sponsors: SEAFAS in Memory of Sarah McKeige, Founder, and the Florida Department of State
STUART WELCOME ARCH
Location:SR 707 between Myrtle & Marion Aves.
County: Martin
City: Stuart
Description: This Mediterranean Revival style monument typical of the pre-Depression Florida Boom was designed by Nat C. Hodgdon of Pfeiffer and O’Reilly Architects, constructed by A. L. Doenges and completed on February 20, 1926. The arch was built to celebrate the creation of Martin County with Stuart as the county seat. This gateway greeted southbound travelers on the “Montreal to Miami” Dixie Highway (formerly A1A) with the bronze-lettered caption, “Stuart - Atlantic Gateway to the Gulf of Mexico,” a reference to the cross-state canal connecting Martin County to Florida’s west coast through Lake Okeechobee. Design and construction of the arch was funded through a Stuart Chamber of Commerce campaign organized by prominent leaders and supported by citizens of the City of Stuart and Jensen Beach. Continuous repair resulting from theft during the Depression, hurricane damage, natural deterioration, and vehicular accidents reflects this landmark’s significance in both the local and countywide communities. The gateway is currently known as the Rio-Jensen Arch, and its restoration is a goal in the Rio Community Redevelopment Plan adopted by Martin County in April, 2001.
Sponsors: THE MARTIN COUNTY COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
JUPITER INDIANTOWN ROAD
Location:Old SR 29 & SR 76 north
County: Martin
City: Stuart
Description: From 1900 until the late 1950s, the Jupiter Indiantown Road connected the communities of Jupiter and Indiantown, giving residents access to resources. Dade County governed the area in 1899, when the new road was cut. In Indiantown about that time, brothers Joe and Dessie Bowers developed citrus groves and ran a trading post exchanging goods for hides with the Seminoles. Transportation of goods on the 16-mile road took two days by oxcart. The road was improved in 1912 using mules to haul shell rock from Jupiter. Around 1916 the St. Lucie Canal intersected the road near Indiantown. A hand winched ferry provided cross passage until a one-lane turning bridge was built in 1927. Homesteads, cattle ranches, and later the Davis and Jenkins sawmill were established along the road. Also known as the Jupiter Grade Road, the Jupiter Okeechobee Road and the Central Dixie Highway, in 1936 it became State Road 29. By the late 1950s nearby paved highways replaced the historic dirt road. In 1993 the road was declared a Scenic By-Way by Martin and Palm Beach Counties.
Sponsors: THE MARTIN COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
TRAPPER NELSON INTERPRETIVE SITE
Location:John Dickenson State Park
County: Martin
City: Hobe Sound
Description: When he arrived from New Jersey in the early 1930s, Vincent Natulkiewicz, also known as Vince “Trapper” Nelson found the area still teeming with wildlife. For decades he lived off the land, supplementing his diet of raccoon, gopher tortoise, and opossum with fruit from his citrus grove. In addition to trapping he made his living by developing a business that he called “Trapper’s Zoo and Jungle Garden.” His docks, cages, cabins and shelters were hand made from pine trees. While he lived there, Trapper introduced hundreds of tourists and local visitors to the river’s mystery and beauty, building the image of Eden in South Florida. Trapper Nelson lived in his camp until his mysterious death in 1968. The Trapper Nelson Interpretive Site is a rare survivor of a formerly common building type, exemplary of a vanished occupation and lifestyle, enhanced by its location in equally rare pristine woodland. Trapper Nelson actively engaged in efforts to preserve the Loxahatchee River and to protect his ownership of large tracts along its banks. Trapper’s estate was sold by his family to a developer. The Florida Park Service acquired the estate through a land swap and maintains and protects the site for future generations to enjoy.
Sponsors: THE JONATHAN DICKINSON STATE PARK AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CAMP MURPHY SITE
Location:JONATHAN DICKINSON STATE PARK
County: Martin
City: Hobe Sound
Description: In 1942 the federal government opened Camp Murphy. It was the home of the Southern Signal Corps School during World War II and served as a U.S Army base for instruction in radar operation in the early course of the war. The post was named in honor of Lieutenant Colonel William Herbert Murphy, a pioneer in the development of radio beams and equipment for military aircraft. Camp Murphy consisted of 11,364 acres and accommodated 854 officers and 5,752 enlisted men. The camp had close to 1000 buildings that included a bank, movie theater, church, and bowling alley. Camp Murphy was officially decommissioned in 1944 and used for migrant housing during the fall and winter of 1945. Buildings not already dismantled after the camp’s deactivation were sold and carted away beginning in 1946. On June 9, 1947, the property was transferred from the U.S Government to the State of Florida for a State Park. In 1950 Jonathan Dickinson State Park opened to the public.
Sponsors: THE FRIENDS OF JONATHAN DICKINSON STATE PARK AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
JONATHAN DICKINSON SHIPWRECK
Location:Jonathan Dickinson State Park, at park entrance of
County: Martin
City: Hobe Sound
Description: Three miles to the east on Sept. 23, 1696, the British barkentine Reformation foundered off Jupiter Island. The 24 survivors included a party of Quakers bound from Jamaica to Pennsylvania. Leader of the Quakers was Jonathan Dickinson who described the trials of the group in his book, "God's Protecting Providence", the first account of Indians on the southeast coast. Attacked by Indians and driven northward, the party arrived at St. Augustine in November, 1696.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with Jonathan Dickinson Chapter D.A.R.

Miami-Dade

THE PERRINE LAND GRANT
Location:U.S. 1 at 16165 S. Dixie Highway
County: Miami-Dade
City: Perrine
Description: In 1838, the United States Congress granted a township of land in the southern extremity of Florida to noted horticulturist Dr. Henry Perrine and his associates. This land was to be used in experiments aimed at introducing foreign tropical plants and seeds into Florida. Although Dr. Perrine did not select a township before his death in 1840, he indicated the area he preferred, and his family later selected the land which came to be called the Perrine Land Grant. Born in 1797, Henry Perrine was trained as a physician. During a visit to Cuba in 1826, he became interested in tropical plants which might be successfully introduced into the southern United States. As American consul in Campeche, Mexico (1827-1838), Dr. Perrine began to send Mexican plants to a friend on Indian Key in Florida and to seek government support for future agricultural experiments. Eager to find a way to utilize the tropical soils of the south, the leaders of Territorial Florida gave their support to Dr. Perrine in the efforts to obtain land for his project which culminated in the grant of 1838. Events of the Second Seminole War made it impossible for Dr. Perrine to settle on the Florida Mainland in 1838. He took his family to Indian Key to care for his plants and await the war's end. On August 7, 1840, Indians attacked the Key, killing Dr. Perrine and six others; his family escaped uninjured. Dr. Perrine deserves recognition as a pioneer whose efforts stimulated interest in tropical agriculture in Florida.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Perrine Cutler Ridge Rotary Club In Cooperation With Department of State
CORAL GABLES HOUSE
Location:907 Coral Way
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: In 1899, Dr. Solomon Merrick, a Massachusetts Congregational minister, purchased a 160-acre tract of land located near Miami. Rev. Merrick and his son, George, settled in a log cabin already standing on the property and planted grapefruit and vegetables on their land. The rest of the Merrick family soon came to live on the Florida property, which they called "Guavonia" after the fruit that grew there. They lived in a newly constructed frame house which was incorporated into the larger home, completed in 1906. Called "Coral Gables", this house was built of native limestone rock quarried from a nearby site, now Venetian Pool. As Merrick's crops prospered, more land was acquired, bringing the plantation to about 1,600 acres where George Merrick envisioned and later developed a new, Mediterranean-style community. It was named "Coral Gables", after the home. In 1966, W.L. Philbrick purchased the house, which had become known as Merrick Manor, and created the Merrick Manor Foundation to maintain the building as a historic site. In 1976, the Foundation donated this home to the people of Coral Gables. Merrick Manor, now known as Coral Gables House, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: sponsored by coral gables chapter daughters of the american revolution in cooperation with department of state
TROOP 7 LOG CABIN
Location:1107 S. Greenway Dr
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: When George Edgar Merrick (1886-1942) designed his idealistic City of Coral Gables in the early 1920s, he created a special area for scouts and built a rustic log cabin for his Troop 7 Boy Scouts on this site. Today, only the chimney remains. After the hurricane of 1926, Merrick’s Coral Gables Construction Company built the Troop 7 scout cabin largely from pine trees and telephone poles. Merrick deeded these two acres of land, now in the middle of the Granada Golf Course, to the scouts in perpetuity. Their first scoutmaster was Albert H. Bartle. As scoutmaster for the first three years, then a committee member, Mr. Bartle served Troop 7 for 16 years until 1938, setting the standard for excellence and longevity for others to follow. The old Troop 7 log cabin burned down on March 30, 1971, leaving only the chimney. The new building, finished in 1976, was dedicated to Scoutmaster Rex Hawkins, who kept the troop alive during the difficult WWII years when many adult leaders were away. The George Merrick Foundation continues to maintain the property, with help from the City of Coral Gables, the Kiwanis Club of Coral Gables and concerned citizens who appreciate the legacy of George Merrick’s scouting program.
Sponsors: THE GEORGE MERRICK FOUNDATION, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GREAT MIAMI HURRICANE OF 1926
Location:100 NE 1st Ave.
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: On September 18, 1926, the Great Miami Hurricane swept across South Florida with estimated winds of 131-155 mph. Before the era of satellites and computer models, warnings for tropical cyclones were often inadequate. A storm warning from Washington was posted by the Miami Weather Bureau Office (located on the third floor of the Old U.S. Post Office and Courthouse Building from 1914 to 1929) at noon on September 17. A hurricane warning went up only as the winds were rising at 11:25 P.M. Weather instruments on the roof of the building blew away around 3:30 A.M. The eye of the hurricane reached the coast at 6:00 A.M., lasting about 35 minutes with a lowest pressure measured at 27.61 inches. The second part of the hurricane produced the strongest winds and the highest storm surge up to 10 feet that completely flooded Miami Beach and several blocks inland on the mainland, causing the deaths of many who mistakenly thought the storm was over. The storm killed more than 370, made more than 25,000 people homeless, and caused millions of dollars in damage in South Florida. It continued across the state and moved into the Gulf of Mexico near Fort Myers, making a second landfall west of Pensacola on September 20, 1926.
Sponsors: THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MIAMI CITY CEMETERY
Location:1800 NE 2nd Ave
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: In 1897 Mrs. William Brickell sold this 10-acre “rocky wasteland” to the City of Miami for $750. At that time it was located one half mile north of the city limits on a narrow wagon track county road. The first burial, not recorded, was of an elderly black man on 14 July 1897. The first recorded burial was H. Graham Branscomb, a 23-year-old Englishman on 20 July 1897. From its inception it was subdivided with whites on the east end and the colored population on the west end. In 1915 the Beth David congregation began a Jewish section. Two other prominent sections are the circles: the first to Julia Tuttle, the “Mother of Miami” buried in 1898; the second, a memorial to the Confederate Dead erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Sixty-six Confederate and twenty-seven Union veterans are buried here. Other sections include a Catholic section, American Legion, Spanish American War, and two military sections along the north and south fence lines. Among the 9,000 burials are pioneer families such as the Burdines, Peacocks and Dr. James Jackson. This site has the only known five oolitic (limestone) gravestones worldwide. These and the unique tropical plants make this a tropical oasis.
Sponsors: SONS OF CONFEDERATE VETERANS, DADE HERITAGE TRUST, COMMISSIONERS REGALDO,WINTON & TEELE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
PIONEER BOAT BUILDERS' SITE -- 1947
Location:975 North West 95th Street
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: For thousands of years most water crafts were built of wood. The first reinforced plastic fiberglass boats in the southeastern United States were conceived and built here in 1947. Two hundred feet north of this marker is the former home and workshop of Troy Wollard, where his shop building still stands. He was an outstanding shipwright who was instrumental in building the durable high-performing crafts with visionary pioneers Arthur H. Siegel (1924-2003) and Dudley Whitman. Challenger Marine Corporation produced its first boats at this location which was the beginning of the boating revolution. This small manufacturing venture changed the yachting world forever. The 18-foot runabout speedboats had inboard engines that could reach up to 50 miles per hour. They had monocoque (egg shape) construction with full-length stringers that supported the hull and engine. An outline of excess resin used to make these boats is still visible on the floor of the shop. This enterprise was one of the first in the nation to use fiberglass successfully and was the forerunner of an important industry eventually leading to the development of large luxury yachts and commercial vessels.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
VIRGINIA KEY BEACH STATE PARK
Location:Virginia Beach Drive, Virginia Key State Park
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Virginia Key Beach Park is an environmental and historic landmark on a barrier island in Miami. Its earliest recorded history is of an 1838 skirmish during the Second Seminole War in which three Seminoles were killed on this site. From the early 1900s onward, during the era of segregation laws, this location became a popular unofficial “Colored” recreation area known as “Bears Cut.” In response to a bold protest led by attorney Lawson E. Thomas and others demanding an officially designated beach, Virginia Key Beach opened for “the exclusive use of Negroes” on August 1, 1945. The new park, at first accessible only by boat, was an immediate success, attracting over 1,000 visitors on any given weekend. In addition to the baptisms and sunrise services which regularly took place, churches, organizations, and families gathered here for memorable picnics and social events. The park brought together all neighborhoods and social classes of the “Colored” community. By the early 1960s, another courageous protest brought segregation to an end. The beach park symbolizes the struggle of Black Miamians who persevered to bring about change for future generations.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF MIAMI PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE CORAL GABLES GOLF AND COUNTRY CLUB
Location:997 N Greenway Dr.
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: The Coral Gables Golf and Country Club and the Granada Golf Course, once the Merrick family’s vegetable field, were part of the original 1921 city plan by George Merrick and landscape architect, Frank Button. The golf course, designed by the nationally known team of Langford & Moreau, opened on January 15, 1923. Three months later, the clubhouse, designed by Hampton & Reimert, became Coral Gables’ first public building. The six original coral rock arches seen behind this marker reflect the Coral Gables Mediterranean style that helped set the tone for the City’s architecture. The Coral Gables Golf and Country Club quickly became the epicenter of the new community and played an important role in its development. Salesmen, including Merrick himself, entertained prospective buyers there and showed them home sites from its distinctive tower. Crowds flocked to the Club’s palm patio and danced to the nationally broadcast music of renowned bandleaders Jan Garber and Paul Whiteman. The Country Club of Coral Gables, as it is known today, received its charter on October 9, 1935. A devastating fire destroyed much of the building on July 11, 1983.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF CORAL GABLES, THE COUNTRY CLUB OF CORAL GABLES FOUNDATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WOMEN TAKE ACTION IN CORAL GABLES (The Roxcy O'Neal Bolton House)
Location:Alhambra Circle and Madrid
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Built in 1933, this Mediterranean Revival house is a contributing structure in the Coral Gables Plantation Historic District, one of the earliest developments in the city planned by George Merrick. Throughout the late 1960s and the 1970s, this house became a meeting place for those who campaigned for equal rights for women. Resident and pioneer feminist Roxcy O’Neal Bolton opened her home as headquarters to organize numerous rallies and marches and founded the Miami Dade Chapter of the National Organization for Women. In an effort to bring public attention to the special needs of women, organizational meetings were held in this house to establish Women in Distress, the first women’s rescue shelter in Florida, and the Rape Treatment Center at Jackson Memorial Hospital. Community meetings were also held here to create the Citizen’s Crime Watch of Dade County, one of the first of its kind in the country. Under Roxcy Bolton’s leadership, the perseverance of all those who volunteered their time here created a forceful voice for justice for those who would otherwise not be heard.
Sponsors: Coral Gables Historic Preservation Board and the Florida Department of State
THE BARNACLE
Location:3485 Main Highway
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: The Barnacle is one of the oldest homes in Dade County still standing on its original site. It was built in 1891 by Ralph Middleton Munroe, one of Coconut Grove’s most prominent pioneers. He visited South Florida in 1877 and moved to this area in 1881. Commodore Munroe purchased 40 acres of bay front land, including this five acre site. He built the boathouse in 1887 and lived on its upper floor until the main house was completed. In 1894 he married Jenny Wirth. They had two children Patty and Wirth, who were brought up here. This historic site and the original house with its additions were donated to the state of Florida by the Munroe family in 1973.
Sponsors: The Barnacle Society Inc and the Florida Department of State.
ALHAMBRA WATER TOWER
Location:Betweem Ferdinand St. and Alhambra Circle
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: This “lighthouse” which has never seen the sea, serves as a testament to Coral Gables’ early boom years, a time when everyday practical things could be turned into works of art. Built c. 1923, its design is credited to Denman Fink, artistic designer for Coral Gables. A steel tank was erected first, and then enclosed with a wood frame and reinforced concrete structure designed to resemble a lighthouse, thus concealing the less attractive water tank behind an aesthetically pleasing and architecturally playful face. Purchased by Consumers Water Company in 1926, the Alhambra Water Tower was part of the City’s domestic water supply system until 1931, when it was disconnected from the system and abandoned after the utility company started buying water from the City of Miami. In response to citizen outcry to save the tower from destruction in 1958, the City purchased it for a token sum, thus preserving this unique landmark. In 1993 the tower was extensively restored based upon 1924 photographs. The Alhambra Water Tower was listed in the Coral Gables Register of Historic Places in 1988.
Sponsors: City of Coral Gables
CORAL GABLES MERRICK HOUSE
Location:907 Coral Way
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: In July 1899, Congregational minister Solomon Greasley Merrick (1859-1911) and his wife Althea (1859-1937) purchased sight unseen the surrounding 160 acres for $1,100. Several months later, Merrick and his son George (1886-1942) came from Massachusetts to prepare an existing wooden cottage for the arrival of the family. Locals including Bahamians helped plant vegetables and grapefruit trees. The vegetables and existing guava trees were their only source of income until the grapefruit groves began to bear. In 1906 Althea designed a rock house including the original cottage that is still visible at the rear. Named “Coral Gables,” its limestone rock came from what is now the Venetian Pool. When his father died, George took over the groves, added land and dreamed of a planned community. It became a reality in 1921 when he sold the first lots. During the Depression, Ethel Merrick, George’s sister, made it a boarding house called Merrick Manor. Members of the Merrick family resided here until 1966, when W.L. Philbrick bought the home and created Merrick Manor Foundation to save it. The City of Coral Gables acquired and restored it in 1976. Coral Gables Merrick House is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution and the Florida Department of State
HAULOVER BEACH SPORT FISHING DOCKS
Location:10800 Collins Ave.
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side 1: The originally known Lighthouse Dock, once at this site, marked the beginnings of this area’s fame as a sportsman’s paradise. Folklore and history relate that a man named Baker (c. 1810) "hauled over" fishing boats from the bay to the ocean. In 1926, Captain Henry Jones (1883-1968) built the first dock with a permit from the War Department. By 1937-1939, the Lighthouse Restaurant and the Ocean Bay Trailer Park shared this property. These early docks served as the foundation of an international sport fishing tourist industry as charter boat fisherman searched for marlin, sailfish and other big-game fish in Miami's abundant Gulf Stream waters. Adjacent to these docks was an official weighing station of the Metropolitan Miami Fishing Tournament, the oldest and largest fishing contest in the world. Many record catches were certified here. Captains navigated their charters beneath the hazardous Haulover Bridge with its treacherous currents. They also contended with the threat of enemy submarines, just outside the Inlet, from 1942 to 1943. Some captains assumed duties as sub-spotters. A Coast Guard vessel was moored here during World War II to ensure civilian safety, making this a strategic military site at that time. Side 2: In 1944 the Lighthouse Dock became part of the Haulover Beach Park. The Dade County Parks Department assumed management and changed the name to Haulover Beach Docks. In 1951-1952 the docks were replaced by a marina, built farther to the north. Calling these docks home were the captains, their boats, and the only women working as mates for their husbands. The earliest pioneer captains at these docks were: Henry Jones, Henrietta; George Hamway, Popeye; Joe Reese, Ethel Lee; Slim Caraway (Marjorie) Lady Luck; John Sacon (nee Saconchik), Martha Mary; George Helker, Gremlin; Ralph Nemire (Iris), Seacomber; Harry Stone, Oke Doke; Ira Gregory, Lucky Strike; Elsworth Stone, Anhow; W.D. Murphy, Pat; Charles Smith (Mary), Interim; Harold Alford (Jeannette) Privateer; Otto Reichert, Restless; Robert Paterson, Huskee; Frank Kurek, Sportsman; Ernie Luebbers, Mystery; B.C. Millard, Surf King; and Paul Goerner, Vee Gee. Other individuals contributing to the success of the Haulover fishing fleet: Official Dock Photographer, Doris Barnes; Dock/Weigh Masters, Norton/Waggoner; and Taxidermist, Al Pflueger. They recorded the feats of tourists and such celebrities as Hollywood superstar Robert Mitchum and TV host Arthur Godfrey.
Sponsors: MIAMI-DADE PARK AND RECREATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ARCH CREEK MILITARY TRAIL
Location:Old Dixie Hwy from 13980 Biscayne Blvd. to Arch Creek Park
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: The Arch Creek State Archaeological Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. It contains a portion of the Military Trail, a wagon road, built during the Third Seminole War (1855-1859) by the U.S. Army. In 1856 Captains Abner Doubleday (1819-1893) and John Brannan and their troops constructed part of the Military Trail between Fort Dallas on the Miami River and Fort Lauderdale. It later became a portion of the first county road in 1892, passing over the Natural Bridge and Arch Creek. In 1915 it was renamed Dixie Highway. The road was designated a local historic site on January 18, 1995.
Sponsors: CITY OF N. MIAMI BEACH, ARCH CREEK TRUST AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OPERATION PEDRO PAN / OPERACIÓN PEDRO PAN
Location:155 NW 14th St
County: Miami-Dade
City: Florida City
Description: On this site, which was officially known as the Florida City Shelter of the Catholic Welfare Bureau’s Cuban Children’s Program, thousands of Operation Pedro Pan children found refuge from Communist Cuba between 1961 and 1966. Operation Pedro Pan was conceived and organized by Monsignor Bryan O. Walsh of the Archdiocese of Miami and James Baker, headmaster of Ruston Academy in Havana, Cuba, at the request of parents who sought to prevent Communist indoctrination of their children. It was financed largely by the United States Government with full support of the Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations, and was supervised by the State of Florida. Between December 1960 and October 1962, over 14,000 Pedro Pan children arrived in South Florida. The Florida City Shelter was the largest of the Operation’s facilities in the state. It housed girls 5-19 years old and boys under 13 who lived in home units under the care of exiled Cuban couples who served as house parents. Its day-to-day operations were managed by Catholic priests and Sisters of St. Philip Neri. Many Operation Pedro Pan children went on to plant deep roots in the region and made significant contributions to Florida and the nation. En este sitio, denominado Refugio de Florida City del Programa de Niños Cubanos del Buró Católico de Bienestar Social, miles de niños integrantes de la Operación Pedro Pan recibieron albergue de Cuba Comunista entre 1961 y 1966. La operación fue concebida y organizada por el Monseñor Bryan O. Walsh de la Arquidiócesis de Miami y por James Baker, director de la Academia Ruston, ubicada en La Habana, Cuba, a solicitud de padres que no querían que sus hijos fueran adoctrinados por el régimen. Fue financiada por el gobierno estadounidense, con respaldo de las administraciones de Eisenhower, Kennedy y Johnson y supervisada por el gobierno estatal de Florida. Entre diciembre de 1960 y octubre de 1962, más de 14,000 niños cubanos llegaron al sur de Florida. En el Refugio de Florida City, el mayor del estado, se acogieron niñas entre 5 y 19 años de edad y niños menores de 13. Los menores residían en hogares encabezados por matrimonios cubanos exiliados que fungían como padres. La administración estaba bajo la dirección de sacerdotes católicos y las Hermanas de San Felipe Neri. Muchos niños de Operación Pedro Pan echaron raíces en la región y contribuyeron al desarrollo socioeconómico y cultural de Florida y del país.
Sponsors: Operation Pedro Pan Group, Inc. and the Florida Department of State
OLD CUTLER ROAD
Location:Old Culter Rd between Tivoli Ave and SW 74th St
County: Miami-Dade
City: Cutler Bay
Description: Old Cutler Road owes its name to the former town of Cutler, a farming community founded by William Fuzzard in the late 1800s. The town was named after Dr. William Cutler of Massachusetts who visited the area about 1880 and encouraged Fuzzard and others to settle here. In 1883, Fuzzard, with the help of other residents of Cutler, cut a path north and east through a wilderness of pine rocklands and hardwood hammocks to the Village of Coconut Grove. The road followed a natural limestone ridge along Biscayne Bay, and established the first overland route connecting Coconut Grove and Cutler. It was subsequently widened to a wagon trail, and was declared a public road in 1895. The road became known as Cutler Road, later as Ingraham Highway, and still later as Old Cutler Road. Today, Old Cutler Road, which follows a somewhat altered course, maintains the appearance and atmosphere of a country road, and provides a tangible reminder of the heritage of the Miami area. Old Cutler Road was declared a State Historic Highway in 1974 by the Florida Legislature.
Sponsors: The Town of Cutler Bay and the Florida Department of State

Monroe

E.H. GATO CIGAR FACTORY
Location:1100 Simonton St.
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: The Gato Cigar Factory was constructed by Eduardo H. Gato in 1916. This Neo-Classiscal Revival, poured- concrete structure with a large central courtyard was constructed after a earlier wood frame factory on this site burned. Numerous windows provided much needed light for the workers. It is also one of the earliest American integrated workplaces where Cuban, African, and Bahamian- Americans, and whites worked side by side while their children attended the same school. Small cottages were built near the factory to house the workers, and became an area known as Gatoville. The factory was a political center as workers raised funds to support efforts to free Cuba from Spain. The cigar industry was critical to Key West’s economy just before the 20th century, but declined in the early 1900’s as cigar manufacturers moved to Tampa. In 1942 the Gato factory was sold to the Department of the Navy for use as a military barracks and cafeteria, and later served as the Navy Commissary until 1989. In 1998 Monroe County Obtained the property, and in 2001 completed a rehabilitation to make the building
Sponsors: The Historic Florida Keys Foundation and the Florida Department of State
KEY WEST ARMORY
Location:600 White Street, Key West
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: This 1903 armory was described as "an unusual wood-frame building," and was one of the few armories built in the South due to lack of funds following the Civil War (1861-1865). The Italianate-style. Key West Armory incorporate an aarched entrace, twin, six-sided pointed turrets, a tall parapet as well as towers and cupolas. Key West was an important Union Base during the Civil War. Volunteer troops that helped defend Key West from the Confederates were known as the Key West Rifles and then, in 1888 as the Island City Guards. The Armory was built for their descendants, the Monroe County Militia / 438th Company Florida National Guard. It housed these troops and their armament. The Armory served as a training facility in World Wards I and II and later became a community center. Monroe County contracted John T. and A. Bruce Sawyer to build the Armory in 1902, as designed by T.F. Russell. The State of Florida later refunded the money, which was used to build County Road, now known as Flagler Avenue. Restoration efforts began in the 1970s prior to the building's lease to Monroe County. Management of the state-owned armory was turned over to the Historic Florida Keys Preservation Board in 1994.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Historic Florida Keys Foundation and the Florida Department of State.
EVERGLADES COMMUNITY CHURCH
Location:101 Copeland Ave S
County: Monroe
City: Everglades
Description: This building was completed by April 1940 on land donated in May 1939 by the estate of Barron Gift Collier, founder of the county which bears his name and its largest landholder. The congregation at that time was Presbyterian, officially established in 1926, and had met in various places in the city. Before then, various visiting pastors served the area, the first being the Reverend George W. Gatewood in 1888. One condition of the gift of land was that the structure be erected before October 1, 1940 and that the church be non-denominational. Both conditions were met when the dedication ceremony took place on May 5th, 1940. The town was a Collier company town with buildings constructed of ship lap siding, a tin roof, and flooring made of Dade County pine. A fellowship hall and breezeway to the southwest was added in the late 1950s. The digital carillon was installed in 1990 and chimes hourly. On September 4, 2007, Everglades City proclaimed the church to be historically preserved because it “provides links with the aspirations and attainments of the City’s pioneers and their descendents.” The bell tower and narthex were repaired in June, 2008, as the first step in a complete restoration of the building.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY EVERGLADES CITY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FORT TAYLOR
Location:601 Howard England Way, Fort Zachery Taylor Historic State Park
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: Fort Taylor was constructed in 1845 as part of the Third Tier System of Defense which called for the establishment of masonry fortresses constructed along America’s coastline to prevent Sea attacks on the United States. This fort was an important defensive structure in the United States because of its command over the waters over the Straits of Florida and of the Gulf of Mexico. When completed, the fort was three stories tall, held and 140 cannon and was home to almost 450 soldiers. Fort Taylor remained under federal control during the Civil War and was the headquarters of the US Navy East Gulf Coast Blockading Squadron. The current form of the fort is largely the result of alterations made in 1898, including the removal of the upper two tiers, filling case-mates with sand and obsolete ordinance, and construction of modern rifled artillery emplacements Battery Adair and Battery Osceola. Fort Taylor continued to defend the United States during the Spanish American War, World War I and World War II. The Fort’s service to the nation ended in 1947. Fort Taylor is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a Historic National Landmark.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Florida Park Service and the Florida Department of State
STAINED GLASS WINDOWS OF ST. COLUMBIA EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:451 52nd Street Gulf
County: Monroe
City: Marathon
Description: Established in 1955, St. Columba Episcopal Church has occupied this building since 1960. Between 1977 and 1982, nineteen dalle de verre, or faceted stained glass windows, were installed in the church. This technique uses thick pieces of colored glass bound together with a cement or epoxy mixture. French artist Auguste Labouret is credited with creating the first dalle de verre windows in the 1930s. One of his first panels, “The Magi,” was displayed at the 1939 New York World’s Fair. Studios in the United States began manufacturing dalle de verre windows in the 1940s, and faceted glass became popular afterwards. Like medieval stained glass, dalle de verre windows produce stunning visual effects. However, their technique precludes the creation of detailed and realistic images. Instead, faceted glass lends itself to bold, more abstract treatments. St. Columba’s stained glass windows offer a symbolic and impressionistic portrayal of the Seven Days of Creation and the life of Christ. The church’s St. Columba window pictures the Irish missionary St. Columba, while the Loch Ness Monster window depicts the beast that, according to legend, St. Columba prevented from devouring a swimmer.
Sponsors: St. Columba Episcopal Church and the Florida Department of State
THE PATTERSON-BALDWIN HOUSE
Location:336 Duval Street
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: Built about 1838 and moved to this location after the hurricane of 1846, The Patterson-Baldwin House in believed to be one of the oldest buildings in Key West. The Classical Revival style house is reputed to have been built, but never occupied by Alexander Patterson, a prominent Key West citizen and mayor. Various sources indicate that the Pickney family lived in the house and that Mrs. Pickney’s sister Madame Passaloque, taught classes here until 1860, giving the huse the distinction of being he first school in Key West. John Baldwin, who twice served as mayor of Key West, purchased the house in 1860. The property remained in the Baldwin family for more than 100 years. The house was painstakingly restored by Edward B. Knight in 1962. At first only the houses front side was restored to provide a “before and after” picture of how it could one day look. This award winning demonstration received national publicity and helped spark the historic preservation movement in Key West.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Edward B. Knight and the Florida Department of State.
AFRICAN CEMETERY AT HIGGS BEACH
Location:Atlantic Blvd, Near White St.
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: Near this site lie the remains of 294 African men, women and children who died in Key West in 1860. In the summer of that year the U.S. Navy rescued 1,432 Africans from three American-owned ships engaged in the illegal slave trade. Ships bound for Cuba were intercepted by the U.S. Navy, who brought the freed Africans to Key West where they were provided with clothing, shelter and medical treatment. They had spent weeks in unsanitary and inhumane conditions aboard the slave ships. The U.S. steamships Mohawk, Wyandott and Crusader rescued these individuals from the Wildfire, where 507 were rescued; the William, where 513 were rescued; and the Bogota, where 417 survived. In all, 294 Africans succumbed at Key West to various diseases caused by conditions of their confinement. They were buried in unmarked graves on the present day Higgs Beach where West Martello Tower now stands. By August, more than 1,000 survivors left for Liberia, West Africa, a country founded for former American slaves, where the U.S. government supported them for a time. Hundreds died on the ships before reaching Liberia. Thus, the survivors were returned to their native land, Africa, but not to their original homes on that continent.
Sponsors: OLD ISLAND RESTORATION FOUNDATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE TRUMAN LITTLE WHITE HOUSE
Location:111 Front Street
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: Built in 1890 as quarters for Navy officers, the Little White House later was used by American Presidents William Howard Taft, Harry S. Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. Truman used the facility as a vacation home and functioning White House between 1946 and 1952. National legislation was drafted and official government business was conducted daily from the site. Perhaps the most important of these actions occurred on December 5, 1951, when Truman enacted a Civil Rights Executive Order requiring federal contractors to hire minorities. The house is considered the birthplace of the U. S. Department of Defense and the U. S. Air Force as a result of the Key West Accords of 1948. President Eisenhower used the site in 1956 while recuperating from a heart attack. In 1961, the house was the venue for a summit between President Kennedy and British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan during the Bay of Pigs incident. Kennedy returned in 1962 after the Cuban Missile Crisis. Secretary of State Colin Powell and foreign leaders held an international summit here in 2001. The Little White House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.
Sponsors: THE KEY WEST HARRY S. TRUMAN FOUNDATION, HISTORIC TOURS OF AMERICA, INC., AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
KEY WEST CEMETERY
Location:Passover Ln near Angela St.
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: Key West Cemetery was founded in 1847 following a hurricane the previous year that destroyed the earlier cemetery located near present day Higgs Beach. To protect from future flooding, the 19-acre cemetery was located here on Solares Hill, the highest natural elevation in Key West. An estimated 75,000 people are interred here, divided among parcels that reflect the cultural diversity that continues to characterize the city of Key West today. The cemetery contains a historic Catholic section, Jewish section, the U.S.S. Maine Plot dedicated in 1900, and the Los Martires de Cuba, a memorial for those who fought in the 1868 Cuban revolution. In addition to these defined areas, African Americans, Cubans and Americans, rich and poor, are interred throughout. In-ground and crypt style graves range from simple concrete copings filled with soil to elaborate monuments. Plot enclosures of wrought iron, wood, or concrete were often used to mark family plots.
Sponsors: HISTORIC FLORIDA KEYS FOUNDATION, THE CITY OF KEY WEST AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD CITY HALL
Location:510 Greene Street
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: The City of Key West acquired this lot in 1871 and built a wood-frame city hall, dedicating it on July 4, 1876, during the nation’s Centennial. That building stood until it burned down in the devastating fire of 1886. The City then constructed this brick edifice between 1890 and 1892. Scott, McDermott & Higgs designed the structure, while Russell & Harvey built it. The ground floor - with wide arches and supporting columns - accommodated market stalls, then fire engines. The upper floor, dominated by the City Commission chambers, also housed City offices. Over the years, the building was altered, including the removal of the bell tower. Monroe County acquired the property in 1965 to house its juvenile court. In 1974, the State of Florida acquired the building, and the Historic Florida Keys Preservation Board spearheaded its restoration. The bell tower was restored in 1976 during the Bicentennial. Restoration efforts continued through the 1980’s, leading to the rededication of Old City Hall in 1991. Sweeping granite stairs and an ornate iron balustrade distinguish the building’s entrance, while high ceilings, large windows, and wainscoting grace the historic interior.
Sponsors: THE HISTORIC FLORIDA KEYS FOUNDATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLORIDA EAST COAST RAILROAD OVERSEAS EXTENSION - "THE RAILROAD THAT WENT TO SEA"
Location:on U.S. 1 between Upper and Lower Matecumbe Keys
County: Monroe
City: Florida Keys
Description: Oil magnate Henry M. Flagler first visited Florida in 1878. Realizing Florida's potential for growth, he developed railroads and hotels which transformed the eastern seaboard. The Florida East Coast Railroad reached Miami in 1896 and soon was completed to the Homestead area. Years of planning were devoted to determining the feasibility of extending the F.E.C. Railroad to Key West which was labeled "Flagler's Folly." Construction was begun in 1904 under the supervision of Joseph C. Meredith. After Meredith's death in 1909, William J. Krome guided the project. Viaducts, trestles, and bridges were constructed under harrowing conditions. Thousands of workers battled against insects, hurricanes, and intense heat as well as food and water shortages. On January 21, 1912, the Overseas Extension of the Florida East Coast Railroad was completed. The next day, Henry Flagler's special train arrived in Key West. Flagler died in 1913, but his Overseas Extension continued to carry visitors to Key West until 1935, when the Labor Day hurricane damaged the line beyond repair. A portion of the Overseas Extension near Tea Table Key was among the surviving remnants of this great engineering project which helped to open the Florida Keys to tourism.
Sponsors: sponsored by senator richard r. renick in cooperation with department of state
CONVENT OF MARY IMMACULATE - (1878)
Location:Truman Avenue between Simonton and Margaret Street
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: Built by the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, a Canadian Order which first established a school here in 1868. Designed by William Kerr of Ireland, of Romanesque style, with dormered, mansard roofs and central tower. In the Spanish- American war the Sisters offered their services as nurses and the Convent to the Navy as a hospital and rendered devoted service to the wounded and yellow fever victims.
ST. PAUL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH - (1832)
Location:401 Duval Street
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: Oldest in Florida diocese, the present church (1912) is the fourth on this site. John Fleming, one of the four original owners of the island, is buried here. His widow donated the property, stipulating that the church pews be free. Rectory built 1853. The chimes, first installed in a Florida church, were originally in a frame church (1886) destroyed in 1909 hurricane.
PORTER'S ANTI-PIRATE FLEET
Location:625 Truman Ave.
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: An outbreak of piracy in 1822 prompted the United States to organize the West Indian Squadron, an anti-pirate fleet. Commanded by Commodore David Porter, the Squadron in 1823 included 17 ships and 1,100 men based in Key West. For two years the fleet attacked many of the estimated 2,000 pirates in the Indies. In 1825, after Porter was removed from command, Commodore Lewis Warrington continued the assault. Altogether 79 pirates were taken by U.S. ships.
SOUTH FLORIDA'S FIRST PUBLIC LIBRARY
Location:700 Fleming Street - Monroe County Public Library
County: Monroe
City: Key West
Description: On April 8, 1892, a group of citizens organized the Key West Library Association. The first public library was open in the old Masonic Temple September 15, 1892. After 1896, the operation was assumed by other civic groups, including the Key West Woman's Club, which for 44 years provided library service. Through the group's efforts, funds were raised to build the Monroe County Public Library which opened in November, 1959.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials in Cooperation with Monroe County Public Library and The Florida Historical Society
TREE COLONY - BAHIA HONDA KEY
Location:Old Bahia Honda Bridge, near dock. Bahia Honda State Recreation Area.
County: Monroe
City: Bahia Honda Key
Description: Since about 1870, botanists from all over the world have been visiting Bahia Honda Key to study the plants brought here by the birds, the hurricane winds, and the ocean waves from all the islands of the West Indies and the Caribbean Sea. The very rare plants that are found growing as a native plant only on Bahia Honda Key are the West Indies satinwood, or yellowwood tree (Zanthoxylum flavum), the Catesbaea, Jamaica morning-glory (Jaquemontia jamaicensis), and wild dilly (Mimusops). Beautiful and colorful plants from the West Indies known in the Keys and South Florida areas are the Geiger tree (orange flowers), wild Alamanda (yellow flowers), sea-lavender (fragrant white flowers and ash-gray leaves), key spiderlily (white flowers), bay cedar (yellow flower), and the thatch and silver palms.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials

Nassau

FLORIDA'S FIRST ATLANTIC TO GULF RAILROAD
Location:Atlantic Avenue & Front Street
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: The Florida Railroad Company was incorporated January 8, 1853, with David L. Yulee as president. The line received both federal and state land grants. Despite early financial difficulties, construction was begun from Fernandina, where the main office was located, in 1856. The Final trackage to Cedar Key was lain March 1, 1861, and Florida had its first cross-state railroad.
ST. PETER'S CHURCH (EPISCOPAL)
Location:801 Atlantic Avenue
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: The church was organized as a mission in 1858 and was consecrated the following year by the Rt. Rev. Francis Huger Rutledge, first Bishop of Florida. During the War it was used by Federal forces occupying Fernandina and many of its interior possessions were lost. The building was restored to sacred use during the Reconstruction Period, but was destroyed by fire in 1892. The present neo-Gothic church was completed in 1893.
BATTLE OF THOMAS CREEK
Location:on U.S. 1 at Thomas Creek
County: Nassau
City: South of Callahan
Description: When the American War of Independence began, the new British colonies of East and West Florida did not seek separation from England. East Florida remained comparatively free from serious fighting throughout the course of the Revolutionary War. In the summer of 1777, however, Americans initiated an invasion aimed at capturing St. Augustine. The expedition was composed of Continental Army troops and Georgia militia forces under the command of Lt. Col. Samuel Elbert. Preparations for the defense of east Florida involved the East Florida Rangers, a force of mounted provincials, British Regulars, and Indian allies. On may 17, 1777, a portion of the invading American expedition was attacked by a detachment of British Regulars under Maj. J.M. Prevost assisted by Rangers under Col. Thomas Brown and Indians. The battle took place at a site on Thomas Creek south of its confluence with the Nassau River. After suffering heavy casualties, the Americans, already discouraged by lack of supplies and the heat, began their retreat from Florida. Only one more unsuccessful invasion of East Florida occurred during the remaining years of the American Revolution.
Sponsors: Sponsored by florida society, children of the american revolution in cooperation with department of state
PLAZA SAN CARLOS
Location:Estrada st. near White St.
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: This land high above the Amelia River was a campsite for Indians in pre-historic times, as early as 2,000-1,000 B.C. In the early history of the state, it assumed military importance because of the fine protected harbor on the northern boundary of Spanish Florida. In the first Spanish period, a village of Franciscans and Indians was established here by 1675, and a Spanish sentinel's house was documented in 1696. From 1736 to 1742, James Oglethorpe stationed Highlanders on this site. After the withdrawal of Oglethorpe's troops in 1742, the area served as a buffer zone between the English and the Spanish until 1763 when Flroida became a British possession. When Spain regained possession of Florida in 1783, this harbor was an embarkation point for British Loyalists leaving Florida. The U.S. Embargo Act of 1807, which closed all U.S. ports to European trade, made the border town of Fernandina a center for smuggling. On March 17, 1812, a group of Americans known as the Patriots overthrew the Spanish battery, but the U.S. flag replaced the Patriots' standard after one day. Spain regained control in May, 1813, and completed Fort San Carlos in 1816. As the fort's parade ground, this site was named Plaza San Carlos.
Sponsors: sponsored by General Duncan Lamont Clinch, Historical Society of Amelia Island in cooperation with the Florida Department of State
FORT SAN CARLOS
Location:Corner of Estrada and White St.
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: On this bluff overlooking the Amelia River, Fort San Carlos was completed by the Spanish in 1816. The fort was made of wood and earthworks and was armed with eight or ten guns. As the Spanish Empire disintegrated, Fort San Carlos became increasingly vulnerable to foreign intervention. Commissioned by representatives of revolting South American countries to liberate Florida from Spanish control, Sir Gregor MacGregor seized the fort in June, 1817. After his withdrawal in September, the Spanish attempt to reassert their authority was repelled by forces led by MacGregor's lieutenants, Jared Irwin and Ruggles Hubbard. Somewhat later, the pirate Luis Aury gained control of the fort. Because Aury's privateering threatened negotiations concerning the cession of Florida, United States troops occupied Fort San Carlos in December, 1817. Although upset by U.S. interference at Fort San Carlos, Spain did cede Florida in 1821, and the U.S. abandoned the fort shortly after the transferral. Archaeologists estimate that two-thirds of the area has disappeared through erosion.
Sponsors: sponsored by general duncan lamont clinch historical society of amelia island in cooperation with department of state
FERNANDEZ GRANT
Location:N. 4th Street.
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: During the Spanish and English periods of Florida history, many large tracts of land were granted primarily to induce settlement. All that remains of the Don Domingo Fernandez Spanish Grant is the family cemetery and this park. Royal title to this property was granted August 9, 1807. This land was once a part of the Earl of Egmont property on Amelia Island, which included the present site of the City of Fernandina Beach. On January 1, 1825, the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida passed "an act to incorporate the city of Fernandina." Little development resulted until 1853 when the Florida Railroad Company announced that Fernandina would form the eastern terminus for the first cross state railroad in Florida. This stimulated the growth of Florida by making a portion of the interior more accessible for further development and population growth.
Sponsors: The People of Saint Michael's Parish in Cooperation with Department of State
MARTHA’S HIDEAWAY
Location:Ervine ST.
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: American Beach, founded in 1935, was a renowned beach for Blacks during the segregation era when African Americans could not go to public beaches. In the early development of American Beach, a few private homes were built, including one hidden deep in the woods at the end of Ervin Street. The Colonial Revival house, built for local African-American business owner and community activist Martha Hippard, is an unusual example of high style architecture in the beach resort community. Detached from the main house is a separate party house that some say was a gambling house. Others say it was used to host dances, club parties, and other civic and social activities. Both houses are constructed of hand-made concrete blocks from truckloads of crushed coquina shells hauled from American Beach and hand-molded bricks manufactured on the premises. The 1938 structures were built on nearly an acre of land, larger than any other parcel in the area. In January 1961, Elmo and Annette Myers of Fernandina purchased the house from its second owner, eduator Lottie O. Harris of St. Marys, Georgia. Martha's Hidaway, also called Hippard's Hideaway, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 12, 2001.
Sponsors: Nassau County and the Florida Department of State
HISTORIC AMERICAN BEACH
Location:Lewis St. at Ocean Blvd.
County: Nassau
City: Amelia Island
Description: American Beach was established in 1935 under the leadership of Abraham Lincoln Lewis, one of seven co-founders of the Afro-American Life Insurance Company, and one of Florida’s first black millionaires. His vision was to create a beach resort as a benefit for company executives and as an incentive for employees to exceed in sales. Florida’s beaches were racially segregated until the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Because of this, American Beach became regionally popular since it was one of the few beaches in the Southeast open to African Americans. Other sites in American Beach trace their history to the Civil War era. Amelia Island was home to several Sea Island cotton plantations, including the Harrison Plantation. In 1862 Union Forces captured Amelia Island and the freed slaves founded Franklin Town at the south end of this island. The Franklin Town cemetery, which had been given by the Harrison family to their slaves as a burial place for their families, still exists today on the west side of Highway A1A. In 1972, encroaching development forced Franklin Town residents to move north to American Beach. Their Methodist Church, built in 1949, was also moved here where it now serves as the church’s fellowship hall.
Sponsors: AMERICAN BEACH PROPERTY OWNERS’ ASSOCIATION, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
NEW ZION BAPTIST CHURCH
Location:10 South Street, Amelia Island
County: Nassau
City: Amelia Island
Description: New Zion Baptist Church, the second oldest and largest black Baptist Church on Amelia Island, was founded on May 15, 1870 under the leadership of Reverend Lewis Cook (1834-1880). He and 69 parishioners held their first meeting in a stable on First Street and later in peoples’ homes. The 69 parishioners, supported by “Father Cook,” purchased the land for the church on April 1, 1878. The original wood church, built in 1881on the present site, was destroyed by fire on the morning of February 11, 1907. The current structure, built on the same site and completed by November 1907, was constructed of cement brick veneer and remains unchanged today. William “Billy” Rivers, a well-known black contractor, supervised the project. Reverend P.A. Callaham, Bachelor of Divinity, served as Pastor. New Zion has a historical, cultural and spiritual significance, particularly during the segregation era, when it was the leading and largest church used for graduations and other community events. Under the leadership of 22 pastors, New Zion has for over 100 years contributed to the community and remains a cherished historical site in the historic district of Fernandina Beach.
Sponsors: CITY OF FERNANDINA BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
PHELAN - VEROT HOUSE
Location:N. 4th St between Alachua St. and Broom St.
County: Nassau
City: Amelia Island
Description: The marker text reads as follows: "On February 5, 1875, Jean-Pierre Augustin Verot, Bishop of Saint Augustine, purchased this cottage from Sarah Phelan. The Sisters of Saint Joseph lived here in the year 1877, when a devastating epidemic of yellow fever swept over the Amelia Island community. From this place, for three weeks as the epidemic raged, the small coterie of sisters risked their lives, night and day, as they nursed the stricken of every race, Catholic, non-Catholic, rich and poor. They offered comfort and prayers for the sick and dying, and even helped bury the dead. Grateful citizens thereafter called them "Angels of Mercy." Mother Celenie and Sister de Sales, young French nuns far from their motherhouse in LePuy, France, died of the fever. They rest in Bosque Bello Cemetery, their graves marked with simple stone crosses bearing the date 1877."
Sponsors: Amelia Island Fernandina Restoration Foundation and the Florida Department of State
THE LESESNE HOUSE
Location:Corner of Centre and 5th St.
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: This Classical Revival style residence, built by Dr. John F. Lesesne circa 1860, is one of the oldest homes in Fernandina Beach. Lesesne left Fernandina during the Civil War and did not return. In 1868 the house became the property of the family of Judge John Friend, who had been appointed district tax commissioner after the war by President Andrew Johnson. Friend was a lawyer and served as a county commissioner and judge. At the time of his death in 1878 he was state senator-elect from Nassau County. The descendents of the Friend family still occupy the home. This double galleried home, constructed of hand-hewn lumber fastened with wooden pegs, is one of the major points of interest in the Fernandina Beach Historic District which was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.
Sponsors: The General Duncan Lamont Clinch Historical Society of Amelia Island and Angel Starke Davis, Ernest and Marie Davis Chaplin Family, Davis and Dee Chaplin, Saxby Caroline Sperau and Florida Department of State.
MEMORIAL UNITED METHODIST CHURCH
Location:NE Corner of Centre and Sixth Streets
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: Methodism first came to Amelia Island in 1822 when the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church appointed the Reverend Elijah Sinclair as the first minister to East Florida. Sinclair arrived within months of Florida being ceded to the United State by Spain in 1821 and was welcomed by Protestant Scotch and English settlers who opened their homes to him for services. The congregation continued to worship in homes and the Pioneer Hotel after the town was relocated in the 1850s from Old Town, about a mile north of the present site of Fernandina Beach. In the mid-1800s a wood frame church was built on the northwest corner of Broome and Sixth Streets. The old church was torn down after it was replaced by the building on Centre Street. Construction of the brick Classical Revival style building began in 1926 on property donated by E.W. Bailey and John W. Simmons. The sanctuary was complete by 1930 and the first services were held on the second Sunday in February. Fund raising to complete work on the church was difficult during the Great Depression of the 1930's, and the three-story classroom section at the rear of the building was still unfinished when Bishop Paul Kern dedicated the church in 1940. The work was finally completed in 1951. It is the oldest United Methodist congregation in the Florida conference.
Sponsors: florida heritage sitesponsored by the General Duncan Lamont Clinch Historical Societyof Amelia Island and Florida Department of StateSandra B. Mortham, Secretary of State
ITALIA
Location:S.R. 200 between Gussie Ln and Police Lodge Rd.
County: Nassau
City: Yulee
Description: The town of Italia was founded here in 1882 by Irish-born entrepreneur William MacWilliams. Italia was located at milepost 18 on the Florida Transit Railroad, which ran from Fernandina to Cedar Key. The town began when former U.S. Senator David Levy Yulee, president of the Florida Transit Railroad, convinced MacWilliams to build a brick factory here. Timber businesses soon came to Italia with the openings of a wood-shingle mill and a sawmill to take advantage of nearby forests. By 1885, Italia had about 100 inhabitants and included a depot, post office and general store. Products made here were used in commercial and residential buildings in Fernandina and many other Northeast Florida locations. Thomas J. Shave brought new life to Italia when he built a turpentine still in 1905. By 1910, turpentine was the area's primary business. Italia suffered a fatal blow in the mid-1920s when the railroad was re-routed from Callahan to Gross, leaving the town without a viable link to distant markets. MacWilliams named his town Italia, reflecting a then-popular Florida marketing campaign which promoted the state as 'America's Italy' because of its similar peninsular shape and temperate climate.
Sponsors: Friends of Italia and the Florida Department of State
FRANKLINTOWN CHAPEL
Location:1415 Lewis St
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: The Franklintown community was a first populated by ex-slaves from the Samuel Harrison plantation. Franklintown Chapel’s congregation was organized in 1880 by Trinity M.E. Church, located in the City of Fernandina at the north end of Amelia Island. The Reverend J.G. Howard served as the chapel’s first pastor from 1880-1885. As the congregation grew, in 1888 ex-slave and Union soldier Gabriel Means and his wife, Edith Drummond Means, donated land for a building. In 1892, Means built the first Franklin Chapel, a one-room unpainted fame structure. In 1949, that building was demolished to make way for the construction of State Road AIA, and a new building was constructed. In 1972, following the purchase of the entire Franklintown tract by the Amelia Island company, the 1949 building along with the original bell from the 1892 chapel was moved the American Beach community. American Beach had been established as an African American ocean playground in 1935 by the Afro-American Life Insurance Company’s pension Bureau under its president Abraham Lincoln Lewis. Today, Franklintown chapel serves as the Gabriel Means Fellowship hall adjacent to the Franklintown United Methodist Church.
Sponsors: The American Beach Property Owners’ Association, Inc. and the Florida Department of State
A DUNE SYSTEM CALLED "NANA"
Location:Ocean Blvd.
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: NaNa, the tallest dune in Florida, is a protected landmark due largely to the efforts of MaVynne Betsch (January 14, 1935-September 5, 2005), widely known as the "Beach Lady." Betsch, who once performed opera in London, Paris and Germany, returned to American Beach in 1975 as a full-time resident. Here, she used her resources and talents for the preservation of nature, the environment and the African-American community of American Beach. For this 60-foot dune system that she dubbed "NaNa," and the adjoining property to the shoreline, her efforts resulted in acquiring nearly ten acres as a national park now located in the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve. The "Beach Lady" also championed efforts that led to the posting of nesting signs for the protection of sea turtle eggs and encouraged residents to plant wildflowers on vacant lots to stabilize the sand as well as serve as hosts for butterfly nestlings and feedings. MaVynne Betsche, devoted the last 25 years of her life as this historic African-American community's most vocal advocate. Beach Lady is lovingly remembered for her mantra, "Getting the most from the least and living peacefully in harmony with nature is the most rewarding lifestyle."
Sponsors: The American Beach Property Owners Association and the Florida Department of State
NASSAU COUNTY HISTORIC COURTHOUSE
Location:416 Center St N
County: Nassau
City: Fernandina Beach
Description: The 1891 Nassau County Courthouse is one of only a few remaining courthouses in Florida built in the late 19th century. An excellent example of the Italianate style, it features a square domed tower with cupola, brick corbelling, bracketed cornice, brick pilasters, arched windows, granite sills, and arcaded entrances with cast iron columns. Its architect, A.E. McClure, was from Jacksonville, but designed notable buildings throughout Florida, including the Lake City Agricultural College, forerunner of the University of Florida. The building's cornerstone was inscribed with the date 1891 and was scheduled to be laid on December 16 of that year, but the ceremony was delayed until April 12, 1892. Renovations to the courthouse include the 1926 addition of a vault for the recording office and a bell that was cast by Meneely & Co. of West Troy, New York. The bell served as part of the city's fire alarm until the mid-1930s. The clock was added to the bell tower in 1977. The courthouse is the tallest building in the Fernandina Beach Historic District and has served the county's judicial and governmental needs since its construction.
Sponsors: The Nassau County Board of County Commissioners and the Florida Department of State

Okaloosa

DR. BEAL'S SHELL MUSEUM (BEAL HOUSE)
Location:2820 W Hwy 98
County: Okaloosa
City: Fort Walton Beach
Description: Dr. James Hartley Beal (1861-1945) was an influential pharmacist, chemist, lawyer, educator, and scientist. Despite his busy life, he began collecting shells, finding his first specimen, a “micrarock” in 1888. The Fort Walton Beach resident bought this house in the early 1900s. An artesian water well and supply system on the property became the start of the town’s first water system. The home was used by Dr. Beal as his office and housed his extensive shell collection. By 1940, his collection had grown to be the second largest shell collection in the world. The shells were donated to Rollins College, where they remained on display until 1988. They were then transferred to the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida, Gainesville. The house was extensively remodeled and converted into the Summerhouse Restaurant, which operated there from the 1980s until 2004. It was originally located at 2 Miracle Strip Parkway in Fort Walton Beach. The building was slated for demolition in the fall of 2004. In order to save the building, Dr. Beal’s former Shell Museum was purchased and moved by barge to its present location.
Sponsors: HUBERT ALAN LAIRD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
INDIANOLA INN, AN INDIAN MOUND, AND CIVIL WAR CANNONS
Location:113 Brooks St. SE
County: Okaloosa
City: Destin
Description: The Indianola Inn, the second hotel in this area, was built on this midden mound in 1912 – the only structure ever permitted to do so. The inn burned in 1962, but the steps, foundation parts, and well head have been preserved. The inn had been condemned several days prior to the fire and the owners were to be notified the day after the fire. In 1927 the rate for staying at the inn was $25.00 per week including all meals, the use of a boat and guest services. The inn’s original owners were Mrs. Mary Frances Brooks Pryor and her husband. Mrs. Pryor’s father, John Thomas Brooks built the first hotel in the area, Brooks House, and later sold it leaving the Indianola Inn the only Brooks family hotel. Out of respect for the archeological significance of the mound the developers of the Indianola on the Water Condominium project did not disturb the mound area. The Indian midden mound, dating back to 500 BC to 1000 AD (The Woodlands Period), was a trash pile for early settlers of the Fort Walton Beach area. Fort Walton, Weeden Island, Santa Rosa-Swift Creek, and Deptford period ceramics were found during a 1966 archeological excavation. Artifacts such as animal and fish bones, pottery, eating utensils, and arrows were uncovered during an extensive 2005 archeological study conducted prior to the start of the condominium project. It is believed upper middle class Indians lived here, but there have never been any confirmed human bone findings. A button found in 1966 was attributed to a soldier of the Fort Walton Guard, commanded by Confederate Captain William McPherson. During the Civil War he used the cannon and this site to protect “The Narrows” of Santa Rosa Sound where it enters Choctawatchee Bay. At that time, the land extended several hundred yards farther into the Sound. Archeologists have suggested the height of the mound was raised by the Walton Guardsmen affording better cannon positioning. A cannon, discovered in the 1930s, was displayed on the Sound side of the Indianola Inn until 1962. The cannon was then moved to the Indian Temple Mound Museum, north of here. Three cannon balls, discovered in 2005, were used during this period. Based on their size, it is known that they were not shot from the cannon that was discovered in the 1930s. It is believed there is another cannon in this area that has not been unearthed.
Sponsors: NWEC DEVELOPMENT AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE
Location:S. John Sims Pkwy, Eglin Air Force Base East Gate Visitors Center
County: Okaloosa
City: Fort Walton Beach
Description: Originally established on June 14, 1935, as Valparaiso Bombing and Gunnery Range with 1460 acres of land donated by James E. Plew, this site was renamed on August 4, 1937, for Lieutenant Colonel "Frederick I. Eglin, killed in an airplane crash. Eglin Field became a separate opening base August 27, 1940.
Sponsors: Dedicated by Mrs. Charles W. Ruckel, Daughter of James Plew In Cooperation With The United States Air Force And The Department of State
OKALOOSA COUNTY
Location:N. Main Street at south entrance to Courthouse.
County: Okaloosa
City: Crestview
Description: Okaloosa County, created by the Florida State Legislature in 1915, was formed from parts of Santa Rosa and Walton Counties. The influence of W.H. Mapoles, Sr., then a legislative representative from Walton County, was an important factor in the creation of the county. The name chosen for the new county was derived from Indian words variously interpreted as " black water," "pleasant place," or "a place of rest." The first county seat was Milligan, a sawmill town. In 1917, Crestview was selected as the permanent county seat. Okaloosa County's economy is based on agriculture, forestry, and tourism.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Board of County commissioners, Okaloosa County in cooperation with department of state
FORT WALTON
Location:on U.S. 98, 1.5 Blocks West of Brooks Bridge
County: Okaloosa
City: Fort Walton Beach
Description: Originally called Camp Walton, this Confederate installation, constructed in 1861 to guard East Pass, was garrisoned by a company of Florida militia called the "Walton Guards". Several small skirmishes with federal landing parties occurred near here. The Camp was abandoned following the Confederate evacuation of Pensacola, and the garrison, a part of the First Florida Infantry Regiment, was assigned to duty on the Tennessee front in early 1862.
OKALOOSA COUNTY
Location:101 E James Lee Blvd, at north entrance to Courthouse.
County: Okaloosa
City: Crestview
Description: Okaloosa is one of the newer counties of northwest Florida. It was created by the State Legislature in 1915 from land taken from Santa Rosa and Walton Counties. The influence of State Senator W.H. Mapoles of Crestview was an important factor in the creation of the county. Okaloosa contains extensive agricultural and forest industries, popular gulf coast fishing and bathing resorts, and important military installations. The county seat is Crestview.

Okeechobee

OKEECHOBEE COUNTY
Location:304 Northwest 2nd St. at County Courthouse
County: Okeechobee
City: Okeechobee
Description: Okeechobee County was formed Aug. 7, 1917, from St. Lucie, Osceola and Palm Beach Counties. Long a haunt of the Seminoles, the area saw almost no white penetration until the First Seminole War, 1835-42. Much fighting occurred in the county during the war including the Battle of Lake Okeechobee on Dec. 24, 1837. The county has become a major truck crop area. The vicious 1928 hurricane led to flood control on the Lake.

Orange

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH - MAITLAND
Location:Maitland Presbyterian Church, U.S. 17/92
County: Orange
City: Maitland
Description: This congregation was organized in 1882 by ten Presbyterian settlers under the direction of the Rev. W.G.F. Wallace when Maitland was a pioneer hamlet. The church building was constructed in 1883, and it is one of the oldest churches still in use in this area. The church is typical example of pioneer ecclesiastical architecture of its period.
OLDEST MASONIC LODGE BUILDING IN CONTINUOUS USE IN FLORIDA
Location:E. Main St. and Alabama Ave.
County: Orange
City: Apopka
Description: Masonic Lodge #36 of the Grand Jurisdiction of Florida was established in 1856 and is still serving under a warrant issued that year. This building was erected here in 1859; the upper story has been continually used for lodge meetings. The original lower floor was used as post office, school, church and general store. Masons from miles around visited the community, which was known as The Lodge until the Town of Apopka City was chartered in 1882. In 1952, due to the effects of deterioration and highway widening, the lower story was removed and replaced. Orange Lodge #36 is a "Moon Lodge" and meets on or before the full moon and two weeks thereafter.
Sponsors: sponsored by the city of apopka bicentennial committee in cooperation with department of state
FORT CHRISTMAS
Location:S.R. 420, near mile marker 11.832
County: Orange
City: Christmas
Description: As white settlers moved into Florida in the 1820's and 1830's, there were growing demands that the Seminole Indians be removed to a reservation west of the Mississippi. Efforts to convince the Seminoles to move failed, and in 1835 the conflict known as the Second Seminole War began in earnest. Late in 1837, Maj. Gen. Thomas S. Jesup, overall commander in Florida, began intensive preparations to carry the fighting to south Florida, where he believed he would find a large force of hostile Indians. These preparations included opening a road on the west side of the St. Johns River and building along the road several posts to serve as depots for operations to the south. On Decmeber 25, 1837, troops under the command of Brig. Gen. Abraham Eustis established Fort Christmas on the north side of a creek a short distance from here. General Jesup himself led the column south from Fort Christmas early in January. By late January Jesup's troops were receiving their supplies by water from the St. Lucie River, and in March Fort Christmas was abandoned. While this simple wooden fortification was short-lived, it gave its name to the town of Christmas, a short distance south of here.
Sponsors: sponsored by the orange county historical commission in cooperation with department of state
RAILROADING IN MAITLAND
Location:Intersection of Lake Lily Drive and Central Avenue
County: Orange
City: Maitland
Description: Before the railroad to Lake Maitland, travelers boarded a steamboat in Jacksonville for the trip up the St. Johns River to Sanford. The St. Johns River is one of only three rivers in the United States that flows from south to north. Landing at Sanford, passengers hired a horse or team to take them overland to Lake Maitland. The South Florida Railroad was the first to this area from Sanford. Maitland residents Dr. Clement C. Haskell (1847-1900) and Bolling Robinson Swoope (born 1842) were Treasurer and Superintendent respectively. The new railroad, completed to Lake Maitland in 1880, terminated at the southern edge of town and opened new markets for shipments of citrus and other products to the north. Passengers met at the depot were transported by horse and buggy to their destinations. The stationmaster’s office was located in Packwood Hall, then the town hall, until the depot was built in 1883. It was torn down in 1969 due to tornado damage. In 1883 the Henry B. Plant Investment Company purchased the railroad, and the line was extended to Tampa. The Plant Railroad System consolidated into the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad in 1902 and the Seaboard Coastline Railroad by 1903. CSX currently owns the railroad.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF MAITLAND AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
LAKE LILY DRIVE
Location:701 Lake Lily Drive, Lake Lilly Park
County: Orange
City: Maitland
Description: This road was the first direct route from Northeast Florida to Maitland. It followed Maitland Avenue around this west side of Lake Lily and continued south on what is now Highway 17-92. During the Second Seminole War the United States Army used this trail to connect the forts along its route. Fort Maitland was built in 1838 on the west shore of Lake Maitland, a day’s march from Fort Mellon (Sanford). The fort was named in honor of Captain William Seton Maitland (1798-1837) who was cited for bravery in battle of 1836, and died in 1837 as a result of wounds received there. The fort was located south of the present Fort Maitland Park and was in use only until 1839. In 1915, Orange County paved the route with bricks, making it the first grouted brick road in Florida. This road became part of the Dixie Highway, which opened in 1925 and ran from Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan to Miami. In 1927 the road was joined to the Black Bear Trail at Lake Lily. Both names described the road from this point south. These bricks were covered by asphalt in the 1960’s and in 1998 the asphalt was removed and the Maitland Historical Society restored the bricks, with assistance from the City of Maitland and the Florida Department of State.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF MAITLAND AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
BLACK BEAR TRAIL
Location:900 S. Orlando Ave.
County: Orange
City: Maitland
Description: The Black Bear Trail, so-named because it ran through the natural habitat of the black bear, was organized by the Black Bear Trail, Inc., an association of officials of Chambers of Commerce, boards of trade and cities lying along the route of the new highway, whose objective was to provide a direct, safe route to historic and scenic sites from Canada to Florida. In April 1927, members of the Association marked the new route through Maitland along what is now Highway 17-92 by placing insignia showing a black bear painted on an orange oval background on both sides of telephone poles along the road. This road joined the Dixie Highway at Lake Lily and both names described this road from this point south. When completed, the Black Bear Trail ran from Quebec, Canada to St. Petersburg and Miami, Florida, and opened to travelers some of the most scenic areas in the country.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF MAITLAND AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MOSELEY HOUSE
Location:11 Taylor St.
County: Orange
City: Eatonville
Description: Taylor Street is the eastern boundary of Eatonville and is the site of Jim and Matilda Clark Moseley’s home. Matilda, or “Miss Tillie,” as she was affectionately called, was the niece of Joseph Clark, Eatonville’s founder and first mayor. Early dwellings in Eatonville were mainly single-family, one-story, 500-square-foot wood frame houses with no more than 2 or 3 rooms. One such house was located at 11 Taylor Street, built c. 1888 and is known as the Moseley House. Tillie was born and reared in Eatonville, where she served as a Sunday school teacher, church pianist and community activist. She married Jim Moseley, son of the fourth mayor of Eatonville. As a member of Eatonville’s pioneer family and due to her community involvement, many considered her a walking historian. Eatonville’s most acclaimed citizen - Zora Neale Hurston - author and folklorist - was Tillie’s best friend and a frequent visitor. Much of Hurston’s work is set in Eatonville and she would often stay with the Moseleys when she returned. The house is a repository for early Eatonville memorabilia, including the Moseley family and Zora Neale Hurston, and is a place to preserve African-American history and culture.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA STATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL ASSEMBLY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
COMMUNITY OF PIEDMONT
Location:Peidmont-Wekiwa Rd. between Orange Blossom Trail and Apopka Blvd.
County: Orange
City: Apopka
Description: Piedmont, named in the late 1890s, was comprised of a wide area around Blue lake, one and one-half miles east of Apopka City. It was a close-knit community populated in the 1870s almost entirely by Swedish immigrants. Among the earliest settlers were the Andersons, Thollanders, Jacksons, Olsons, and Larrsons. Railroad tracks were extended through the settlement in 1885, and the Piedmont Railroad station was constructed in 1890. Emily Jackson Swanson (1911-2001), living here her entire life, was the last Piedmont resident born of Swedish parents. A small store and a schoolhouse, the center of the community, served as a social center and church. Residents cultivated citrus groves and vineyards establishing several wineries. Residents also farmed raising livestock, produce, and poultry. In the late 1890s, a saw mill was built that continued into the 1920s, and the Florida Central and Peninsula Railroad built a new railroad freight station. The Piedmont post office, established to serve 75 residents in 17 homes in 1903, was discontinued in 1922. In the 1920s, electric service became available. The Piedmont Chamber of Commerce was formed in 1929. The area was annexed into the City of Apopka in 1986.
Sponsors: The Apopka Historical Society, the City of Apopka, and the Florida Department of State
ORLANDO ARMY AIR BASE
Location:Intersection of Maguire Boulevard and East Livingston Street
County: Orange
City: Orlando
Description: Orlando Municipal Airport opened in 1928 on 65 acres of land north of Lake Underhill. In 1940, with Europe at war, the United States Army took over the airport for defense purposes, activating it as the Orlando Army Air Base on September 1, 1940. The first Army Air Corps planes arrived on September 5, 1940. The Base provided a training center for pilots and fighter and bomber groups. The United States entered World War II on December 7, 1941, after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In 1942, B-17 bombers and their crews moved to the newly-completed Pine Castle Air Force Base, now the Orlando International Airport, and the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics moved to the Orlando Army Air Base, by then grown to 1000 acres with 6 runways. The size and importance of the Orlando base, where pilots tested new aircraft, including P-26 and P-40 fighter planes, brought notable visitors such as Chief of the Army Air Force General Hap Arnold and entertainer Bob Hope. At the end of World War II the base became a separation center for thousands of servicemen and women resuming civilian life. It was returned to the city of Orlando in 1946. Renamed Herndon Airport in 1961, it became the Orlando Executive Airport in 1982.
Sponsors: The City of Orlando, the Greater Orlando Aviation Authority and the Florida Department of State
WINDERMERE TOWN HALL
Location:520 Main St.
County: Orange
City: Windermere
Description: The settlement of Windermere began in the mid-1880s when Englishman Stanley Scott built his home in the area, giving it and the surrounding orange groves the name of Windermere, in memory of the Lake Windermere region of England. Other settlers followed, and a town site was platted in 1889, but the community was not formally incorporated until 1925. The town council had no permanent meeting place. Elected officials and citizens often met at the Windermere Woman’s Club, which was destined to become Town Hall. The two-story wood frame clubhouse had been erected on the shore of nearby Lake Butler in 1922 and was moved to its present site in 1938 for use as a community center. It formally became the seat of local government in 1945. Today the square surrounding the town hall is the focus of civic and recreational activity in Windermere. Facilities found there include the Chase Memorial Library, basketball courts, a municipal office building and the Cal Palmer Memorial Building, a small wood frame building constructed in 1911 by one of Windermere’s most prominent early residents. Both the Town Hall and the Cal Palmer Building are listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: TOWN OF WINDERMERE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ASTRONAUT JOHN WATTS YOUNG
Location:815 West Princeton Street
County: Orange
City: Orlando
Description: John Watts Young, NASA astronaut, Gemini veteran, Apollo moonwalker, and space shuttle commander, was the first American to travel in space six times. As an Orlando High School student, Young lived in this house at 815 West Princeton Street from 1945 until graduation in 1948. In 1965, he co-piloted Gemini-Titan III, a program that directly benefited Project Apollo's development and the first voyage to the moon. In 1972, Young was aboard Apollo XVI, the fifth manned landing on the moon, and was the ninth person to walk on the moon. He was commander on the first human-guided test flight of the first space shuttle, Columbia STS-1 in 1981 and the Challenger STS-9 in 1983, which carried Spacelab-1, a removable science laboratory. Young became the Special Assistant to the Director of the Johnson Space Center for Engineering, Operations and Safety in Houston, Texas, in 1987.
Sponsors: City of Orlando Commissioners Office District 3, College Park Merchants and Professionals Association, College Park Neighborhood Association, Orange County Historical Society, Inc., Orlando High School Class of 1948, Dana Holland, Caryl Curtis McAlpin, Ja
CARVER COURT PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECT
Location:S. Westmoreland St. Between Conely and W. Gore St.
County: Orange
City: Orlando
Description: Built in 1945 for $468,700, Carver Court was a public housing development set up by the Orlando Housing Authority in an effort to stimulate the economy, resolve growing slum and housing problems, and meet local demands associated with the massive defense buildup that had occurred during World War II. The development consisted of 16 one-story buildings and 12 two-story buildings. Carver Court was a prime example of a planned residential community, reflecting important urban planning and housing design theories of the period. As a well-defined group of affordable, multi-family, residential buildings organized around open spaces, Carver Court exemplified public housing projects constructed throughout the country during the late 1930s and 1940s. A team of Orlando’s most prominent architects and landscape architects, including Arthur Beck (1899-1990), the first Jewish architect in Orlando, Herbert L. Flint, landscape designer for the first public housing complex in Jacksonville, and F. Earl DeLoe (b. 1893), designed the housing complex. Originally built to house African-American families, Carver Court reflected attitudes toward segregation and the housing of low-income families that were characteristic of the time.
Sponsors: THE ORLANDO HOUSING AUTHORITY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SITE OF FORT GATLIN
Location:Summerlin St. near Gatlin Ave.
County: Orange
City: Orlando
Description: On November 9, 1838, during the Second Seminole Indian War (1835-42), the U.S. Army established Fort Gatlin in Mosquito County. This fort was named for Army Assistant Surgeon John S. Gatlin (1806-1835), who was killed in the Dade Massacre in 1835. The site of the fort was chosen as a military outpost due to its strategic position overlooking three lakes and because the area was frequented by Native Americans led by Seminole Chief King Philip and his son Coacoochee. The Fort served the state militia during the war until the Army withdrew in 1849. A few soldiers and families remained in the area, growing citrus and raising cattle. In 1856, Fort Gatlin became the county seat of Orange County, created from Mosquito County in 1845. The community’s name was later changed to Orlando, a name attributed to militiaman Orlando Reeves, who was reportedly killed in a skirmish during the Second Seminole War. It is believed that Reeves is buried near the site of Fort Gatlin. In 1941, during World War II, the United States Navy established the Underwater Sound Reference Laboratory near this site on Lake Gem Mary because of the great depth of the lake. The lab was closed in 1997.
Sponsors: THE FORT GATLIN HISTORICAL GROUP, THE FORT GATLIN HISTORICAL GROUP, ORANGE COUNTY GOVERNMENT, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
LOVELL'S LANDING AT LAKE APOPKA
Location:2929 Binion Rd. Magnolia Park
County: Orange
City: Apopka
Description: In the 1870s, the early settlers of northwest Orange County looked to area waterways as commercial highways. Lake Apopka, the head of the Ocklawaha chain of lakes, offered access to the St. Johns River near Palatka and a way for citrus and vegetable growers near the banks of the lake to transport their products. In 1872, William A. Lovell (1828-1903) purchased 225 acres of land on the northwest side of the lake. At this location, he established a landing to serve as a hub for freight service on Lake Apopka and the surrounding region. Before steamer service began on the Ocklawaha in 1882, fruits and vegetables from 17 landings around the lake were brought to Lovell’s Landing for delivery by oxen to Clay Springs and areas further north. As commerce through Lovell’s Landing increased, the community constructed its own school, which operated from 1884-1895. In the 1920s, Apopka built a dock, clubhouse, and picnic grounds at the landing. In 1926, Orange County built a road connecting Apopka to the area. Waterway commerce from Lovell’s Landing subsequently declined as more and faster methods of transporting fruits and vegetables came to the region.
Sponsors: Apopka Historical Society, Orange County Board of County Commissioners, and the Florida Department of State.
HENRY NEHRLING'S PALM COTTAGE GARDENS
Location:2267 Hempel Ave
County: Orange
City: Gotha
Description: This site was home to Dr. Henry Nehrling (1853-1929), an internationally-renowned horticulturalist, naturalist, botanist, ornithologist, and writer known as the “patron saint of Florida gardens.” Here, and at his later Naples gardens, between 1886 and 1929, Nehrling introduced and tested over 3,000 new and rare species of plants and trees, as well as Florida native plants. Over 300 of these became essential to the state’s ornamental horticulture, including caladiums, palms, bamboos, magnolias, amaryllis, Indian hawthorne, and crinum lilies. Nehrling’s gardens became a mecca for plant lovers and a tourist destination in the early 1900s, and were visited by many prominent people, including President Theodore Roosevelt and renowned horticulturists David Fairchild and Liberty Hyde Bailey. Nehrling collaborated with the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and, in 1929, was awarded the Meyer Agricultural Explorer Medal. He was a founding member of the American Ornithological Union and the Florida Audubon Society, and wrote extensively on plants and birds. His most notable works include “Our Native Birds of Song and Beauty”, “The Plant World in Florida”, and “My Garden in Florida.”
Sponsors: The Henry Nehrling Society, Rotary Club of Windermere, Windermere Garden Club, Bloom & Grow Garden Society, and the Florida Department of State
CHURCH OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD
Location:331 Lake Avenue
County: Orange
City: Maitland
Description: The Church of the Good Shepherd (known as "The Chapel") was established in 1882 by the Right Reverend Henry Benjamin Whipple, the first Episcopal bishop of the Diocese of Minnesota, who wintered in Maitland because of poor health. Bishop Whipple envisioned his church as “. . . a place where the poorest man on earth may find here his Saviour's home.” The property for the church was donated by Mr. C.H. Hall in 1875. The church’s congregation formally began in 1879, when its members met in the parlor of Bishop Whipple’s house across the street from the present church. The church was designed by architect Charles C. Haight of New York City, and was constructed in 1883 by builder James A. McGuire. The timber frame building is an excellent example of the Carpenter Gothic style, and has a rectangular nave, a belfry with a tall pyramidal roof, and unusual triangular battens in its board and batten exterior. The church’s original 1884 stained glass windows were designed by Charles Booth in the Aesthetic Style, and are exceptional examples of this rare type of design in stained glass. The Church of the Good Shepherd was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011.
Sponsors: The Church of the Good Shepherd and the Florida Department of State

Osceola

KENANVILLE SCHOOL
Location:1180 South Canoe Creek Road
County: Osceola
City: Kenansville
Description: This building was constructed in 1917 on five acres of land with $6,000 donated from the estate of Mrs. Mary Lily Kenan Flagler Bingham, (1867-1917), wife of Henry Flagler, the owner and promoter of the Florida East Coast Railroad. Kenansville School is the oldest known public school building in Osceola County. The two-story masonry vernacular brick building, of late 19th, early 20th century design, was erected by A.J. MacDonough, Architect, and Track and Nash Contractor. From 1917 to early 1920, the school housed grades one through 12 with as many as 100 students and five teachers. By 1922, only 29 students were enrolled in grades one through six and were taught by one teacher. The school closed in 1962 and sat empty for 30 years. In 1992 it reopened, serving students from pre-K to second grade and saving the younger children the 35-mile bus ride to St. Cloud. In 2003, the school closed its doors permanently. In 2005, the school was deeded to the Kenansville Community Association, Inc. with the help of the School Board of Osceola County and the Board of County Commissioners of Osceola County. For several decades, the school was one of the state’s outstanding rural schools.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE KENANSVILLE COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE DESERT INN
Location:State Highway 441 and State Road 60.
County: Osceola
City: Yeehaw Junction
Description: The Desert Inn was founded as a trading post in the late 1880s. The present building dates before 1925 and served as a supply and recreational center for cattle drovers, lumber men and tourists during the era when much of Osceola County was still undeveloped wilderness. Cowmen working the free ranging cattle on the palmetto prairie and lumber men cutting timber in the nearby pine lands came to the Desert Inn to eat, drink, and dance at this “oasis” where they could enjoy some relief from their arduous labors. Local patrons of the trading post and restaurant included African Americans and Seminoles, who had separate dining facilities in the era of segregation. The construction of roads in the 1930s brought tourists to the area, and a set of overnight cabins were erected behind the original building. Today the Desert Inn continues to be a popular destination for tourists and local residents. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1994.
Sponsors: The Desert Inn and the Florida Department of State
OSCEOLA COUNTY
Location:2 Courthouse Sq, on grounds of Courthouse.
County: Osceola
City: Kissimmee
Description: Osceola County was created in May, 1887 from portions of Orange and Brevard Counties. One of its sponsors was Senator J. Milton Bryan, who suggested the new county be named for Osceola, the great Seminole warrior. The new county was Florida's fortieth and had 815 citizens. Kissimmee was named the county seat. In 1889, Osceola citizens voted a $30,000 bond issue to build this Romanesque Revival style courthouse, which has remained in daily use since 1890. It's significance was recognized by its listing in the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. Osceola is Florida's sixth largest county. It has a rich history of cattle raising extending back to the days of the Seminole Indians. Other landmarks in county agricultural and economic history include the rise and decline of Hamilton Disston's Land and sugar empire, steamboating, and lumbering. Cattle and agriculture remain Osceola County's economic bulwarks, although it has experienced growth in manufacturing and tourism since the late 1960s.
Sponsors: sponsored by Kissimmee business and professional women's club in cooperation with department of state
THE THUNDERSTORM PROJECT
Location:13th St. Between New York and Pennsylvania Ave.
County: Osceola
City: St. Cloud
Description: On a typical summer afternoon thunderstorms will be seen in the skies surrounding this site. So common they are often ignored, thunderstorms are nevertheless vital to the State's economy. They provide most of Florida's annual rainfall, but lightening and strong winds from occasional severe storms can be costly. It was here in the summer of 1946 that scientists used weather radar, aircraft penetration flights, balloon soundings and an extensive network of surface instruments to gather - for the first time - observations which led to an understanding of the structure and life cycle of thunderstorms. This site was chosen because the frequency of thunderstorms in Florida is higher than anywhere else in North America. The Thunderstorm Project was conducted by U.S. Weather Bureau, Air Force, Navy and NACA (forerunner of NASA). Scientists working at the University of Chicago analyzed the resulting data. Theories they developed from observations made here in 1946 - and in the Ohio Phase of the Project the following summer - remain the cornerstone of our understanding of thunderstorms and related weather such as hail, strong winds, heavy rain and tornadoes.
Sponsors: sponsored by meteorologists from around the country in cooperation with the department of state
HAMILTON DISSTON SUGAR PLANTATION
Location:2700 Lake Shore Blvd
County: Osceola
City: St. Cloud
Description: In 1885, Hamilton Disston, Pennsylvania industrialist and pioneer Florida promoter, established an extensive experimental sugar plantation on the drained lands around St. Cloud. The enterprise, part of Disston's promotional scheme, prospered for several years and operated its own cane mill. After the abolition of the federal bounty on domestic sugar, the business failed and much of the machinery was sold for scrap. The failure caused large scale sugar planting in Florida to be abandoned for many years.

Palm Beach

ROYAL POINCIANA HOTEL
Location:44 Cocoanut Row in front of the Palm Beach Towers
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: The Royal Poinciana Hotel, built by Henry M. Flagler, was opened February 11, 1894. One of the largest wooden structures in the world at the time, the hotel cost over $1 million. Its rooms accommodated 2,000 quests and its dining room seated 1,600. The sprawling six story structure, painted yellow and white, faced Lake Worth and was surrounded by gardens. The hotel was in use until the 1929-1930 season. It was demolished in 1936.
THE BAREFOOT MAILMAN
Location:At Spanish River Park, A1A
County: Palm Beach
City: Boca Raton
Description: Along this beach in the 1880's and early 1890's walked United States mailmen on their sixty-six mile journey between Palm Beach and Miami. The trip required three days each way and they passed this spot the second day. They walked barefoot at the wet surf line, the hardest surface, with their mail bags and shoes slung over their shoulders. One of them, James E. Hamilton, drowned trying to cross Hillsborough Inlet.
Sponsors: Estahakee Chapter National Society Daughters of the American Revolution in Cooperation with the Florida Historical Society and Department of State, Bureau of Historic Preservation
ORANGE GROVE HOUSE OF REFUGE NO. 3 - 1876-1927
Location:A1A (Ocean Blvd) between Thomas St. and E. Atlantic Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: One of several built by Treasury Department between Cape Canaveral and Cape Florida for rescue and sustenance of shipwrecked. Named for wild sour orange grove nearby, H.D. Pierce, first keeper, arrived with family May 1876. Here August 15, 1876, was born the first white girl between Jupiter and Miami -- (Mrs.) Lillie Pierce Voss. Stephen N. Andrews was last keeper, from September 1877 to October 1, 1896. Area's first post office, Zion, was located in House from 1888 to 1892, Mrs. Annie E. Andrews postmaster. House burned March 2, 1927.
Sponsors: Jonathan Dickinson Chapter National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution in Cooperation with the Florida Historical Society and the Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF BETHESDA-BY-THE-SEA
Location:141 S. County Rd. On grounds of church.
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: The original church constructed in 1889 on the eastern shore of Lake Worth was the first Protestant church building in southeast Florida. The present edifice, erected in 1926 as a monument to international friendship, has served all races, nations, and creeds. This plaque was placed by the Palm Beach County Historical Society to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the church, in recognition of the historic role of Bethesda-by-the- Sea in the life of the community.
CONNORS' TOLL HIGHWAY
Location:U.S. 98 near 3rd St.
County: Palm Beach
City: Canal Point
Description: Prior to 1923, travel into or out of the Lake Okeechobee Area was accomplished only by boat or canoe. In the early 1920's, W. J. Conners, a New York winter visitor bought 4000 acres of undeveloped muck land near this site. Development required that this property be accessible by land. Being a man with financial and executive ability, he was not long in achieving his desire. After obtaining approval from both houses of the State Legislature in the record time of 2 hours and 20 minutes, he set about building the W.J. Conners Toll Road. Although the terrain was unknown, Conners and his engineer, R.Y. Patterson, constructed the road using dredges. A temporary railroad installed on the roadbed hastened construction. First work began on October 16, 1924 and the highway was completed on June 25, 1925, 8 months later. The final cost of the 52 mile road was $1,800,000. The road was hailed as an engineering marvel of the time and contributed greatly to the growth of this area. Although the toll was only $.03 a mile, the average daily toll gathered was $2000. After Conners' death on October 5, 1929, the road ultimately was sold to the State of Florida for $660,000. This memorial is in tribute to his accomplishments.
Sponsors: sponsored by the glades historical society in cooperation with the department of state
DELRAY WRECK
Location:On the city's municipal beach, along A1A
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: The old shipwreck known as the Delray Wreck rests at the bottom of the ocean in 25 feet of water about 150 yards offshore the south end of Delray's municipal beach. The wreck is broken and scattered into five sections and has long been one of the most popular diving spots in South Florida. The S.S. INCHULVA was grounded and wrecked by a fierce hurricane on September 11, 1903. Under the command of Captain G.W. Davis, the 386 foot steelhulled British steamship was bound for Newport New, Virginia from Galveston, Texas carrying wheat, cotton, lumber and a crew of 28 men. The storm struck about 5 p.m., tossing the ship and causing the cargo to shift. Steering became impossible, so Captain Davis put out both anchors, but to no avail. The anchors parted and the INCHULVA grounded and was ripped apart. Nine crew members were lost. Dawn revealed to the battered crew that land and a town were just a short distance away. by noon, all the men except Captain Davis and two mates had landed on shore in a small hastily-built raft. They found hot food and coffee at the Chapman House, a local hotel, where many of Delray's residents had taken shelter during the storm. The nine seamen who lost their lives were buried on the ridge overlooking the ocean where the ship had gone down. The surviving crew members were treated, paid and sent to New York. Before leaving for their homes, each crew member signed the guest register of the Chapman House. Under their names they wrote, "Shipwrecked in the S.S. INCHULVA, September 11, 1903, landed on a raft September 12th and received every kindness and attention at the hands of Mrs. Chapman." Captain Davis, his Chief Officer, a 2nd Officer and a seaman from the ship were brought before the Naval Court held at the British Vice Consulate at Jacksonville on September 19th. The Court exonerated the Captain and the crew from all blame.
Sponsors: The Historic Palm Beach County Preservation Board in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
BOCA RATON TOWN HALL
Location:71 North Federal Highway.
County: Palm Beach
City: Boca Raton
Description: Designed in the Mediterranean Revival style by the architect Addison C. Mizner and completed by the architect William E. Alysmeyer, the Boca Raton Town Hall opened in April 1927 as the city's first municipal building, fire station and police department. The Cramer & Cramer Construction Company developed architectural plans with an elaborate front entrance, a gilded dome atop the bell tower and interior finishes with products of the Mizner Industries. The Woman's Club opened Boca Raton's first public library here in 1927 and the second floor served as a private residence of the fire chief for a number of years. In the early years, the Council Chamber/Court Room was the only public meeting room in Boca Raton and was used by numerous social groups, as well as providing a polling place for city voters. In 1975, the city declared that the building should become a museum and in 1976 the Boca Raton Historical Society located its office here. In recognition of its historic and architectural significance, the Boca Raton Town Hall was listed in the National Register of Historic Places as "Old City Hall" in 1980. Several municipal offices occupied the building until 1983 and the Town Hall was restored to its original architectural design by the Boca Raton Historical Society in 1984 for use as a local history museum and archives.
Sponsors: The Palm Beach Town Committee, National Society of Colonial Dames in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
SEA GULL COTTAGE - PALM BEACH'S OLDEST HOUSE
Location:Sea Gull Cottage, 60 Coconut Row
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: Constructed in 1886 by R.R. McCormick, a Denver railroad developer, Sea Gull cottage was purchased by Henry Flagler in 1893 and became Flagler's first winter residence in Palm Beach. The Royal Poinciana, Flagler's first resort hotel in Palm Beach, was located next to Sea Gull. In 1984 Sea Gull was moved and restored by the Preservation Foundation of Palm Beach. It is now the Parish House of the Royal Poinciana Chapel.
Sponsors: The National Society of Colonial Dames of America in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
F.E.C. RAILWAY DEPOT, BOCA RATON
Location:747 South Dixie Highway.
County: Palm Beach
City: Boca Raton
Description: Side 1: The rails of Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway first reached Boca Raton in 1895 providing an essential link in the extension of the railroad system south to Miami and the Florida Keys, and fostering the tourism and agricultural development around which the community of Boca Raton was founded and grew to prosper. The 1930 railway depot on this site was not the first station in Boca Raton. While the F.E.C. was crucial to the opening of the area, it was during the era of the 1920s and 1930s that Boca Raton received its unique architectural character, due largely to the influence of the architect and developer Addison Mizner. In 1928, following the collapse of the explosive Boom Era in southeast Florida, Mizner lost his extensive holdings in Boca Raton. Clarence A. Geist, a self-made man who began his career as a brakeman in New Jersey and rose to become a utilities magnate in Philadelphia, bought the bankrupt development. Geist, too, had vision, and set out to build on Mizner's achievements. His plans included the construction of a passenger depot on the F.E.C. line to provide service for guests of the exclusive Boca Raton Club, the crown jewel of Mizner's plans for Boca, and to provide a gracious entrance to the showplace community. Side 2: In order to ensure the station would be designed in a style to complement the Club, Geist donated the necessary land and rights to the F.E.C. and is reputed to have made a considerable investment in the railway at the time. Built in 1930, the station was designed by F.E.C. architect Chester G. Henninger in the Mediterranean Revival style of architecture with a gently pitched gable roof, stuccoed walls and arched loggias with delicate spiral columns. This distinctive style, generally associated with the work of Mizner, contributed richly to the unique physical character of Boca Raton which remains visible today. The F.E.C. Railway Passenger Station in Boca Raton was operated until 1968 when passenger service along the line was discontinued. A living testament to the Boom Era in Florida history, the station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, and was restored in 1989 by the Boca Raton Historical Society with the generous assistance of the Count and Countess de Hoernle and the widespread support of the community.
Sponsors: Phi Alpha Theta, Xi Omega Chapter, Florida Atlantic University in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
PALM BEACH JUNIOR COLLEGE FLORIDA'S FIRST PUBLIC JUNIOR COLLEGE
Location:6th Ave. S. and Congress Ave. (SR 807) at at the administration building on the Palm Beach Community College campus.
County: Palm Beach
City: Lake Worth
Description: The earliest junior colleges in Florida were established under private auspices, beginning in 1907 with Palmer College at DeFuniak Springs. The first public junior college was instituted by the Palm Beach County school board during the Depression years to make college opportunities available to those local high school graduates unable to meet the expenses of attending school away from home. Palm Beach Junior College admitted its first students in 1933. Its first goal was to provide two years of acceptable college work. Soon it also offered career or vocational education for persons desiring to work after graduation and adult education programs. In 1939, state legislation provided legal status for the junior college program by authorizing county school boards to organize and maintain such institutions using county school funds. In 1947, Palm Beach Junior College began to receive state assistance under new legislation. Beginning in the 1950's the junior college program in florida began to expand, aided by the long-term plans of the Community College council created in 1955. The educational goals of Palm Beach Junior College served as a model for Florida's developing community college program.
Sponsors: sponsored by Palm Beach Junior College in cooperation with department of state
FLORIDA EAST COAST RAILWAY STATION
Location:200 NE First Street
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: This 40' freight section is all that remains of the old railroad station constructedin 1896 by the Florida East Coast Railway Company. The station originally stood on the east side of the tracks, one block south of Atlantic Avenue. The original 100' long Stick style building contained ground level waiting rooms and a raised freight area. The station was expanded by 96 feet in the 1920s, and another addition was constructed in the 1940s. Passenger service was discontinued in the 1960s, and the station was scheduled for demolition. The passenger area was razed but public outcry to save the station stopped total destruction of the building. In 1968 the remaining freight section was split into two sections and moved. The 1920s portion was destroyed by fire in 1984, but the original 40' area of the 1896 station was moved and used for several years as an office and for storage at a nursery west of town. In 1994, this surviving section of the historic station was purchased by the Delray Beach Historical Society, which had the building moved to its present location and rehabilitated.
Sponsors: florida heritage sitesponsored by the national society of the colonial dames of america and florida department of statesandra b. mortham, secretary of state
BOYNTON WOMAN'S CLUB
Location:1010 South Federal Highway
County: Palm Beach
City: Boynton Beach
Description: The Boynton Woman’s Club was designed in the Mediterranean Revival style by the famous Palm Beach architect Addison C. Mizner. The Woman’s Club is significant for both its architectural merit and contributions to the cultural development of Boynton Beach. The club was built in 1925 as a memorial to the founder of the town, Major Nathan S. Boynton. Along with providing a social and civic center for the community, it served as the town’s first public library and the first meeting place for several local churches and service organizations. The second floor features a grand ballroom and stage. The building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
Sponsors: THE PALM BEACH TOWN COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY OF THE COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SEABOARD AIR LINE STATION
Location:Tarmarind Ave. at Datura St., station courtyard
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: The Seaboard Air Line Railway Station has played an important role in the history of West Palm Beach and Palm Beach County. It is a unique example of early 20th century railroad architecture in the Mediterranean Revival style. The Station opened with the arrival of the Orange Blossom Special on January 25, 1925. It was the flagship station of the entire Seaboard line running from Coleman to Homestead. Harvey & Clarke, the largest architectural firm in Palm Beach County in the 1920s, created this new symbol for the City of West Palm Beach in the prevailing architectural style of the period. The Historic American Buildings Survey documented the station in 1971 and the station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The AMTRAK System began passenger service here in May 1971 and the Tri-County Commuter Rail Organization began passenger service from here to Miami in January 1989. The Seaboard Station was restored with substantial funding by the Florida Department of State and rededicated in April 1991.
Sponsors: The Palm Beach Town Committee of The National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
PALM BEACH JUNIOR COLLEGE
Location:Storage
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: Side 1: This Mediterranean Revival style building housed Palm Beach Junior College, Florida's first public community college, when it was established here in 1933. The college outgrew these facilities after the Second World War and moved in 1948 to Morrison Field, a U.S. Army Air Base, renovated to accommodate the influx of students in peace time. In 1955 the college relocated to its present site in Lake Worth. Among the civic leaders responsible for promoting the concept of the junior college were Palm Beach County Superintendent of Schools Joseph A. Youngblood and Palm Beach High School Principal Howell L. Watkins. The college served as a model for the state-wide system of Junior Colleges. Three students were in the first graduating class of 1936. In 1936 John I. Leonard became the first president of the Palm Beach Junior College. Side 2: William Manly King (1886-1961), a noted West Palm Beach architect, designed this building in the Mediterranean Revival style so popular in Florida in the 1920's. The design complemented the adjacent Palm Beach High School campus and this building was occupied in 1927. As architect for the Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction he designed numerous school buildings throughout Palm Beach County. Mr. King also designed hotels in West Palm Beach, the National Guard Armory (1939), the Hibiscus Garden Apartments (1926) and the seal for the City of West Palm Beach. In June, 1991 the building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The Mediterranean Revival classroom building continued to serve the needs of the School Board and in November, 1991 it was returned to Palm Beach Community College. The College Foundation undertook the challenge of restoring the building for the continuing education of citizens in our community. This historical marker is dedicated to commemorate the 60th Anniversary of Palm Beach Community College, 1933-1993.
Sponsors: The Palm Beach Community College Foundation in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
EL CID NEIGHBORHOOD
Location:207 Almeria Rd.
County: Palm Beach
City: Lake Worth
Description: In 1876, Benjamin Lanehart homesteaded land that is now the north end of El Cid. Soon afterward, Elizabeth Wilder Moore settled on the shores of Lake Worth, just south of Lanehart. Lanehart started the first commercial pineapple operation in the area, and this fruit soon dominated the local agriculture. But by the turn of the century, competition and pant diseases ruined the pineapple business. However, the population of West Palm Beach continued to grow. The El Cid Neighborhood was a product of the 1920’s Florida Land Boom era. Pittsburgh socialite John Phipps (1874-1958), the son of Andrew Carnegie’s partner in U.S. Steel, assembled these old pineapple fields to develop the district. Beginning in 1921, independent builders sold expensive Mediterranean Revival and Mission-style homes on most of he available lots. Its proximity to downtown and the shore of Lake Worth attracted affluent business, political, and social leaders who dominated the city’s development in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Phipps named his development El Cid after the celebrated medieval Spanish hero, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar. His Moorish enemies called him Cid, an Arabic word meaning lord. The El Cid District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: EL CID HISTORIC NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
LAKE PARK TOWN HALL
Location:535 Park Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Lake Park
Description: Boston entrepreneur Harry S. Kelsey founded Kelsey City in 1921.He envisioned his town as a resort mecca and winter retreat for wealthy northeners.The Town Hall was designed by architect Bruce Kitchell in 1927 and was built by the Arnold Construction Company.Constructed of stuccoed brick and clay tile,this Mediterranean Revival jewel has stylistic features reflective of the late Italian Renaissance,including a rusticated frontispiece,decorative window surrounds and a water table supported by brackets.The Town Hall originally housed the Police and Fire Departments,Town Administration,Library,and Municipal Courtroom.The land boom collapse in the mid 1920s and the Hurricane of 1928,in which the Town Hall served as a shelter for residents,nearly devastated the city.Service organizations provided diversions for those who remained.The Fire Department sponsered dances here in the Mirror Ballroom on the second floor.The ballroom was used for many other social events,such as theatrical performances by the Palm Beach Junior College,which occupied the Town Hall in the 1950s.In 1939 the town changed its name to the Town of Lake Park.Lake Park Town Hall was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1981.
Sponsors: Town of Lake Park and FL Dept of State
NORTH OCEAN BOULEVARD
Location:N. Ocean Blvd, between Pelican Rd. and Shore Rd.
County: Palm Beach
City: Gulf Stream
Description: In 1992 North Ocean Boulevard (State Road A1A) in the Town of Gulf Stream was designated as a State Historic Scenic Highway to preserve the last remaining Australian pine canopy and the original character and beauty of the 1920s A1A in Florida. State Road A1A through Gulf Stream is one of the earliest, most scenic and most important north-south highways in Palm Beach County and was officially opened in 1916 in this area. In the 1920s, Australian pines were planted on both sides of the road in South Florida, up to the freeze line, to act as a windbreak. Being a fast growing species, a canopy over A1A soon developed, adding greatly to the beauty, charm and character of the area. This canopy has been destroyed with the exception of that remaining in Gulf Stream. Ironically, Australian pines are now too prolific and are not as welcomed in some areas as they once were. Yet the Town has protected the canopy and has obtained authority from the State to restore it, which is gradually being accomplished.
Sponsors: THE TOWN OF GULF STREAM AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
NORTH OCEAN BOULEVARD
Location:3851 North Ocean Blvd
County: Palm Beach
City: Gulf Stream
Description: In 1992 North Ocean Boulevard (State Road A1A) in the Town of Gulf Stream was designated as a State Historic Scenic Highway to preserve the last remaining Australian pine canopy and the original character and beauty of the 1920s A1A in Florida. State Road A1A through Gulf Stream is one of the earliest, most scenic and most important north-south highways in Palm Beach County and was officially opened in 1916 in this area. In the 1920s, Australian pines were planted on both sides of the road in South Florida, up to the freeze line, to act as a windbreak. Being a fast growing species, a canopy over A1A soon developed, adding greatly to the beauty, charm and character of the area. This canopy has been destroyed with the exception of that remaining in Gulf Stream. Ironically, Australian pines are now too prolific and are not as welcomed in some areas as they once were. Yet the Town has protected the canopy and has obtained authority from the State to restore it, which is gradually being accomplished.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Town of Gulf Stream and the Florida Department of State
HURRICANE OF 1928 MASS BURIAL SITE
Location:Corner of 25th St. and N. Tamarind Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Pahokee
Description: Early residents of Glades had to survive many harsh elements. Their goal to create a thriving farming community was often tested by storms, insects, and the lack of many comforts. In 1928 the Glades area was devastated by a powerful hurricane that threatened to destroy the entire area. Several thousand residents were killed and hundreds of homes were destroyed. Despite the death and damage, those residents that survived continued to develop the area. The Glades eventually became a major agricultural community because of their desire and vision. This memorial honors those residents who lost their lives in the 1928 hurricane.
Sponsors: CITY OF PAHOKEE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CLEMANTIS STREET COMMERCIAL HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:N. Clemantis St.
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: For over 100 years, Clematis Street(named after the Clematis flower has been the primary retail street in West Palm Beach. It was a shell-topped road in 1893, when Henry Flagler(1830-1913) began to develop West Palm Beach as the commercial district for his resort community of Palm Beach. The face of Clematis Street was changed in 1904 with the paving and the installation of sidewalks and streetlights. The Eastern end of Clematis Street developed first, but by 1916, as the population grew, the business district began to expand to the West. During the real estate boom of the 1920's, new buildings were erected to house a variety of retail establishments in the 500 block of Clematis Street. Among the contributing buildings in the district are the Hotel Clematis and Gruner's department store at 512-516 Clematis Street; James Rooming House at 518-20 Clematis Street; Sewell's Hardware store at 528-30 Clematis Street; and Sirkin Building at 533 Clematis Street(designed by local architect's Harvey and Clark)all built between 1920 and 1928. The 500 block of Clematis has the highest concentration of historic buildings in the downtown retail area. In 1998 it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: City of West Palm Beach, Florida Department of State
EVERGREEN CEMETERY
Location:2825 N. Rosemary Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: In 1913, a group of seven men (M.J. Gildersleeve, Reverend R.W. Washington, Fred Austin, Robert Holland, Henry Meador, Sam Sharp, and Henry Rhodes) identified as trustees and owners, had the Evergreen Cemetery laid out. The site has originally been part of Gales Lake Worth Plat # 1. These men, joined by four others, formed the Evergreen Cemetery Association in 1916, with M.J. Gildersleeve serving as president. Prior to the creation of this cemetery blacks had been buried in what was identified only as the “colored cemetery” on South Dixie Highway. For over 85 years, Evergreen Cemetery has been the final resting place of some of the city’s most influential black citizens, as well as a cross section of many unnoted black citizens who contributed to the development of West Palm Beach. Among those buried in Evergreen Cemetery are Dr. T. Leroy Jefferson, the city’s first black physician; J.W. Mickens, an early educator; Henry Speed, a real estate investor; and Dr. J.R. Vickers, a physician. In 1981, the City Commission declared Evergreen Cemetery a site of local historical significance. The City acquired and assumed responsibility for Evergreen Cemetery in 1987.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF WEST PALM BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLAMINGO PARK HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of Flamingo Dr. and Palm Beach Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: There are 501 contributing structures within the Flamingo Park subdivision, which was officially platted on May 17, 1921, with more than 76 building permits issued in 1923. Built on the highest of all coastal ridges between downtown West Palm Beach and Miami, with an ocean view, Flamingo Park was home to many of the most prominent citizens of the time. The Florida Land Boom era is represented here in a concentration of architecturally significant homes in Mission and Mediterranean Revival and Frame Vernacular styles, constructed between 1921 and the mid-1930s. Numerous Masonry Vernacular, Art Moderne, American Foursquare, Colonial Revival and Craftsmen/Bungalow residences are found here. The Alfred Comeau House at 701 Flamingo Drive was built in 1924. Comeau was a prominent businessman, who also built one of the first West Palm Beach skyscrapers in 1925. The Flamingo Park Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: FLAMINGO PARK NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLAGLER PARK
Location:North Flagler Drive
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: Flagler Park, formerly known as City Park, has been an important public space in West Palm Beach since the founding of the community. The town site for West Palm Beach was laid out in 1893 as a grid pattern of streets running north - south and east - west. The only variation was at the eastern end of Clematis Street, where two angled, short streets branched off to create a triangular, public common area. Over the years, the site has seen a variety of uses. Downtown merchants organized impromptu ball games on the park-like grounds when business was slow. In 1900, a two-story, frame building was donated for use as a reading room and transported across Lake Worth from Palm Beach. It was placed on the southeastern portion of the parcel. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union dedicated a drinking fountain in the Park in 1907. In 1915, a Woman’s Club was placed on the parcel. Other amenities were also added to the park, including a shuffleboard court and a bandstand for outdoor concerts. As the City’s population expanded during the 1920’s, the facilities of the Reading Room were outgrown and a library was built in 1923. It opened in January 1924, as the Memorial Library, named to honor the dead of World War I. It too was outgrown and was replaced by another library in 1962. In 1994, the library was remodeled and the plaza in front of the library was redesigned, incorporating a triangular, in -ground fountain. This forecourt has become the center of downtown activities, continuing the traditional use of this important civic space
Sponsors: CITY OF WEST PALM BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLAMINGO PARK
Location:South Dixie Highway, Flamingo Park
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: This site originally was the southeast corner of an eighty-acre parcel purchased by George L. Marsteller of Charleston, South Carolina, in 1884 for $100. Two blocks to the North between South Dixie Highway and South Olive Ave. the Lakeside Cemetery Association had Platted the Lakeside Cemetery in 1895. It operated as a racially integrated facility, unusual for the times. In 1902, the Association purchased these two acres from West Palm Beach to serve as a separate cemetery for African Americans. The Association platted 190 lots and interred approximately 100 people by 1913. The cemetery never had a official name: maps of the era simply called it “Colored Cemetery” The city’s efforts to repossess and resell the cemetery in 1916 were blocked by the Florida Supreme Court. By 1921, unable to maintain the cemetery, the Association donated it to the City without restrictions. No further burials took place. The City converted the cemetery to a public park known as Dixie playground and later renamed Flamingo Park. Citizens’ protests in 1966 and 1991 thwarted subsequent attempts to sell the park for commercial development.
Sponsors: City of West Palm Beach and the Florida Department of State
POWELL'S BATTLE
Location:9060 W. Indiantown Rd at Riverbend Park
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: On January 15,1838,during the Second Seminole War.The Seminoles met and defeated U.S. forces in the first battle of the Loxahatchee River.Trying to end the war,Maj. Gen. Thomas Jesup brought several columns of troops to south Florida, including Waterborne Everglades Expeditionary Unit commanded by Navy Lt. Levin Powell. In search of the Seminoles, Powell's unit entered the southwest fork of the Loxahatchee river in small boats, led by a captured Seminole woman. Marching west, they saw smoke trails rise from a cypress swamp encampment and were suddenly met by hot musket fire from Seminole warriors. A running fire fight in the swamp led by Chiefs Tuskegee and Halleck Hadjo ended at dark with the Seminoles slowly gaining control. Powell's small force of 80 sailors and soldiers, overpowered by a much larger force of Seminole swamp fighters, barely escaped with severe casualities. Only the leadership of Joseph Johnston prevented what could have been the "Powell Massacre". With news of the Seminole victory, Gen. Jesup and his main column of more than 1500 men headed southeast to confront the Seminoles in the Second Battle of the Loxahatchee River on January 24, 1838.
Sponsors: Palm Beach County and Florida Dept. of State.
OLD FLORESTA HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of West Palmetto Park Rd and Cardinal Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Boca Raton
Description: In October 1925, architect Addison Mizner announced construction of houses for his company’s executives and his brother, the Reverend Henry Mizner, in the subdivision now known as Old Floresta. The Robinson Company, a New York contractor building the Cloister Inn in Boca Raton, won the contract for 29 Mizner-designed houses. With the end of the real estate boom in 1926, the Mizner Development Corporation collapsed before Robinson could complete the houses. The Chicago partners, headed by Hermann V. von Holst, from whom Mizner purchased the land for Old Floresta, held the mortgage and filed for foreclosure. Von Holst then supervised the completion of the unfinished houses, proposed new names for the streets, and suggested calling the subdivision Floresta, “a delightful rural place” in Spanish. Since the 1920s, Old Floresta, with its Spanish-style architecture of rough-finished stucco walls, wrought iron balconies, and barrel tile roofs, combined with the subdivision’s narrow tree-lined streets and lush landscaping, has remained one of Boca Raton’s most distinctive neighborhoods. In 1990, Old Floresta became Boca Raton’s first historic district.
Sponsors: The Boca Raton Historical Society and the Florida Department of State
1913 BOYNTON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Location:129 E. Ocean Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Boynton Beach
Description: Boynton Elementary School, originally called Boynton School, was designed by West Palm Beach architect William Maughlin. It opened in 1913 and was Boynton’s only K-12 school for the next 14 years. It was used continuously as a public school until 1989. The masonry vernacular building has two floors, six classrooms and attic space leading to the belfry. The originally preserved staircase and all floors were built of Florida pine. Although it had indoor plumbing, electricity was not installed until the 1920’s. The schoolhouse was the community’s hub of activity, used for both education and social gatherings. In the early 1990’s city residents revived the downtown, with the old schoolhouse as the cornerstone. In March 1994, the City of Boynton Beach acquired the schoolhouse and had it listed in the National Register of Historic Places. It was restored in 1997. In 1998-99, with funding from the City of Boynton Beach and the Division of Historical Resources, the building underwent a $1.4 million renovation. In 2001 it re-opened as the Schoolhouse Children’s Museum whose mission is to encourage children and families to learn about city and county history through an array of hands-on and interactive exhibitions and programs.
Sponsors: THE BOYNTON CULTURAL CENTRE, INC.,THE CITY OF BOYNTON BEACH, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SANDOWAY HOUSE AND NATURE CENTER
Location:142 South Ocean Boulevard
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Of state significance, The Sandoway House Nature Center was constructed in 1936 by early Delray Beach resident J.B. Evans. Located at 142 S. Ocean Blvd., this is one of the last remaining Resort Colonial houses in Delray Beach. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002, the house is open to the public as a nature center in an historical setting. Significant Resort Colonial elements include the board-and-batten siding, the open second-story porch and original double-hung windows. Built during the Great Depression, the only ostentation is the cathedral window on the south side of the residence. The house faces the Atlantic Ocean with all native plants in front, forming a natural dune, and is surrounded by a hammock of native bushes and trees. Purchase and rehabilitation was made possible by public funds from Palm Beach County, the City of Delray Beach, the Florida Communities Trust and the State Division of Historical Resources. Also, many local private and corporate sponsors made the rehabilitation possible
Sponsors: THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
COASTAL PATROL BASE NO. 3
Location:2633 Lantana Rd.
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: Coastal Patrol Base No. 3 at Lantana Airport was one of three 90-day experimental bases established on the east coast of the United States to assist with anti-submarine patrols. Civilian aviators flew missions up to 60 miles out to sea between Palm Beach and Cape Canaveral, to search for German U-boats. In May 1942 near Cape Canaveral, Lantana CAP members Marshall E. Rinker and Tom Manning found a U-boat stranded on a sand bar and called for a military bomber, but the U-boat freed itself and escaped to deeper water before the plane arrived to destroy it. This incident led to the arming of the small civilian planes the CAP used. The experimental units were so successful that 18 more were established in the U.S., with four more bases in Florida. On August 31, 1943, the anti-submarine patrols were transferred to the military. During the unit’s 17 months of service it flew 18,712 hours, 1,546,500 miles, and made 14 attacks, dropping 20 bombs on suspected U-boats. They saved the lives of numerous mariners by attacking and driving off U-boats and directing rescue boats to burning and sinking ships. In 1948, 53 members of the unit received the U.S. military’s Air Medal. The CAP continues to operate at Lantana Airport.
Sponsors: THE PALM BEACH COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS, PALM BEACH COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF AIRPORTS, THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PALM BEACH COUNTY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD NORTHWOOD HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Spruce Ave, between 35 and 34th st.
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: In 1884, The Reverend Elbridge Gale retired to the area later to be known as Old Northwood. He was the first to build a cabin on the west side of Lake Worth. Gale grew mango trees and one of his trees became the first grafted Mangonia to bear fruit. The well-known Haden variety was developed from the seeds of this tree. Gale’s home was known as Mangonia. During the Florida Land Boom of the 1920s, the Pinewood Development Company led by David F. Dunkle purchased 400 acres and 173 contributing structures were built between 1921 and 1929 consisting of Frame Vernacular, Mission-style, and Mediterranean homes. Over 50 individual builders built at least one house in the area. Notable architects include John Volk, William Manley King, and T.B. Eissfeldt. One of the district’s most unique features is the network of alleys that allows access to garages and other services. Old Northwood remained a prestigious middle-class neighborhood into the 1960s. After two decades of blight, the Old Northwood Neighborhood Association was formed in 1987. Old Northwood became the first designated historic district in West Palm Beach in 1991 and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994.
Sponsors: THE OLD NORTHWOOD NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SAWFISH BAY
Location:1133 North Alternate A1A
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: The waterfront location of today’s Sawfish Bay Park played a major role in the pre-historic and historic settlement of the Jupiter area. First inhabited during the Archaic Period 5,000 years ago, this site provided access to an intricate transportation system within the Everglades region. Marine life sustained these early peoples until contact with European diseases devastated the local population in the 1700s. The earliest historic written record of human activity on the site was the Cabot Home, first settled by Frederick M. Cabot II in 1892. By 1894 this site became the center of commerce when a railroad spur, which is still evident, connected the river community of Jupiter to the northeastern United States. The wharves, general stores, depots, post office, granary, fish house and warehouses that followed shifted the town west from the southern banks of the Jupiter Inlet. The Jupiter School, built here in 1901 next to the home of the first mayor, John Ziegler, was used until 1910. The pioneer children were transported to school in a lifeboat from the battleship U.S.S. Maine, which exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898, igniting the Spanish American War. The large Cabot Oak tree on the property is over 200 years old.
Sponsors: THE TOWN OF JUPITER AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WORLD WAR II U.S. NAVAL HOUSING BUILDING
Location:500 Captain Armours Way
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: The U.S. Navy constructed this building (circa 1939) on land included in the Federal Jupiter Lighthouse Reservation established by President Franklin Pierce in 1854. Built as Married Men’s Quarters, the two-story wood-frame building had six two-bedroom apartments, each with brick fireplaces, and a continuous screened first-floor porch facing the Inlet. During World War II, Navy personnel lived in this building, and in the then adjacent Transmitter and Dormitory building and the Chief Petty Officers’ Quarters. These three buildings were part of the Direction Finding Station built on the reservation known as “Station J.” Developed to locate the German submarines torpedoing ships off the Florida coast, Station J also served as a navigational beacon for military ships and aircraft, and for communications during the war. Station J was closed in July 1945, and starting in 1958, most of the World War II military wood-frame structures including the two adjacent buildings, were demolished. In the 1960s, the Navy gave this portion of the Reservation, including this building, to the U.S. Coast Guard. In 2004, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management transferred ownership of this portion of the Reservation to the Town of Jupiter.
Sponsors: THE TOWN OF JUPITER AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GRANDVIEW HEIGHTS HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of Palm St. and Florida Ave
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: In response to the heavy influx of new residents into South Florida at the turn of the century and the introduction of the automobile, local developers and real estate agents purchased the less expensive land outside of the West Palm Beach downtown area and developed the first speculative suburbs. Platted in the 1910-1920s as three subdivisions, Grandview Heights is one of the earliest attempts at southwestern expansion of the city. Originally stretching from Okeechobee Boulevard to Park Place, the property was chosen because of its relatively steep topography for South Florida. It was considered a desirable place to live because it was less than a mile from downtown, within close proximity to the City Terminals, West Palm Beach Canal, the Turning Basin, and had a view of the Everglades. Built for working and middle class residents, the quickly constructed homes were well made but affordable. The neighborhood consists of primarily Bungalow type homes that reflect mainly the Craftsman and Mission styles, both widely popular during the 1920s Florida Land Boom Era.
Sponsors: THE GRANDVIEW HEIGHTS CITIZENS ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
NASSAU PARK HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Nassau St. and Venetian Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Nassau Park, Delray Beach’s first locally designated historic district, spans two blocks along Nassau Street from South Ocean Boulevard to Venetian Drive. In 1935, a newspaper ad for Ray-Del Realty Co. described Nassau Park as “West Indian Charm Along Delray Shores.” Originally Jo-Jo Avenue, Nassau Street was renamed by developer R.C. MacNeil, who commissioned architect Sam Ogren, Sr. to design the first house in 1935. Primarily developed between 1935 and 1941, the residential neighborhood contains cottages built in the Colonial-Cape Cod Revival style which incorporate architectural detailing derived from early wooden folk houses of Eastern Massachusetts. The original 18 houses built from 1935-1941 retain their dominant architectural elements such as accentuated front doors with overhead fanlights, and carved wood detailing. Nassau Street evokes a time during the 1930s when the winter colony relaxed in discreet small-scale cottages surrounded by natural beauty. The natural topography is a vital element in the aesthetics of the historic streetscape. The City of Delray Beach designated the Nassau Park Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH THE DELRAY BEACH HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MARINA HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of SE 2nd St. and SE 7th Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Primarily developed between 1922 and 1943, the Marina Historic District displays a variety of architectural styles including Mediterranean and Mission Revival, Monterey, Minimal Traditional, Frame Vernacular and Art Moderne. The prominent neighborhood showcases some of the area’s most accomplished architects. Built in 1939 and designed by Gustav Maas, the Boyd Building at 840 East Atlantic Avenue is a distinctive example of a large-scale commercial building in the Streamline Moderne style. A prime example of Mediterranean Revival architecture is the Marine Villas, designed by Sam Ogren, Sr. at 110 marine Way. Consisting of four cottages, the marine Villas have been immaculately maintained wit the original detailing preserved. Located at 60 Marine Way is The Anchorage, also designed by Ogren and built in 1941 in the Monterey style. The cottage at 707 SE 1st Street, relocated from Boca Raton in the 1930’s, was designed by renowned architect Addison Mizner (1872 – 1933). Palm Square is lined by its original cottages from the 1920’s and 1930’s and maintains its true historic environment. The City of Delray Beach designated the Marina Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: Delray Beach Community Redevelopment Agency and the Florida Department of State.
MARINA HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of SE 7th Avenue and SE 2nd Street
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: The Marina Historic District, a historically small-scale neighborhood, was primarily developed from 1922 to 1943 and showcases many irreplaceable architectural resources. Later development of the 1940s, 1950's, and beyond provides prime examples of South Florida architecture. A portion of the historic district contains what was once known as the “Mike Blank Nurseries”. Delray Beach pioneers, the Blank family left a legacy of large shade trees throughout the area, and built and lived in several structures alone SE 7th Avenue, some of which remain. The Christian Science Church, constructed in 1942, initially served as a chapel at the U.S. Army Air Force Base in Boca Raton and was relocated in 1949 to 200 SE 7th Avenue. Architect Sam Ogren, Sr., designed and executed the church’s facade and renovation in later years. Designed by architect John Volk, the circa 1937 “Fontaine Fox Cottages” are located in the 200 block on the west side of SE 7th Avenue and provide excellent examples of the Florida Cottage Style. Fontaine Fox, a famous cartoonist and creator of “Toonerville Trolley,” was a notable winter resident. The City of Delray Beach locally designated the Marina Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: The City of Delray Beach, the Delray Beach Preservation Trust and the Florida Department of State
DEL-IDA PARK HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Swinton Ave by NE 5th St.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Recorded in 1923, Del-Ida Park was one of Delray Beach’s earliest planned neighborhoods. Del-Ida Park’s unusual diagonal arrangement of streets, triangular lots, and public parks are unique when contrasted with the grid pattern layout of the remainder of the city. This imaginative street layout was designed to create a sense of space and maintain a park-like atmosphere. Architectural styles throughout the neighborhood reflect the popular culture of South Florida and the land boom and bust that occurred during the initial development of the 1920s through to the 1940s. Although dominated by the Mediterranean and Mission Revival styles, Minimal Traditional and Frame Vernacular styles are also prevalent and provide a predominantly one-story, low-scale streetscape. Additional development of the 1950s and 1960s provide prime examples of the Ranch and Contemporary styles typical of South Florida. Del-Ida Park lies between NE 4th and 8th Streets with North Swinton Avenue to the west and the Florida East Coast Railroad to the east. The City of Delray Beach locally designated the Del-Ida Park Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: A FLORIDA HERITAGE SITE SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH
DEL-IDA PARK HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:767 NE 2nd Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: The Del-Ida Park subdivision was first recorded on September 18, 1923. Motivated by patriotic spirit and the optimism of Florida’s land boom, Del-Ida Park originally contained streets named after six U. S. Presidents. Mr. J. C. Secord of Miami organized the Ocean City Development Company and purchased the 58 acre tract containing 300 lots and three pie-shaped public parks. Within days of its recording, it was reported that “Del-Ida Park is growing fast”, as 58 lots had sold. Mr. Frederick Henry Link, a former craftsman at Addison Mizner industries in West Palm Beach, purchased several lots and served as the sub-divisions general contractor. In 1923, he began construction of his own home at 524 NE 2nd Avenue. Built in the Mediterranean Revival style, the house started the trend for such designs which remained popular through 1930. Link’s daughter, Catherine Link Strong, lived on Dixie Boulevard as an adult, and was Delray Beach’s first woman mayor in 1954. Originally a rather elite developments, the real estate bust left the area without much growth and development until the 1940’s and later. The City of Delray Beach designated the Del-Ida Park Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the City of Delray Beach and the Florida Department of State
WEST SETTLERS HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:NW 2nd st. and NW 4th Ave
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Established in 1894, the West Settlers area is the site of the first African-American settlement in Delray Beach. African-Americans from north and west Florida, Georgia and South Carolina were the first non-Native Americans in the area, laying the foundation of a strong agricultural economy in the region. The community was self-sufficient and settlers utilized local materials and their own construction knowledge. Known as the “Red Line” for the painted tin roofs, the “shot gun” houses that once occupied the east side of NW 3rd Avenue were developed for Henry Flagler’s railroad workers. Isaiah Bruin, one of the community’s earliest builders, constructed many residences along NW 3rd and 4th Avenues, including the Susan Williams House, which is now located at the S.D. Spady Cultural Complex on NW 5th Avenue. The La France Hotel (1949), located at 140 NW 4th Avenue, was once the only hotel in Delray Beach that welcomed African-Americans during segregation. Owned by Charles and Francenia Patrick, the hotel welcomed celebrated black musicians and civil rights figures. The Patricks built their homestead next door at 400 NW 2nd Street. In 1997, the community was locally designated the West Settlers Historic District.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH, THE DELRAY BEACH COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AGENCY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WEST SETTLERS HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:NW 5th Ave Between Atlantic Ave and NW 1st St.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: The West Settlers community, established in 1894 as Delray Beach’s first African-American community, was self-sufficient with commercial buildings and churches serving its residents. Originally N Blackmer Street, NW 5th Avenue was the hub of business and social activities. The building at the northwest corner of NW 1st Street and NW 5th Avenue was known as “The Fountainette” and contained a soda fountain, doctor’s offices, and a pharmacy. The pharmacy, run by Dr. Simon Barnes, was the only one to serve the African-American community. The former residence of Delray’s most prominent black educator and community leader, Solomon D. Spady, is located at 170 NW 5th Avenue. The circa 1926 Mission Revival structure is now a museum primarily dedicated to African-American history. One of the community’s earliest builders was William Robinson who developed the property at 315-317 NW 1st Street for his wife, Essie, in 1902. The Robinson homestead, one of the first in the area to have electricity, running water, and a telephone, was designated an official Red Cross hurricane shelter in the 1940s. In 1997, the community was locally designated the West Settlers Historic District.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH EPOCH (EXPANDING & PRESERVING OUR CULTURAL HERITAGE, INC.) AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD SCHOOL SQUARE
Location:188 South Swinton Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Old School Square Historic District is named for its focal point, the Old School Square Complex at 51 North Swinton Avenue which is made up of the circa 1913 Vernacular style Delray School designed by J.M. Cromer, the city’s first separate high school, and the original gymnasium. Both the high school and gymnasium were designed circa 1926 in the Mediterranean Revival style by architect Sam Ogren, Sr. Ogren also designed several Mediterranean Revival structures along NE 1st Avenue, otherwise known as Banker’s Row. Two-story Mediterranean Revival residences of the 1920s are on the west side of Banker’s Row while one-story Minimal Traditional cottages of the 1930s line the east side. Architectural styles throughout the historic district include Vernacular, Bungalow, and Mission and Mediterranean Revival styles dating between 1902 and 1945. The Old School Square Historic District contains approximately 15 blocks around the town’s geographic center. District boundaries span south to SE 2nd Street and north to NE 4th Street with NE and NW 1st Avenues to the east and west. The City of Delray Beach locally designated the Old School Square Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLDSCHOOL SQUARE
Location:342 North Swinton Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Old School Square Historic District represents the initial footprint for the settlement and development of Delray Beach. The architectural and historical development that gave Delray Beach a prominent status in Palm Beach County can be seen in examples of turn- of-the-century frame architecture found along South Swinton Avenue such as the “Sundy House.” The 1902 structure was home to Delray Beach’s first mayor, John S. Sundy, who served for seven terms. The “Cathcart House,” at 38, was constructed in 1902 in the French Colonial Revival style. Two of the city’s earliest churches were also located in this area: St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, where the original 1904 building remains, and the 1903 Methodist Church, where only the parsonage (also known as “The Rectory”) exists. The South Swinton Avenue corridor and neighboring NE/NW 1st Avenues contain examples of working class homes developed in the 1920s-1950s. East Atlantic Avenue contains the Rhoden Building at 2-4, which exemplifies an early block building, and the Masonic Temple at 44, which was used as a post office in the 1920s. The City’s largest historic district, Old School Square was locally designated in 1988 by the City of Delray Beach.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH, THE DELRAY BEACH COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AGENCY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HISTORIC JUPITER SCHOOL
Location:200 S. Loxahatchee Dr
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: This building was constructed in 1927 to serve the town's approximately 100 white students from grades one through twelve.Prior to its construction,students were transported by boat to attend schools along the Loxahatchee River including the 1891 Octagon School,the 1895 west Jupiter School at Sawfish Bay and the 1911 Jupiter School on Town Hall Avenue.African-American students attended a seperate two-room schoolhouse in Limestone Creek through eighth grade until 1961,when Iris Hunter became the first black student at Jupiter School.Following the 1928 hurricane,both black and white area residents sought shelter in the school until they could safely return to their homes.Costing $150,000,the new school had modern amenities including a library,science lab and an auditorium complete with stage for the arts.The build whose architect was William Manley King,is an excellent example of Mediterranean Revival architecture,displaying many elements of the style including a low-pitch tile roof,stucco finish,arches and a Venetian Gothic arcade on twisted columns.The Jupiter School served as the town's primary educational facility until 1965 when the new Jupiter High School was opened on Toney Penna Drive.
Sponsors: School board of PBCO & FL Dept of State
FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH FELLOWSHIP HALL
Location:33 Gleason Street
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: An orange grove, once located at this site, played a role in the early development of Delray Beach. Until 1876, an old, sour orange grove was the only distinguishable characteristic within 60 miles of a sparsely inhabited subtropical wilderness between Lake Worth and Biscayne Bay. Settlers in 1894-95 who saw the grove that was partially surrounded by a rock wall, speculated that the trees were planted by Seminole Indians, Minorcan immigrants, or the Spanish, but its origin remains unknown. A nearby haulover (a location where boats were carried from one navigable place to another), the Orange Grove Haulover, was named after the grove and is found on 19th century Florida maps as far back as 1826. The U.S. Life Saving Service, established by Congress in 1848 to protect mariners, built the Orange Grove House of Refuge #3 in 1876. When potential settlers came to the proposed Town of Linton (later renamed Delray Beach), the keeper of the Refuge, Stephen N. Andrews, suggested that the main street, Atlantic Avenue, be placed between the House of Refuge on the north and the orange grove on the south. The grove, long gone, became the site of this Mediterranean Revival building in 1924. In 1924, a local Baptist congregation built a new sanctuary on this spot. The church, the only one built on the Delray Beach barrier island, was considered by many to be one of the most beautiful in the city. F.J. Schrader was the architect, builder, and financial underwriter. He said his inspiration was a picture and floor plan of a church in Florence, Italy, but that he made this church less ornate. In May 1924, he and a small crew, consisting of a carpenter, plumber, and electrician, faced a difficult task, especially with constructing the church’s large cypress trusses. It was said at the time that the church was “the most Floridian Church in Florida.” The original building was constructed as Gibson Memorial Baptist Church, but after the real estate crash of 1926 and the hurricanes that followed, the congregation was unable to finish paying Schrader. Five weeks after the 1928 hurricane, local Presbyterians rented the church, later purchasing it. After a new sanctuary was built in 1977, the original church became the Fellowship Hall for the First Presbyterian Church.
HISTORIC BANYAN TREES
Location:MacArthur Blvd near corner of Northlake Blvd
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach Gardens
Description: These two Banyan trees (Ficus benghalensis), with a combined limb spread encompassing one-half acre, form the entrance to the City of Palm Beach Gardens. Palm Beach Gardens was developed by insurance magnate and philanthropist John D. MacArthur. He envisioned his 4,000-acre development as a “garden city” for 55,000 people and chose the name Palm Beach Gardens after his initial choice, Palm Beach City, was denied by the Florida Legislature because of its similarity to nearby Palm Beach. The city was incorporated on June 20, 1959, as a “paper town,” meaning that at that point it existed only on paper. To showcase his new community, in 1960 MacArthur purchased an 80-year-old Banyan tree in nearby Lake Park that was threatened with destruction. The tree, weighing 75 tons and with a limb spread of 125 feet, required 1,008 hours of labor and $30,000 to move it to its new home in Palm Beach Gardens. A second, smaller Banyan tree weighing 40 tons, also threatened with destruction, was moved from Lake Park by MacArthur the following year. The trees are featured on the Palm Beach Gardens city shield and stand proudly today at the city’s entrance.
Sponsors: Seminole Chapter, NSDAR and the Florida Department of State
ATLANTIC AVENUE CROSSING
Location:Atlantic Ave at Veteran's Park
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Atlantic Avenue’s crossing of the Florida East Coast Canal (now the Intracoastal Waterway) played an important role in the early history of Delray Beach. Civil engineer Burslem Thomson drew the first plat of “Linton,” now Delray Beach, in late 1895, showing the town’s main street crossing the canal at this location. Atlantic Avenue ran west from the beach between the 1876 Orange Grove House of Refuge and an “old sour orange grove.” The street became the commercial heart of Delray Beach, and included movie theaters, restaurants, shops, hotels, and the city’s first post office. Fishermen brought large catches to a packing house at the crossing, and beach-goers and workers farming land to the east crossed the canal here by lighter barges until 1911, when the City of Delray Beach was incorporated and a hand-cranked swing bridge was constructed. Atlantic Avenue’s fourth and present bridge over the canal was completed in 1952. The gear-driven bridge is a Chicago-style, double-leaf Bascule type bridge with a Hopkins frame. The Atlantic Avenue Bridge was designated a historic bridge by the City of Delray Beach in 2000, and remains an important crossing point for the community.
Sponsors: The Robert Neff Family, Delray Beach Historical Society, and the Florida Department of State
CASON COTTAGE
Location:5 Northeast First Street
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: In 1899 the Tasker family purchased this block and built a house on the southwest corner. Phoebe A. Verrill bought the house in 1909 and sold it to the Cason family in 1921. The Casons converted the house into apartments and c.1924 built a second modest frame vernacular house on the block’s east corner, known today as Cason Cottage. Although modest, the cottage exhibits the excellent craftsmanship and details typical of many early Delray Beach homes. The Cason family played a major role in the development of South Florida. The Rev. J. R. Cason, who moved to Florida in 1905, was a founder of the first Florida orphanage at Enterprise in Volusia County. He was a community leader, serving as a municipal judge and Chairman of the Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction. Cason United Methodist Church, located at 342 North Swinton Avenue, is named in his honor. Since 1989, the Delray Beach Historical Society has operated Cason Cottage as a house museum to help interpret the history of Delray Beach from 1915-1935.
Sponsors: The Robert Neff Family, Delray Beach Historical Society, and the Florida Department of State
PALM BEACH COUNTY COURTHOUSE
Location:300 North Dixie Highway
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: Palm Beach County (established in 1909) had its first County offices in an old school house in West Palm Beach. In 1913, The Palm Becah County Board of County Commissioners approved the construction of a new courthouse by Wilber Burt Talley, one of Florida’s most prominent architects. Contractor Everet P. Maule submitted the winning bid of $122,500 for the building’s construction. The courthouse was completed in 1916 and is an outstanding example of Neo-Classical architecture in Florida. The imposing four-story building is dominated by three grand columned porticos, with exterior walls of brick veneer trimmed in industrial limestone. The building was dedicated in 1917 and at the time held all County offices and had one courtroom, which was used for ten years. The County’s explosive growth during the 1920s and after World War II led to several additions to the courthouse which, by 1972 had totally enclosed the original building. After standing vacant for nearly a decade the County funded an $18.5 million restoration of the historic courthouse in 2002, which was completed in 2007. Government offices once again occupy the gracious building, as does a museum showcasing the history of Palm Beach County.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Palm Beach County Board of Commissioners, The Robert Neff Family, the Historical Society of Palm Beach County and the Florida Department of State.
UNITED STATES LIFE SAVING STATION
Location:Van Kessel Pkwy near parking lot
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: In 1885, the only United States Life Saving Station on the Florida East Coast was built at this site. Charles R. Carlin, a former British sailor and Assistant Keeper at the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse, oversaw construction and served as the Station’s Keeper. The two-story facility housed men and rescue equipment, including a 27-foot self-bailing surf boat, a Lyle Gun, and a Breeches Buoy apparatus used to transfer people and cargo from ships in distress. The Station, highly regarded for its efficiency in sea rescues, was manned September through April by six uniformed Surfmen, who were quartered on the second floor. During the summer only the Keeper was on duty. The Surfmen drilled, stood watch in the tower, patrolled the beach, maintained equipment, and trained as medics. The Keeper’s detailed logs recorded rescues, weather details, patrol duties, and daily activities at the Station. With the completion of Henry Flagler’s Florida East Coast Railroad and the decline in sailing ships, the paid crew was replaced with local volunteers. Carlin remained caretaker until his death in 1912. At the advent of World War I, the Life Saving Service merged with the Revenue Cutter Service to create the United States Coast Guard.
Sponsors: The Town of Jupiter and the Florida Department of State
LITTLE RED SCHOOLHOUSE
Location:2145 South Ocean Blvd
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: Founded in 1886 as a community project, the Little Red Schoolhouse was the first one-room school built in southeast Florida. With $200 for lumber from the Dade County School Board the men of the community, led by George W. Lainhart volunteered their labor to construct the 22-by-40 foot building. Its original location one mile north of the Flagler Memorial Bridge on Lake Trail in Palm Beach was property donated by the David Brown and John C. Hoagland families. The Ladies Aid Society raised additional money for school furnishings. Sixteen-year-old Hattie Gale taught the first class of students ranging in age from Pupils arrived by boat, bicycle or on foot. The one-room school served families living around Lake Worth until 1901. It was then turned into a gardeners’ shed on the John S. Phipps property. In 1960 the structure was moved to Phipps Ocean Park and was refurbished by the Gardeners Society of Palm Beach. The Preservation Foundation of Palm Beach is leasing the building from the Town of Palm Beach for preservation and pioneer education.
Sponsors: x
JESUP'S BATTLE JANUARY 24, 1838
Location:9060 W. Indiantown Rd at Riverbend Park
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: On January 24, 1838, Major General Thomas S Jesup, commanding 1,500 men, the largest army of Second Seminole War. [1835-42], marched to the headwaters of the Loxahatchee River, where he defeated approximately 300 Red and Black Seminoles in the last standing battle of the war. The Seminoles attacked General Jesup's advanced guard of Dragoons, leading them into a cypress swamp while they hid and fired from a high, dense hammock. Outnumbered nearly seven to one, the Seminoles retreated to a watery stronghold on the opposite side of the river. They crossed to the east side of the river and waited for the troops to follow, Major William Lauderdale and his Tennessee Volunteers held a position on the west side of the river, putting them in direct line of withering musket fire that stopped their advance. After dismounting and drawing his pistol, General Jesup ordered the Tennesseans to follow him as he charged ahead. Instead, they held their position, and Jesup was shot in the face. The battle ended when Colonel William Harney's Dragoons outflanked the Seminoles, who fled into the Everglades. Seven soldiers were killed and thirty-one wounded. The Seminole casualties are unknown.
Sponsors: Palm Beach Co & FL Dept. of State
EVERGREEN CEMETERY
Location:SE Corner of W Lantana Rd and Arnold Ave
County: Palm Beach
City: Lantana
Description: Evergreen Cemetery was established by the Evergreen Cemetery Company in 1892 as a final resting place for local families. The cemetery’s land was purchased by M.B. Lyman, Lantana’s founder. Lyman, who is buried in the cemetery, served as the town’s first postmaster. He named the town Lantana Point because of the flowering lantana plant that grew in the area. "Point" was later dropped from the town's name. The cemetery’s earliest marked gravestone is dated January 22, 1886. There are 18 marked gravesites in the cemetery where members of the town’s eight pioneer families are buried. Occupying unmarked graves are two crew members from the shipwreck “Inchulva,” which sank in a hurricane off Delray Beach in 1903. Several members of the African-American community were buried here during the early 20th century. The cemetery also contains the mass grave of some victims of the 1928 Hurricane. In 1952, ownership of the cemetery was transferred to the Town of Lantana and was closed to further burials.
Sponsors: The Lantana Historical Society, the Town of Lantana, and the Florida Department of State
JUPITER INLET SHIPWRECKS 1600-1700s
Location:400 North Delaware Blvd
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: During the 17th century, Spanish galleons and merchant ships navigated the treacherous waters off the Florida coast. These vessels carried silver and gemstones from the mines of Mexico and Peru. They routinely ran a narrow gauntlet of shallow water, sand bars, coral reefs, and occasional hurricanes off the Jupiter Inlet as they followed the Gulf Stream’s swift north current. The ships that did not survive the passage left a legacy of cannons, anchors, navigational tools, coins, flatware, silver and gold scattered across the ocean floor. Today, this area is nicknamed “The Treasure Coast.” Ships thought to have wrecked off the Jupiter coast during the 1600s include the San Miguel Archangel and the San Francisco y San Antonio. Both ships were avisos, Spanish courier ships weighing 60 tons or less. The avisos were well-armed, but speed was their best defense, which allowed them to outrun larger, better-armed vessels. Avisos were primarily used to transport correspondence to and from the Spanish throne, but were known to carry goods and valuables. Shipwrecks like these are important time capsules of history, which increase our understanding of the people who sailed Florida's waters before us.
Sponsors: The Town of Jupiter and the Florida Department of State
COCOANUT GROVE HOUSE
Location:NW Corner Pendleton Lane and Lake Trail
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: The Cocoanut Grove House, Once Florida’s only hotel on the east coast between Titusville and Key West, Stood at this location. The hotel was originally built in 1876 by Elisha Newton “Cap” Dimick as a private residence for his family Dimick was one of the co-founders of Palm Beach. He served in the Florida State Legislature from 1890-1903 and as the town’s first mayor after its incorporation in 1911. The Cocoanut Grove House opened as an inn after Dimick added eight rooms to the building in 1880. In 1882, Dimick sold the hotel to Commodore Charles Clark. Approximately 4,500 guests visited the hotel between 1883 and 1895, arriving by the sharpie Illinois, a flat-bottom boat that sailed between the Indian River and Lake Worth. Hotel Guests dined on fish, green turtle, venison, and vegetables for $1.50 a day or $6 by the week. In 1893, Henry M. Flagler, who had decided to extend the Florida East Coast Railroad to Palm Beach, stayed at the Cocoanut Grove House. While visiting he envisioned his famous Royal Poinciana Hotel. Flagler later rented the hotel for his workers while they were building the Royal Poinciana. In October 1893 the Cocoanut Grove House was destroyed by fire.
Sponsors: Seminole Chapter, NSDAR and the Florida Department of State

Pasco

ZEPHYRHILLS RAILROAD DEPOT
Location:39110 South Ave
County: Pasco
City: Zephyrhills
Description: The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad (ACLR) Depot was built in 1927 and was used as a station/depot for passenger service and for shipping citrus, produce and other goods, thereby stimulating economic development and residential settlement. Railroad stations served as major community, commercial and social centers, linking each of the small towns with the rest of the world. With its wide overhangs and high ceilings, the depot represents the southern architectural style of the first quarter of the 20th century. Built at a cost of $13,207.21, the building was constructed of red brick and hard pine. It featured segregated waiting rooms, an office, a ware (freight) room, a raised outside platform and concrete concourses. ACLR trains traversed through Florida serving Zephyrhills from Jacksonville and Ocala to southern cities including Tampa, Bradenton and Miami. Famous trains such as the “Orange Blossom Special” and “Gulf Coast Limited” were among those stopping at the Zephyrhills station. With assistance from state and federal grants, the City of Zephyrhills acquired the depot in 1988 and restored it to its original appearance. In October 1998, it opened to the public as a local railroad and historical museum.
Sponsors: CITY OF ZEPYHYRHILLS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FORT DADE
Location:Treiman Blvd. between Johnny B and Globe Rd.
County: Pasco
City: Dade City
Description: Located one mile east of this point on the south bank of the Withlacoochee River at the crossing of the Fort King Road. The Fort, built in 1837, named for Major Francis Langhorne Dade, served for many years as a depot and observation post in the heart of the Seminole Indian settlement. Here, March 6, 1837, the Seminole leaders, Jumper and Alligator, met General Thomas S. Jesup to sign the "Ft. Dade Capitulation."
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
CHRISTMAS DAY, 1835
Location:1204 State Rd 52, Pasco Comprehensive High School
County: Pasco
City: Dade City
Description: On Christmas Day, 1835, Major Francis Langhorne Dade and his command of 111 men bivouacked near here by Fort King Road, which stretched 125 miles from Fort Brooke (Tampa) to Fort King (Ocala). Three days later, at a point about twenty miles north of their Christmas campsite, Major Dade and all but four of his men died in an ambush by Seminoles resisting removal to the West. This battle largely precipitated The Second Seminole War.
Sponsors: Pasco Comprehensive High School and Francis Dade Ladies' Auxiliary 4283 Veterans of Foreign Wars in Cooperation with Department of State
PASCO COUNTY
Location:on Courthouse grounds in Dade City.
County: Pasco
City: Dade City
Description: Pasco County was created from Hernando County on May 12, 1887. The are was first inhabited by Muscogee Indians and the first white men in area came with Spanish explorer Panfilo de Narvaez in May, 1528. Narvaez fought the Indians near the Withlacoochee River before moving northward. Few white settlers were in the area until the 1840's. It is home of St. Leo College and is noted for citrus and naval stores.

Pinellas

TIERRA VERDE MOUND
Location:S.R. 679 on Cabbage Key
County: Pinellas
City: St. Petersburg
Description: A Large Indian burial mound was built on this spot about 1500 A.D. It was used for some years by the inhabitants of a nearby Safety Harbor culture village, Indians who were among the ancestors of the later Timucua tribe. Excavation in 1961 by State agencies added to our knowledge of these people.
ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S CHURCH
Location:3747 34th St. S.
County: Pinellas
City: St. Petersburg
Description: Oldest church in Pinellas County, it was organized April 20, 1887. It was constructed in the summer of 1887 by a handful of pioneers equipped with crude tools. Built of unturpentined pine, Church records indicate the first building cost $673. Dr. John B.Abercrombie donated an acre of land for the church April 28, 1887. The original Church building has since been enlarged and is still used for regular services.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with St. Bartholomew's Memorial Committee
THE DON CE SAR HOTEL
Location:S.R. 699 near Passe-a-Grille Beach
County: Pinellas
City: St. Petersburg
Description: In the late 1920's and the 1930's, the Don Ce Sar Hotel was a renowned luxury resort which counted many notables among its guests. Thomas J. Rowe, a land developer, conceived of the establishment in the mid-20's at the height of the land sales boom then attracting flocks of tourists and investors to Florida. The "Boom" ended before the Don Ce Sar was completed in 1928, but it remained open throughout the Depression of the 1930's. During World War II, many Florida hotels suffering from the decline of tourism were converted to wartime uses. In 1942, the Don was purchased by the U.S. Government for use as a rest and rehabilitation center. From 1945 to 1967, the Don served as a federal office building. It was then vacated. Soon a committee of local citizens began to work for its preservation. In 1972, with their encouragement and community support, hotel developer William Bowman, Jr. purchased the property. He rehabilitated the Don, restoring it to its original function and elegance, and reopened it in 1973. Restoration was completed in 1975. In that year, the Don Ce Sar Hotel was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. The massive edifice of stuccoed Belgian concrete remains a symbol of the colorful, exciting "Boom" period of Florida's history.
Sponsors: Sponsored by William Bowman, jr. in cooperation with department of state
TARPON SPRINGS SPONGE INDUSTRY
Location:Dodecanese Blvd. at Docks across from Sponge Exchange
County: Pinellas
City: Tarpon Springs
Description: Side 1: The Gulf waters off the west coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay comprise one of the few areas of the world where the species of natural sponges suitable for commercial use are found. The natural sponge industry in Tarpon Springs dates from about 1890 when John K. Cheyney launched his first sponge-fishing boat. Sponges were retrieved by hooking until the technique of diving for sponges was introduced in 1905 by John Cocoris, a recent immigrant from Greece, where the practice of sponge diving was common. Within a few years, many Greeks had arrived in the area to work in the sponging industry. Side 2: The Tarpon Springs Sponge Exchange was incorporated in 1908 as a shareholding organization to provide for the storage and sale of sponges. The peak of prosperity for the Tarpon Springs sponge industry came in the 1930's. In 1939 the sponge beds in the area suffered from a disease which substantially reduced the crop of healthy sponges for several years. In spite of the decline in the sponge industry, the Tarpon Springs Sponge Exchange has continued to serve as a focal point for the Greek Community.
Sponsors: Sponsored by City of Tarpon Springs, Florida In Cooperation With Department of State
HARBOR OAKS HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:At Bay Avenue and Druid Road W.
County: Pinellas
City: Clearwater
Description: Harbor Oaks was Clearwater's first planned residential development. Dean Alvord, a major developer in New York State, opened Harbor Oaks in 1914. Bringing modern planning concepts to the Pinellas County area, the development offered innovative features such as underground utilities, paved streets, curbs and sidewalks, a sewer system, and tree lined parkways. Deed restrictions ensured a rich architectural mix of mostly two story homes including fine examples of Mediterranean Revival, Colonial Revival, Tudor Revival, Mission and Bungalow styles. Local newspapers called Harbor Oaks "the Riviera of the Sunny South" and "the finest shore development on the West coast of Florida". The development was essentially completed by 1930. Harbor Oaks has been the home of such prominent persons as author Rex Beach, Brooklyn Dodgers owner Charles Ebbett, inventor Donald Roebling, industrialist Robert Ingersoll, and members of the Studebaker and Proctor and Gamble families. The Harbor Oaks Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1988.
Sponsors: The Clearwater Historical Society in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
CLEARWATER POST OFFICE
Location:S.R. 60.
County: Pinellas
City: Clearwater
Description: On October 9, 1933 Clearwater's first government post office building was dedicated on this site with Postmaster General James A. Farley officiating. The local postmaster at the time was Charles R. Lee. This Mediterranean-Revival style building was designed by Clearwater architect Theodore Skinner, and built by the Palm Beach construction firm of Walt and Sinclair of Florida. It is representative of the 1930's federal works projects which reflected regional design influence and commissioned local professionals and industries. The exterior finish of the building is oolitic limestone quarried in the Florida Keys. The post office was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Clearwater Historical Society in cooperation with the Department of State
WORLD'S FIRST REGULARLY SCHEDULED COMMERCIAL AIRLINE
Location:on grounds of Albert Whitted Municipal Airport,
County: Pinellas
City: St. Petersburg
Description: Within a decade after the famous Wright Brothers' 1903 flight, aviation history was being made in Florida. The first transcontinental flight landed at Jacksonville in 1912, a naval air training center opened at Pensacola in 1913, and the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, the world's first regularly scheduled commercial airline, began service in 1914. Tom Benoist, a pioneer airboat (seaplane) manufacturer from St. Louis, started this cargo and passenger airline as well as a flying school on Tampa Bay. Backed by members of the St. Petersburg Board of Trade, he built hangars on the north edge of the yacht basin. Anthony "Tony" Jannus, Benoist's head pilot, took the airline's first passenger, former mayor A. C. Pheil, across the bay in a biplane on January 1, 1914. Pheil's high bid of $400 at an auction held before the flight brought him this honor. The twenty mile maiden flight of the new service took twenty-three minutes to complete. A few days later, a light cargo was for the first time flown across the bay. The activities of this airline demonstrated that air travel was practical although services were discontinued after only a few months due to financial and technical difficulties.
Sponsors: sponsored by the st. petersburg arts commission in cooperation with department of state
ZEPHANIAH PHILLIPS’ HOMESTEAD SITE/RANCHO DE JUAQUIN
Location:Corner of Pass-a-Grille Way and 7th Ave
County: Pinellas
City: St. Petersburg
Description: In 1783, while updating Gulf Coast navigational charts, Jose Antonio de Evia (b.1740), a Spanish naval officer, visited a Spanish fishing camp located on this site. He called it “Rancho de Juaquin.” Artifacts from the 18th and early 19th centuries, now in the Gulf Beaches Historical Museum in St. Pete Beach, indicate fishermen used this camp and its water well until the 1840s. In 1918, when digging the house foundation at 612 Pass-a-Grille Way, a complete Spanish olive jar was discovered. It was donated to the St. Petersburg Museum of History in 1951, but was authenticated as being from this site in 1999. Zephaniah Phillips (1837-1903) was a Union Army veteran who with his family became the barrier islands’ first permanent settlers when they homesteaded here in 1886. The Phillips’ home built that year was moved from 612 to 608 Pass-a-Grille Way in 1918. It was Pass-a-Grille’s first home and one of the first built on Pinellas’s Gulf Beaches.
Sponsors: FLORIDA STATE QUESTERS AND TREASURED MEMORIES #1096 AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DEMENS LANDING
Location:Bayshore Dr. SE & Demens Landing SE
County: Pinellas
City: St. Petersburg
Description: This city park is located on the site of the first railroad pier in St. Petersburg, built by Peter Demens in 1889. Peter Demens (pronounced de-MENS) was a Russian nobleman, Pyotr Dementyev, who left Russia in 1881, came to Florida, and changed his name to Demens. He became an entrepreneur, investing in a sawmill and a construction company in Longwood, Florida. Later he took control of the Orange Belt Railroad, which he extended from Sanford, Florida to the west coast of Florida in 1888, to a town he had named St. Petersburg, in honor of the capital city of Imperial Russia. Demens also built the first hotel, The Detroit, and the first railroad depot in St. Petersburg in 1888, and is considered one of the founders of the city. Demens Landing was dedicated as a city park to honor Demens in 1977.
SERENO HOTEL
Location:1st Ave. NW between Beach Dr. & 1st St. NE
County: Pinellas
City: St. Petersburg
Description: In 1923 construction began on Soren Lund's "Million Dollar" Mediterranean Revival hotel. Prominent features were its clay-tiled roof, rough textured stucco, baroque-type arched entrance and sqraffito decorations. It encompassed the north half of the 100 block of Beach Drive. Noted regional architect Geoffrey Lloyd Preacher designed the Hotel. The Soreno, named for Lund's only son, was finished, and the majority of its rooms leased prior to the opening of the 1924 tourist season. Its completion established a new elegance on the downtown waterfront. The Soreno was the first of ten grand hotels built between 1923 and 1926, which defined St. Petersburg as a winter tourist destination, and was the climax of the Florida land boom in the 1920s. The unusual addition of a seventh floor was completed in 1929, bringing the total number of rooms to 300. Lund's lifelong experience and reputation in the hotel industry kept the hotel full throughout his ownership. During World War II, the Soreno was occupied by servicemen, then operated as a winter season hotel until it was closed in 1984. It was demolished in 1992.
Sponsors: St. Petersburg Heritage Trust, JMC Communities, and the Florida Department of State
ROSE CEMETERY
Location:Jasmine Ave.
County: Pinellas
City: Tarpon Springs
Description: Rose Cemetery, also known as Rose Hill Cemetery, established in the early 1900s as a segregated cemetery, is the oldest African-American cemetery in Pinellas County. Located on approximately five acres of land, the cemetery reflects the social history and cultural traditions associated with Christianity and early African-American customs. Many of the African-Americans buried here were of Bahamian descent, and some of their graves are marked by large conch shells. Although the earliest grave marked states 1904, there are strong indications of earlier burials. Rose Hill Cemetery Association was first incorporated on November 22, 1916, when the Lake Butler Villa Company gave the African-American board members a 99-year lease. The following year, in 1917, the property was deeded to the Association. Through the 1950s Rose Cemetery served other black communities throughout the county. Many difficulties through those years, including destroyed records, haphazard burials, and limited funding, resulted in many unmarked and misplaced graves. Significant burials included the founders of the local African-American churches started in the 1890s, and an African American Confederate Civil War veteran, Richard Quarls (1830-1925).
Sponsors: THE ROSE CEMETERY ASSOCIATION, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ESPIRITU SANTO SPRINGS
Location:105 North Bayshore Dr.
County: Pinellas
City: Safety Harbor
Description: On May 18, 1539, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto reached the shores of what is now Tampa Bay, landing near these mineral springs used by the native population for nearly 10,000 years. Believing he had found the legendary Fountain of Youth somehow missed by Ponce de Leon, de Soto established a camp here, naming the crystal clear waters Espiritu Santa Springs - "Springs of the Holy Spirit." Each of the five springs located on this site was identified and said to cure certain ailments, a claim drawing thousands of visits yearly to the "Health Giving City" of Safety Harbor. The Safety Harbor Sanitorium opened its doors here in 1926, offering porcelain bath tubs and a large swimming pool for "taking the waters". In 1945 the springs and sanitorium were sold to Dr. Salem H. Baranoff, who opened the facility as a health spa. Today the springs continue to attract health-conscious travelers.
Sponsors: The Safety Harbor Resort and Spa and Florida Department of State
STETSON UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LAW
Location:1401 61st St. So.
County: Pinellas
City: Gulfport
Description: Florida’s First Law School - Built as the Hotel Rolyat in 1925, these Mediterranean Revival buildings originally were designed by Paul Reed of the Miami architectural firm of Kiehnel & Elliot for developer Jack Taylor. In 1929, after the collapse of the Florida land boom, the hotel was purchased by the Mendels brothers from New York. They operated the hotel until 1932, when they purchased the Florida Military Academy and relocated it to the site. Dr. John Forbes, the first President of Stetson University, recognized a need for a law school, and in 1900, Stetson University opened Florida’s first law school in DeLand. When the College of Law needed larger facilities in a metropolitan area, Stetson University purchased this property in 1953 and relocated the law school to Gulfport. Classes began on this site on September 20, 1954.
Sponsors: THE STETSON UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LAW AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DUNEDIN ISLES GOLF CLUB
Location:1050 Palm Boulevard
County: Pinellas
City: Dunedin
Description: At the peak of the 1920s “land boom,” Dunedin Isles Golf Club was built to attract new residents to the City of Dunedin. Scotsman Donald Ross, one of the world’s foremost golf course architects, visited the site and designed the golf course which opened on January 1, 1927. During the Great Depression, the Club fell on hard times and in 1938, the course was deeded to the City with the stipulation that it be used for “recreational purposes.” The City was able to renovate the course with proceeds from the sale of Dunedin Isles residential lots. On July 1, 1945, the Club officially became the PGA (Professional Golf Association) National Golf Club, first home course of PGA of America. The PGA held its Senior Tour Championship here from 1945-1962 during which time golfers competed for the historic Teacher’s Trophy and the inaugural PGA Merchandise Show was held here in 1954. Many legendary PGA and LPGA professionals played here, including Tommy Armour, Patty Berg, Bobby Cruickshank, Jimmy Demaret, Walter Hagen, Ben Hogan, Byron Nelson, Gene Sarazen, Horton Smith, Sam Snead, Louise Suggs, Cyril Walker, Al Watrous and Babe Zaharias. Other players include golfing great Bobby Jones and baseball legend Babe Ruth.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DUNEDIN AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Polk

FLORENCE VILLA TRAINING SCHOOL
Location:700 Block "O" Ave
County: Polk
City: Winter Haven
Description: The Florence Villa Training School for Negroes replaced an earlier African-American school built in 1916 on the corner of 2nd and Palmetto Street. By 1922 the first school was in disrepair and classes were held at the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church. Seeing the need for a permanent campus, local white physician Dr. Mary B. Jewett in March 1924 approached the Board of Public Instruction with construction plans and an offer to donate this land. Construction began in August 1924. Funding sources were as follows: Negro donations: $2,000; White donations: $11,000; Ad Valorem Taxes: $5,000; and Julius Rosenwald School Fund: $1,500. When the five-acre campus opened on December 1, 1924 the building consisted of six large classrooms, a Domestic Science Department and an auditorium. Enrollment peaked at 250 students. On the night of January 17th, 1925, a fire destroyed the school and its furnishings. The Florence Villa Town Council offered a $500 reward for information leading to the apprehension of those responsible, to no avail. This property was returned to Dr. Jewett in May 1925, and an alternate school location was chosen farther to the north.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF WINTER HAVEN, THE POLK COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, THE JEWETT HIGH ALUMNI ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HISTORIC KESSINGEN SPRING
Location:Mosaic Peace River Park
County: Polk
City: Bartow
Description: Historic Kissengen Spring is located approximately one mile north of this location. At one time the spring discharged up to 20 million gallons of water a day into the Peace River. The spring’s pool was 200 feet in diameter and reached a depth of 17 feet above the spring vent. Its boil reportedly was so powerful that the strongest swimmer could not reach it. Archaeological evidence shows this area of the Peace River was inhabited by Native Americans who established large villages near the river’s springs. In the late 1800s developers sought to acquire the spring as a resort destination and sanatorium. Although plans for rail lines, trolleys, and boats never were realized to exploit the spring for tourism, a dance floor, dive platform, and bathhouses were built, and thousands of locals and tourists visited over 75 years. In the 1930s the popular spring was the site of major political rallies. During World War II, it served as a rest and recuperation resort for members of the military based near Bartow. The spring ceased to be a tourist destination after its groundwater was captured for other uses.
Sponsors: IN MEMORY OF THOMAS E. JACKSON SPONSORED BY THE POLK COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION SOUTHEASTERN GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY THE GENEROSITY OF FRIENDS OF KISSENGEN SPRING AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD POLK COUNTY COURTHOUSE
Location:100 E. Main Street
County: Polk
City: Bartow
Description: Polk County was established February 8, 1861 formed from eastern Hillsborough County and western Brevard County and comprised one of two counties created after the state's secession from the union. Polk County was named after James Knox Polk the eleventh president of the United States. Polk served from 1845 to 1849, and was the first president to hold office after Florida achieved statehood. The turbulent 1860's saw Polk's seat of government changed several times. Located first at Mud Lake, the county seat soon moved to Jefferson, a surveyed town site within the present day limits of Bartow. Court and County records were maintained in the home of the county clerk the Reverend Jeremiah Hayman at Six Mile Creek. In 1867 cattleman Jacob Summerlin donated 120 acres of land at Bartow for a town site and seat of county government. Several courthouses have existed at this site, built in 1867, 1884 and 1909.
Sponsors: POLK COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMISSION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE HISTORIC L. B. BROWN HOUSE
Location:470 Second Avenue
County: Polk
City: Bartow
Description: The L. B. Brown House was built in 1892, during the period of Bartow’s initial development. It is a good example of Frame Vernacular construction typical of that period. This house is decorated with intricate mill work and gingerbread. The house has nine rooms. The Brown house was built by Lawrence Bernard Brown (1856-1941) who was born into slavery, in Wacahoota, outside of Archer. He moved to Deland around 1882 where he built a number of houses. Lawrence moved to Bartow during the 1880s and built a large number of dwellings, one of which was the L. B. Brown House. Lawrence and AnnieBelle (1882-1938) Brown raised seven children here. Lawrence and his wife are buried in the Evergreen Cemetery in Bartow. The house is now owned by the Neighborhood Improvement Corporation of Bartow, Inc. Restoration was completed in 2001 with the cooperation of the city of Bartow, citizens of Bartow, and the Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources.
Sponsors: The Neighborhood Improvement Corporation of Bartow and the Florida Department of State
HISTORIC PUGHSVILLE NEIGHBORHOOD
Location:1601 Third Street
County: Polk
City: Winter Haven
Description: Pughsville was one of Winter Haven's earliest neighborhoods, populated predominately by African Americans. These individuals cleared land and settled in what is now the southeast section of the city. For many decades, Pughsville remained a vibrant and thriving community. Pughsville was named in honor of one of the earliest black pioneers, the Reverend Charles Pugh, who was one of the founders of one of the oldest black churches in Pughsville, Zion Hill Missionary Baptist Church. Pughsville boasted three other churches: Bethel A.M.E., St. Paul Holiness, and Church of Christ. During the peak of its existence (1900s -- 1950s), Pughsville had an African-American school, social halls, small grocery stores and restaurants. Many residents worked in the citrus industry, but others were restaurant owners, business professionals, educators, construction workers and domestic workers. Still others worked in local, state and federal government jobs. Pughsville produced Winter Haven's first African-American commissioner, medical doctor, mayor, fire fighter and postal worker. The original Pughsville began to decline during the late 1970s as larger commercial establishments began arriving in the area, driving up property values.
Sponsors: BY THE CITY OF WINTER HAVEN, THE POLK COUNTY COMMISSION, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HISTORIC PUGHSVILLE NEIGHBORHOOD
Location:Highway 17 and Avenue "O" Southwest
County: Polk
City: Winter Haven
Description: Pughsville was one of Winter Haven's earliest neighborhoods, populated predominately by African Americans. These individuals cleared land and settled in what is now the southwest section of the city. For many decades, Pughsville remained a vibrant and thriving community. Pughsville was named in honor of one of the earliest black pioneers, the Reverend Charles Pugh, who was one of the founders of one of the oldest black churches in Pughsville, Zion Hill Missionary Baptist Church. Pughsville boasted three other churches: Bethel A.M.E., St. Paul Holiness, and Church of Christ. During the peak of its existence (1900s --1950s), Pughsville had an African-American school, social halls, small grocery stores and restaurants. Many residents worked in the citrus industry, but others were restaurant owners, business professionals, educators, construction workers and domestic workers. Still others worked in local, state and federal government jobs. Pughsville produced Winter Haven's first African-American commissioner, medical doctor, mayor, fire fighter and postal worker. The original Pughsville began to decline during the late 1970s as larger commercial establishments began arriving in the area, driving up property values.
Sponsors: BY THE CITY OF WINTER HAVEN, THE POLK COUNTY COMMISSION, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE WOMEN'S CLUB OF LAKELAND
Location:59 Morton Dr.
County: Polk
City: Lakeland
Description: The Woman’s Club of Lakeland was organized in 1912. In 1923 they purchased this property as the site for their clubhouse. W.B.Talley, a Lakeland architect, designed this colonial revival building in 1927 and in 1928 construction was completed by the Billman-Purdy Construction Company at a cost of $13,000. This clubhouse would serve one of the city’s oldest and most active social civic organization for the past fifty years. The Colonial Revival style was first introduced at the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876 and was brought to Florida in the late 1880’s It signified a rebirth of interest in the early English and Dutch houses of the Atlantic Seaboard and drew upon Georgian and Adam architecture for references. Typical Colonial Revival characteristics that can be seen here include an accentuated front door with a decorative pediment and sidelights, a hipped roof, and double hung sash windows in adjacent pairs. The Woman’s Club is a contributing structure to the East lake Morton Historic District, which was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF LAKELAND HISTORIC PRESVERATION BOARD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE.
THE SOROSIS CLUB BUILDING
Location:90 Lake Morton Drive
County: Polk
City: Lakeland
Description: In 1922 the Sorosis Club or sorority, a women's club in Lakeland, was organized. Named after the first incorporated women’s club in America, the Sorosis Club of New York, the Sorosis Club’s mission included service to the community, as well as social and cultural activities. This property was purchased in 1925 as the site for its new clubhouse. Plans for the Italian Renaissance building by W.B. Talley (1871-1956), a Lakeland architect, were approved in 1926, and construction was completed by N.L. Snelson in 1927 at a cost of $42,000. This clubhouse was the first community center in the city. The Italian Renaissance style was most popular in the United States between 1890 and 1935. Typical elements of the style include the symmetrical design to the front of the building, a flat roof with a low wall around it, wrought-iron railings, recessed porches with arches, and small classical columns. Goldenrod, the club flower of The Sorosis Club, is stenciled below the roof. Two large stone lanterns on each side of the front walk represent knowledge and leadership. The detailing of this building is unique in Lakeland, and unusual in the Central Florida region.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF LAKELAND HISTORIC PRESERVATION BOARD AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE RAILROAD IN DUNDEE HISTORY
Location:103 Main St.
County: Polk
City: Dundee
Description: The Dundee Passenger Depot, built ca. 1912, was the first depot on the Haines City to Sebring Line of The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Most of Dundee’s early growth can be attributed to the railroad. With the advent of the railroad, the Minneapolis, Minnesota-based Highland Development Company brought settlers down from the Midwest, refunding their fares when they purchased land. Dundee and the railroad both prospered. Hotels and rooming houses were built to house the prospective buyers and others who came just seeking a spot in the Florida sun. The station was segregated from 1912 to 1954. Although passenger service was discontinued in ca. 1954 the depot continued to handle freight until c. 1975 when the line was discontinued. The depot was then moved to its present position and renovated into a museum commemorating the role the railroad played in the development of the town of Dundee.
Sponsors: THE DUNDEE DEPOT RESTORATION COMMITTEE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT CAMPUS OF FLORIDA SOUTHERN COLLEGE
Location:on the Florida Southern College grounds.
County: Polk
City: Lakeland
Description: At Florida Southern College is located the largest collection of buildings on one site ever created by Frank Lloyd Wright, one of America's foremost architects. Wright's plan for the campus is the only tangible example of his community planning ideas, termed "Organic Architecture." His concept was to decentralize the city by distributing urban functions to rural areas and to utilize new technologies in the building trades. Wright's involvement at the campus was the result of urgings from Ludd M. Spivey, then president of the college. Wright insisted that the college's individual buildings reflect their environment through the use of "native materials all universally adapted to the uses of young life." Eighteen buildings, only seven of which were completed, were originally planned for the campus. The Annie Pfeiffer Chapel, begun in 1938, was the first to be built, and the Polk Science Building, completed in 1959 during the presidency of Charles T. Thrift, Jr., was the last. Later buildings on the campus were designed by Nils Schweizer, an eminent Florida architect and student of Wright. The Florida Southern College Architectural district was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Florida Southern College in cooperation with department of state
ACTON COMMUNITY
Location:U.S. 92(E. Memoyial Blvd.) at Interlachen Parkway
County: Polk
City: Lakeland
Description: In 1884, a group of Englishmen established Acton, named after English author Lord Acton, two miles east of Lakeland. Acton lasted from 1884, until 1894, when its residents scattered after the great freeze. During its decade of existence the town had about 200 people, a hotel, sawmill, stores and a church. Its atmosphere, dress and custom were typically English. Polo, fox hunting and cricket were a part of the village's daily life.

Putnam

FORT SHANNON
Location:S.R. 100 in Fort Shannon Park
County: Putnam
City: Palatka
Description: Established in May, 1838, this fort was one of the major quartermaster depots in Florida during the Second Seminole War. It operated under Gen. William J. Worth until he assumed command of the armies in Florida. Military facilities included a hospital, barracks, blockhouses, and stables for more than 400 horses. During the fort's existence, Palatka was military in appearance and under military control.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with Palataka Junior Chamber of Commerce
ROLLESTOWN
Location:U.S. 17, east side of St. Johns River, E.Palatka P
County: Putnam
City: Palatka
Description: Site of the colony of Denys Rolle, English philanthropist. The settlement, composed of 200 indentured servants from the streets of London, was founded in 1767. It did not prosper and the settlers scattered. Negro slaves were imported to tend cattle, cultivate citrus and extract turpentine. The colony was abandoned in 1783 when Britain ceded Florida to Spain. Rolle returned to England and the Negroes resettled in the Bahamas.
PALATKA
Location:S.R. 100 in front of Police station.
County: Putnam
City: Palatka
Description: Established as a trading post in 1821, the settlement was burned in the Seminole War (1836). In 1838, the U.S. Government constructed Fort Shannon which served as a garrison, supply depot and hospital for the forts in the southern area of Florida. Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor, and William T. Sherman were stationed here. During the Civil War the city was occupied by Federal troops. In the postwar period, Palatka became one of the leading tourist centers of Florida.
ST. MARKS EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Location:Main Street & Second Street.
County: Putnam
City: Palatka
Description: Episcopal services in Palatka were first conducted in 1846 by the Rev. John F Young, later Bishop of Florida (1867-1885). The parish was organized in 1853, and the church completed in 1854. During the Civil War, St. Mark's was used as a barracks by Federal troops and suffered considerable damage. After the war the church served as the missionary center of the Episcopal Church in the St. Johns Valley. The original building, though altered, is still in use today.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with Putnam County Historical Society
CROSS FLORIDA BARGE CANAL MEMORIAL
Location: on private road off S.R. 19, S. of Rodman at Roden
County: Putnam
City: Rodman
Description: President Lyndon B. Johnson Dedicated the Start of Construction of the 185-Mile Long Canal at this Site on February 27, 1964.
Sponsors: Canal Authority of Florida, Design and Construction by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District
MELROSE WOMAN'S CLUB
Location:307 Pine St., in front of Woman's Club
County: Putnam
City: Melrose
Description: Since its beginning as the Literary and Debating Society in 1890, the Melrose Woman's Club has been a major contributor to community development. The formation of the Improvement Society for Melrose in 1891 was one of its first accomplishments. The club has also undertaken beautification projects, given scholarships, sponsored educational programs, and in 1895, opened its library to the public. The clubhouse was planned and built of heart pine by a local carpenter. First known as "The Hall," the structure has been in continuous use as a clubhouse since 1893. the building became the Melrose Woman's Club in 1946.
Sponsors: sponsored by the melrose woman's club in cooperation with department of state
THE MOUNT ROYAL SITE
Location:County Road 309
County: Putnam
City: Welaka
Description: Mount Royal has been a favored location for people to live for thousands of years. Archaeological sites include a Native American burial mound, earthworks, village area, and evidence of a British plantation, as well as the remains of a Spanish mission occupied by the Timucus Indians. British naturalist William Bartram visited Mount Royal in 1765–1766, and again in 1774. His description of the large mound, fields, earthen causeways and an artificial pond was published in 1791 and is one of the earliest accounts of an Indian mound in North America. Bartram’s plan of the mound was later published in 1848 by newly formed Smithsonian Institution. Archaeologist Clarence B. Moore excavated the mounds in 1893 and 1894. Moore found human burials with hammered and embossed sheet copper ornaments, polished stone tools, pearl and shell beads, and decorated ceramic vessels. The copper ornaments are similar to those found at Mississippian sites in Georgia, Alabama and Oklahoma and date between 1000 and 1500 A.D. Archaeologist B. Calvin Jones’ salvage excavations at the village site in 1983 and in 1994–1995, revealed evidence of six structures. These buildings contained Spanish artifacts and were probably part of the Mission of San Antonio de Anacape (1587–1675).
Sponsors: The Florida Department of State
ASA PHILIP RANDOLPH
Location:200 Cedar St.
County: Putnam
City: Crescent City
Description: Civil Rights Activist, Trade Union Leader, Crusader for Justice – 1889-1979 “Salvation for a race, nation or class must come from within. Freedom is never granted; it is won, it is never given; it is exacted.” Asa Philip Randolph was born in Crescent City, Florida on April 15, 1889 to Rev. James Williams and Elizabeth Robinson Randolph. His father was a minister at this church where Randolph attended as a youth. In 1925 he became the founder and president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and remained president until 1968. He founded a group that later became the League of Non Violent Civil Disobedience Against Military Segregation. He was the first president (1960-66) of the Negro American Labor Council. Randolph was the originator of two major marches on Washington. One was held in 1941; the other was the “March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom,” which brought more than 200,000 people to the capital on August 28, 1963. Two years later he formed the A. Philip Randolph Institute for community leaders to study the causes of poverty. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Johnson in 1964. He died May 16, 1979 in New York City. In 1989 Randolph became the second Union President to be honored on a U. S. Postage Stamp. “No individual did more to help the poor, the disposed and the working class in the United States and around the world."
Sponsors: THE A. PHILIP RANDOLPH INSTITUTE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MELROSE CEMETERY
Location:S.R. 21 by Campbells Ln. at Eliam Cemetery
County: Putnam
City: Melrose
Description: Formerly known as the "Banana burying grounds," the Melrose non-denominational cemetery was established in 1860 by the Eliam Baptist Church, founded in 1859. The farming community of Banana consisted of small farms, a post office / general store and a gristmill owned by Dr. G.W. McRae (1829 - 1900), local physician and postmaster. The Baptists built their first church on the N.E. corner of the cemetery in 1860 and a second, larger church in 1883. In 1924 they relocated the church site to the town of Melrose where they built a third, larger church. Veterans of eight wars are interred here dating from the Mexican-American War (12846-1848) to the Vietnam War (1964-1973). The Civil War (1861-1865) account for six Union and 35 Confederate veterans graves. General of the Melrose area, fought in the Mexican - American War and the Civil War. In 1895 the church formed a Memorial Association to care for the cemetery property. The Melrose Cemetery Association and volunteers continue to maintain the grounds today. In 2007 a Veterans Memorial honoring veterans of all wars was erected on the site of the 1883 church at the front of the cemetery.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Eliam Baptist Church and the Florida Department of State 2009
THE EDGAR POST OFFICE
Location:1 Keuka Road
County: Putnam
City: Edgar
Description: During the 1870s, Scotsman Charles S. Edgar mined kaolin clay deposits for the Edgar Brothers Clay Company of Metuchen, New Jersey. This clay was used to make heat- resistant bricks and hearth tiles. As the company expanded, Edgar began searching for higher purity kaolin white clays. After learning of a phosphate discovery in Florida, Edgar traveled to Florida where he located a deposit of kaolin between Interlachen and Hawthorne. By 1888, Edgar had developed a process to mine the kaolin from the surrounding fine-grained, white sand. In 1892, he incorporated the Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company. To provide for the needs of his approximately 50 employees, he founded the Town of Edgar in 1883. The town included housing, a company store, a chapel, and a post office. The Edgar Post Office began operations in 1894 and was originally located in the town’s company store. Later, the post office relocated to this small building which was constructed in 1960. The Edgar Post Office served the community until it closed in June 2010.
Sponsors: Edgar Minerals, Inc. and the Florida Department of State

Santa Rosa

BLACKWATER LANDING / BLACKWATER RIVER SHIPWRECKS
Location:Milton Riverwalk Park, S Willing Street
County: Santa Rosa
City: Milton
Description: Side 1: Blackwater River was first named Rio Del Almirante by Spanish explorers in the late 17th century. During Pensacola’s British Period (1763-1781) it was called Middle River because of its location between the Yellow River to the east and the Escambia River to the west. In 1821, the river became known as Blackwater River because of its dark-colored water. In the 1830s, Blackwater Landing included the present-day cities of Milton and Bagdad. The City of Milton, which became the hub of the Blackwater River’s lumber trade during the 1800s because of the river’s prominent bluffs, was incorporated in 1844. Lumbermen referred to these bluffs as Blackwater Landing, Scratch Ankle, and Mill Town. Logs felled up river were floated in rafts to Blackwater Landing where they were loaded on barges and schooners for shipment around the world. Each day Blackwater Landing’s docks were busy with local lumbermen, farmers, textile workers, and manufacturers who sold their goods to brokers from the Southeast and overseas ports. These goods included such items as bricks, lumber, buckets, marine parts, sashes, textiles, fresh produce, and raw cotton. This trade helped make Blackwater Landing a major hub of commerce for Northwest Florida. Side 2: The advent of steam power around 1800 allowed cargo ships to travel farther up rivers and inlets, which resulted in an economic boom to Northwest Florida’s inland towns. From them, merchandise was loaded onto ocean-going sailing ships and steamers for shipment around the world. When local vessels reached the end of their useful life, they were often scuttled and burnt to the water line. Remains of at least 15 commercial vessels are located in the Blackwater River near Milton and Bagdad. The Bethune Blackwater Schooner, located near the former Morton Brickyard and Mill, is well-preserved, with nearly its entire hull intact. Other shipwrecks include the Cedar Wreck in Wright Basin and the Snapper Ketch above Bagdad’s Shipyard Point. The most visible shipwrecks are located in Shield’s Cove near the historic Bay Point Mill. Ships sunk here, including the “Palafox”, “Dinty Moore”, “George T. Locke” and “Guanacastle”, transported lumber. In the 1920s, the passenger steamer “City of Tampa” caught fire, and was pushed from the Bay Point docks and sank in Blackwater Bay. These and other shipwrecks are part of Santa Rosa County’s vibrant maritime heritage that made this region a center of commerce from the late 1800s through the 1930s.
Sponsors: The Blackwater Pyrates and the Florida Department of State
ARCADIA MILL
Location:5709 Mill Pond Lane
County: Santa Rosa
City: Milton
Description: The Arcadia Mill site was the first and largest water-powered industrial complex in antebellum Florida. Arcadia Mill originated in 1817 as part of a Spanish land grant of approximately 680 acres. The site’s ironstone outcropping, a desirable mill seat, a sufficient source of water, and an abundant stand of virgin pine made it well-suited to the timber industry. Between 1828 and 1855, the Arcadia industrial complex developed into a multi-faceted operation that included a railroad, two water-powered sawmills, a bucket factory, shingle mill, textile mill, and an experimental silk cocoonery. In addition to its industrial facilities, the surrounding Arcadia community was an ethnically diverse settlement, populated by enslaved African-American laborers, Anglo-American workers, and an elite management class. In the late 1980s, efforts made by the Santa Rosa Historical Society and the University of West Florida helped to save a portion of the Arcadia Mill site from modern development. Through ongoing archaeological and historical research, many aspects of the site have been investigated including its dam, first sawmill, textile mill, and the residential areas of the Arcadia settlement.
Sponsors: The Santa Rosa County Tourist Development Council and the Florida Department of State
THOMPSON HOUSE/SKIRMISH/BLACKWATER
Location:4620 Forsyth Street
County: Santa Rosa
City: Bagdad
Description: This antebellum home, constructed ca. 1847 by Benjamin Woodson Thompson (1809-1876), partner in the Forsyth and Simpson sawmill enterprise in Bagdad, is the best remaining Florida Panhandle example of a symmetrical Greek Revival structure having a double verandah with balustrade and gable roof. The house was built of local heart pine lumber with the structure of columns, windows and doors reflecting the Doric order. Interior walls are plaster reinforced with animal hair. Window sashes with rolled glass are flanked by operable shutters. During the Civil War, Union troops from the 2nd Maine Cavalry, 1st Florida Cavalry, 19th Iowa Infantry and United States Colored Troops of the 25th, 82nd and 86th regiments raided Bagdad and Milton and camped in and around the house, leaving graffiti including drawings and signatures on the plaster walls. In 1913 the house, which originally faced the Blackwater River, was moved directly back to its present location when the mill complex expanded. Confederate forces, evacuating Pensacola in early 1862, burned Bagdad’s lumber mills. During the remainder of the Civil War, both sides maintained a presence in Santa Rosa County. Union forces periodically conducted reconnaissance raids and captured building materials for use at the Pensacola Navy Yard. Confederate forces posted cavalry troops to watch for Union movement towards the critical rail junction at Pollard, Alabama. During one such raid on October 18, 1864, Lt. Colonel A. B. Spurling, commanding Union troops consisting of some 200 men of the 19th Iowa Infantry Regiment and a section of the locally recruited 1st Florida Battery aboard the steamer Planter, landed 3.5 miles south of here to salvage logs intended for the Bagdad mills. Some 300 Confederates, including Company I, 15th CSA Cavalry Regiment and local militia, were alerted and engaged Spurling’s force. After a two-hour skirmish, the Confederate forces withdrew and Spurling’s men, sustaining minor casualties, re-embarked while managing to salvage 140 logs. One week later Spurling again raided Bagdad and Milton routing Confederate forces in a running battle through town. Afterward, Union troops briefly occupied Bagdad and the Thompson House.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE BAGDAD VILLAGE PRESERVATION ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SITE OF PENSACOLA - ST. AUGUSTINE ROAD
Location:Intersection of Gulf Breeze Parkway and Fairpoint Dr.
County: Santa Rosa
City: Gulf Breeze
Description: Begun by a military detachment from Pensacola in 1824, the first federal highway in Florida was designed to connect the two principal cities of the new territory. Construction was later contracted to John Bellamy, wealthy Jefferson County planter, and the majority of the road was built under Bellamy's direction by slave labor. It was completed in May, 1826 at a cost of $23,000.

Sarasota

LANDING OF THE SCOTS
Location:Corner of Main St. & Gulfstream Avenue
County: Sarasota
City: Sarasota
Description: On December 23, 1885 a number of Scottish families came ashore on or near this spot to settle land they had purchased for their homes in a new country. They met wilderness and hardship instead of the established town promised them; causing many to return in disappointment to Scotland. The remaining colonists along with the American settlers who welcomed them upon their arrival, platted the Town of Sarasota on July 27, 1886.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with the Sarasota County Historical Commission and Sarasota County Historical Society
YELLOW BLUFFS
Location:U.S. 41 & 11th Street
County: Sarasota
City: Sarasota
Description: This area, so named for its outcroppings of yellow limestone, was the home of Sarasota's first inhabitants-the pre-historic and Calusa Indians. Yellow Bluffs later became the homesite of William H. Whitaker, Sarasota's first known white settler. It was also the embarkation point of Judah P. Benjamin , member of the Confederate Cabinet, who fled America at the end of the War Between The States in 1865.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with Sarasota County Historical Commission and Sarasota County Historical Society
HARDING CIRCLE
Location:John Ringling Blvd. & Blvd. of the Presidents
County: Sarasota
City: Sarasota
Description: In 1923 circus magnate John N. Ringling (1866-1936) purchased St. Armands Key, an uninhabited, 150-acre, oval-shaped island. He planned a community of fine residences with a central circle park surrounded by shops. The park was named in memory of his friend, President Warren Harding (1865-1923). The landscape plan for the island consisting of the central park, boulevards and medians, was designed by a prominent landscape architect, John J. Watson (1876-1950). The development work was done by Ringling’s partner, Owen Burns (1869-1937). The grand opening of St. Armands occurred in 1928 when the bridge to the mainland was completed. Lots were sold and subsequently a few homes of Mediterranean and Spanish architecture were built. Although the Depression (1929-1941) halted the progress of his plan, John Ringling’s vision was realized with the development of the residential area, beaches and shopping district since 1945. On January 16, 2001, Harding Circle, with its associated medians and boulevards, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places for its unique early community planning and development.
Sponsors: BY THE CITY OF SARASOTA, THE ST. ARMANDS RESIDENTS ASSOCIATION, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SARASOTA WOMAN'S CLUB
Location:1241 N Palm Ave
County: Sarasota
City: Sarasota
Description: In 1903, what later became the Sarasota Woman’s Club was founded as the (Sarasota) Town Improvement Society. Members were active Sarasota Women who successfully lobbied town leaders to install streetlights and sidewalks, and undertook horticultural projects to beautify the area. In 1913, they began raising funds to build a clubhouse to accommodate the club’s social activities and to serve as the town’s first library, which remained there until 1941. In 1914, this site was purchased for $2,000 and members and the community raised the funds to begin constructing a clubhouse. In April 1915, the handsome Jacobethan Revival-style clubhouse, designed by local architect H.N. Hall and built by local contractor George Lysat, was completed. For 61 years, the clubhouse was a focal point for the group’s varied activities and was the scene of numerous social, literary and entertainment gatherings. In 1976, the Sarasota Woman’s Club moved to new quarters. Nevertheless, the former clubhouse continued its use as a center of Sarasota culture and entertainment for many more years until 1977, when it was placed in use as the home of Florida Studio Theatre, a non-profit, professional, regional theater company.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA STUDIO THEATRE, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Seminole

HENRY SHELTON SANFORD GROVE AND EXPERIMENTAL GARDENS
Location:520 East First St. In front of the Sanford Museum,
County: Seminole
City: Sanford
Description: In this vicinity, Henry Shelton Sanford, pioneer citrus grower, established the St. Gertrude grove in 1871. There, and at his Belair grove and experimental gardens, he advanced the industry through development of some 140 types of citrus. The Sanford gardens experimented with other tropical fruits, planting 30,000 exotic trees from South America and Africa. Much of the labor in the groves was performed by Swedish immigrants who settled at nearby New Upsala.
DR. SETH FRENCH (1824-1896)
Location:1700 French Avenue on grounds of Sanford Middle School
County: Seminole
City: Sanford
Description: Born in Potsdam, New York on May 2, 1824, French served as a Surgeon with the 21st and 35th New York Regiments, New York Volunteers during the early years of the Civil War. In 1863 he moved to Eau Clair, Wisconsin but susceptibility to rheumatism caused him to seek a warmer climate. French arrived in Sanford in the early 1870's coming up the St. Johns River on the steamship, Darlington. Soon thereafter, he bought 20 acres of land and built his house which stood on this land from 1872 until 1954. Part of the land was later donated by his son for a school on this site and the State Farmers Market. The street on which both are located has been known as French Avenue for many years. In 1876, Dr. French moved to Orange City in Volusia County and became involved in promoting the early settlement of the community. He served as a member of the Florida Senate in 1879 representing Volusia County and was appointed Florida's first Commissioner of Immigration for the years 1879 and 1880. About 1881, he moved back to his house in Sanford. He was a Mason, and a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and owned citrus groves and property throughout Central Florida. Dr. French died in Sanford on January 29, 1896.
Sponsors: The Seminole County Historical Commission in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State

St. Johns

WARDEN WINTER HOME
Location:19 San Marco Avenue
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The Warden Winter Home was built in 1887 for William G. Warden of Philadelphia. A partner with Henry Flagler and John D. Rockefeller in the Standard Oil Company, Warden was also the President of the St. Augustine Gas and Electric Light Company and Financial Director of the St Augustine Improvement Company. One of the most imposing private residences in the city, it was a center of winter social activity. Its Moorish Revival architecture and elaborate interior reflect the exuberance of the Gilded Age and St. Augustine's role as a winter resort. It remained in the Warden family through the 1930s. In 1941 it was purchased by Norton Baskin and remodeled as the Castle Warden Hotel. Baskin and his wife, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (author of The Yearling), had an apartment on the top floor. Many writers and other distinguished visitors came here during its decade as a hotel. Locally known as Warden Castle, it has served as Ripley's Believe It or Not Museum since 1950.
Sponsors: Ripley's Believe It or Not Museum in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
TREATY PARK
Location:Treaty Park on Wildwood Drive
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: In 1823, two years after Florida was acquired by the United States, leaders of the Seminole and Miccosukee Tribes met with government officials on the banks of the creek near this site to settle conflicting claims to Florida lands. After twelve days of negotiation, they signed the treaty of Moultrie Creek on September 18, 1823. The tribes were to occupy a four million acre reservation of the interior peninsula extending roughly from Lake George to the Everglades. The Government was to assist their relocation and help support them there for a period of twenty years. Failure on both sides to comply with the terms of this and later treaties led to the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). The longest, most costly of American Indian wars decimated the Seminole and Miccosukee Tribes and led to the surrender of most of the survivors for transportation to the reservations in the West. Some of the surviving natives escaped this forced migration by taking refuge in remote areas of the Everglades. Today their descendants still maintain the Seminole and Miccosukee cultural identity and contribute to Florida's diverse ethnic heritage. The exact site of the treaty signing is unknown. This park is dedicated in commemoration of that historic event.
Sponsors: The St. Johns County Commission in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
WORLD WAR II-OPERATION PASTORIUS / ST. JOHNS COUNTY
Location:200 Ponte Vedra Boulevard, In front of Vedra Inn & Club.
County: St. Johns
City: Ponte Vedra
Description: Side 1: On the night of June 16, 1942, German U-boat U-584 landed four trained Nazi agents here dressed as American civilians. After burying four boxes containing explosives and incendiaries in the sand, they boarded a bus en route to New York to rendezvous with another team of saboteurs. Two members of the New York team betrayed the operation to the FBI. All were apprehended, tried and convicted. The informers went to prison and the others were electrocuted on August 8, 1942. Side 2: On July 21, 1821, Major General Jackson, Florida's first Territorial Governor, established St. Johns County, with St. Augustine as the county seat. It contained all of Florida east of the Suwannee River, approximately 39,400 square miles, with over 1,100 miles of coastline. Since 1821, more than 2/3 of Florida's present 67 counties have been carved from St. Johns County's original boundaries reducing our County to 609 square miles.
Sponsors: The Beaches Area Historical Society, Inc. in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
TOVAR HOUSE
Location:St. Francis Street
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The infantryman Jose Tovar lived on this corner in 1763. The original site and size of his house remained unchanged during the British period, when John Johnson, a Scottish merchant, lived here. After the Spanish returned in 1784, Jose Coruna, a Canary Islander with his family, and Tomas Caraballo, and assistant surgeon, occupied the house. Geronimo Alvarez, who lived next door in the Gonzaliz-Alvarez House, purchased the property in 1791. It remained in his family until 1871. A later occupant was Civil War General Martin D. Hardin, USA. The Tovar House has been owned by the St. Augustine Historical Society since 1918.
Sponsors: The Board of Commissioners of St. Johns County In Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
GONZALEZ-ALVAREZ HOUSE - THE OLDEST HOUSE
Location:on St. Francis Street, next door to Tovar House.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: For more than three centuries this site has been occupied by St. Augustinians. Beginning about 1650, a succession of thatched wooden structures were their homes. This coquina stone house was built soon after the English burned St. Augustine in 1702, and originally was a one -story rectangle with two rooms. As times changed during the Spanish, British and American occupations, a wooden second story, an off-street porch, and other features were added. Preserved by the St. Augustine Historical Society since 1918, the house became a registered national landmark in 1970.
Sponsors: Sponsored by The St. Johns County Historical Commission In Cooperation With the Department of State
GRACE UNITED METHODIST CHURCH
Location:8 Carrera St.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Grace United Methodist Church is a reminder of the tremendous physical impact Henry M. Flagler had on St. Augustine. This complex of structures resulted from a compromise between Flagler and the congregation of Olivet Church. That group of northern Methodists agreed to exchange the land on which their church and parsonage stood for a new complex designed by John M. Carrere and Thomas Hastings. Flagler, in turn, employed the same architects in designing his Alcazar Hotel, which rose on the former Olivet Site. Construction began in 1886 and was completed in late 1887. Grace Methodist Episcopal Church was dedicated in January 1888. The church and parsonage are excellent examples of the Spanish Renaissance Revival Style of architecture, and the decision to execute the design in poured concrete resulted in unusual and aesthetically pleasing structures which have stood the tests of time and the elements. Grace United Methodist Church was entered in the National Register of Historic Places on November 29, 1979.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Grace United Methodist Church In Cooperation With Department of State
SPANISH DRAGOON BARRACKS
Location:61 Cordova St.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: A first Spanish period two-story coquina, shingle roofed structure, 33' x 19', erected on the east side of this lot became the barracks for the Spanish dragoons in 1792. Each story had two rooms. One upper room contained a rack for 20 muskets and 40 pistols, another rack for saddles and bridles, a table and two benches. A detached kitchen, coquina curbed well, stable and privy were located adjacent to the barracks. In the yard, a cultivated vegetable garden, orange, lemon and fig trees flourished. By 1822 the barracks had deteriorated and was razed.
Sponsors: The St. Johns County Historical Commission and the Security Federal Savings & Loan Association in Cooperation with Department of State
DR. PECK HOUSE
Location:St. George Street.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The stone walls of this building date from before 1750 and were a part of a house owned by the Royal Treasurer late in the First Spanish Period. During the British Period it served for a time as the home of Governor John Moultrie. In 1837 Dr. Seth S. Peck purchased the house and rebuilt it using the old walls and adding the frame second-story. It remained in the Peck family until willed to the City in 1931. A generous grant from the Flagler Foundation permitted extensive restoration in 1968.
Sponsors: St. Johns County Historical Commission in Cooperation with Department of State
FORT SAN DIEGO (DIEGO PLAINS)
Location:Landrum Ln, 0.2 miles West of CR 210
County: St. Johns
City: Ponte Vedra Beach
Description: In 1736 Diego de Espinosa owned a cattle ranch on Diego Plains, a flat, open area east of here. For protection against Indians, his house was surrounded by a 15-foot high palisade with two bastions at opposite corners. Manned later by Spanish soldiers, this post was known at Fort San Diego. On May 23, 1740, during the British expedition against St. Augustine, General James Oglethorpe's 400 man army captured the fort and its 50 defenders. The British added a ditch and breastwork, and used the fort to protect the St. Johns River-St. Augustine supply line. They evacuated the fort on July 25. By 1743 it lay in ruins.
Sponsors: Sponsored by St. Johns Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
OLD SPANISH QUARRIES
Location:Anastasia Island State Recreation Area, Anastasia Rd. south of Flamingo Dr.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: About 200 yards south-east of this point are the remains of the King's Coquina Quarries. (Coquina, a type of limestone composed of mollusk shells and sand, is found along the north-east coast of Florida.) Coquina was used in the building of many early colonial structures in St. Augustine, including the fortress Castillo de San Marcos (1672-1696). On July 21, 1821, Major General Andrew Jackson, Florida's first Territorial Governor, established St. Johns County, with St. Augustine as the county seat. It contained all of Florida east of the Suwannee River, approximately 39,400 square miles, with over 1,100 miles of coastline. Since 1821, more counties have been carved from St. Johns' original boundaries, reducing it to 609 square miles of land area.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the St. Johns Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
FLAGLER MEMORIAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
Location:Sevilla Street.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: St. Augustine had no Protestant church when it became an American town in 1821. At first a united Protestant church was favored. Many denominations sent missionaries such as Presbyterian Eleazer Lathrop, who first arrived in 1821. By October, 1823, the few resident Presbyterians had decided to build their own church. Rev. Wm. McWhir arrived to organize the congregation. In 1824, the First Presbyterian Church was constituted and a cornerstone was laid for a structure. That church, which was located on St. George Street, housed Florida's first formally constituted Presbyterian congregation until 1890.
OLD SPANISH CHIMNEY AND WELL
Location:Intersection of Old Beach Rd. and Riviera St.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: These ruins are all that remain of what was probably a Spanish barracks which housed the quarry overseer, master masons, and stonecutters who were involved in the construction of the Castillo de San Marcos. The quarry, located directly across the road from this site, contained rich veins of coquina which the Indian workers shaped into rough blocks. Under the supervision of the quarry overseer, Alonso Diaz Mejia, the blocks were transported by wagon and then by raft to the site of the Castillo. Completed in 1695, the great fortress was the keystone of the Spanish system of defense of Florida.
Sponsors: Sponosred by St. Johns County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
CATHEDRAL OF ST. AUGUSTINE
Location:38. Cathedral Place.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The parish of St. Augustine, which dates from the celebration of a mass on September 8, 1565, by the Spaniard Pedro Menedez and his men, is the oldest Catholic parish within the present day United States. During Queen Anne's War, the English Governor of South Carolina, James Moore, raided St. Augustine and destroyed an earlier church. Plagued by financial difficulties, the parish was unable to construct a new church until this coquina edifice was begun in 1793. Completed in 1797, it became a cathedral in 1870 when St. Augustine was elevated to a diocese. Augustin Verot was invested as the first bishop. In 1887, fire severely damaged the cathedral, but the facade and walls remained standing and were preserved when the building was restored in 1887-1888. The chancel, transcept and campanile were added at that time. Further restoration was carried out in 1965.
Sponsors: Sponsored by St. Johns County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
PONCE de LEON HOTEL
Location:King St. at Flagler College
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The magnificent structure was erected between 1885 and 1887 by Henry M. Flagler, the hotel and railroad magnate whose activities contributed greatly to the development of Florida's eastern coastal area. Designed by the New York architectural firm of Carrere and Hastings, the building reflects the Spanish Renaissance style throughout. The hotel was the first major edifice in the United States to be constructed of poured concrete, a mixture of cement, sand, and coquina shell. The interior is decorated with imported marble, carved oak, and murals painted by Tojetti and George W. Maynard. Its stained glass windows were created by Louis Tiffany of New York. The Ponce de Leon Hotel was the flagship of the Flagler hotel system which soon extended all along the east coast of Florida. Located in the "Winter Newport," this resort hotel entertained celebrities from around the world, including several U.S. Presidents. During World War II, the hotel served as a Coast Guard Training Center. In 1968, this historic landmark was converted into Flagler College, an accredited liberal arts institution. Independent and coeducational, the college serves students from across the nation.
Sponsors: Sponsored by St. Johns County Historical Commission In Cooperation With Department of State
MASSACRE OF THE FRENCH-MATANZAS INLET
Location:200 ft. S. of Matanzas Inlet Bridge, W. side A1A.
County: St. Johns
City: Summer Haven
Description: In 1565 some 300 French castaways, under Jean Ribault, were massacred here by Spaniards, crushing their attempt to occupy Florida. The French ships, sailing from Fort Caroline to attack St. Augustine, were driven ashore by a storm. At this inlet most of the survivors were put to the knife by Don Pedro Menendez. Hence it was named Matanzas, meaning Slaughters.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with St. Johns County Historical Commission
PICOLATA "PASS OF THE SALAMATOTO RIVER"
Location:S.R. 13 & S.R.208 (Picolata Road)
County: St. Johns
City: Picolata
Description: Here where the St. Johns River narrows, was a natural crossing used by Indians, and later by the Spaniards, in pushing west. A Spanish fort, built in 1700, protected the crossing and trail that led to Apalache, near Tallahassee. From 1836 to 1870, a stage line, connecting with river steamers, ran from this point to St. Augustine.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with St. Johns County Historical Commission
PUBLIC BURYING GROUND
Location:St. Augustine, vicinity of City Gate, on grounds o
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: During the yellow fever epidemic of 1821, this half-acre plot was set aside as a public cemetery. Many Protestant pioneers to the new Florida Territory are buried here. Often such burials, make at public expense, went unmarked. The Presbyterian Church has owned and maintained the cemetery since 1832. Interments were discontinued in 1884.
Sponsors: St. Johns County Historical Commission
SENTINELS OF THE COAST
Location:Lighthouse Park.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Since early times, coastal towers were important in the defense of St. Augustine. From the wooden lookout here in 1586, Spanish sentries warned of approaching English raiders under Sir Francis Drake. Later the tower was built of stone. It served during the 1740 siege, was converted to a lighthouse in 1823 and used until it was lost to the sea. The present light replaced it in 1874.
Sponsors: St. Johns County Historical Commission in Cooperation with the Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
MISSION NOMBRE DE DIOS
Location:San Marcos Avenue on grounds of Prince of Peace Ch
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: On this site, September 8, 1565, Pedro Menendez de Aviles landed with a band of settlers to found St. Augustine, first permanent Christian settlement in the United States. Father Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales, Spanish diocesan priest, offered here the first Mass in the Nation's first parish. The Spanish pioneers named this landing site Nombre de Dios-Name of God-and founded here the first mission in the United States.
Sponsors: In Cooperation with St. Johns County Historical Commission
ZORA NEALE HURSTON
Location:791 W. King St..
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Noted author Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) rented a room in this house in 1942. One of the few surviving buildings closely linked with Hurston’s life, it is an example of frame Vernacular construction, with cool, north-facing porches on both floors. The owners frequently rented to female students at nearby Florida Normal and Industrial Institute (now Florida Memorial College in Miami). While living here Hurston taught part time at the Institute and completed her autobiography, Dust Tracks on a Road. Also, she met novelist Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, a St. Augustine resident and author of The Yearling. Earlier in 1927 Hurston married Herbert Sheen, a Chicago medical student, at the St. Johns County Courthouse. Hurston was one of the first to appreciate the significance of Fort Mose north of St. Augustine, the first town settled by free black people in the United States. Her article on Fort Mose appeared in the October, 1927 issue of the Journal of Negro History. During her lifetime Hurston traveled the back roads of Florida collecting folk stories and songs that she used to write musical plays, short stories, and novels.
Sponsors: ST. JOHNS COUNTY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MAJOR DADE AND HIS COMMAND MONUMENTS
Location:St. Augustine National Cemetary
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: On December 28, 1835, during the Second Seminole War, a column of 108 U.S. Army soldiers dispatched from Fort Brooke (Tampa) to relieve the detachment at Fort King (Ocala) was surprised by a strong force of Seminole Indians near Bushnell in Sumter County. Except for three soldiers and an interpreter, the entire column of 108 men, led by Major Francis Langhorne Dade, perished in battle that day. On August 15, 1842, Dade and his command, as well as other casualties of the war, were re-interred here under three coquina stone pyramids in a ceremony marking the end of the conflict. Among those buried with Dade are Captain George W. Gardiner, U.S. Military Academy (U.S.M.A.) 1814, first Commandant of Cadets at West Point, and Major David Moniac, U.S.M.A., 1822, a Creek Indian and first Native-American graduate of the Military Academy.
Sponsors: THE WEST POINT SOCIETY OF NORTH FLORIDA AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ST. AUGUSTINE ALLIGATOR FARM
Location:Anastasia Island, 999 Anastasia Boulevard.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The St. Augustine Alligator Farm is one of the oldest continuously operated attractions created specifically for the purpose of entertaining visitors to Florida. Its origins date to the early 1890s, the first decade of St. Augustine's emergence as a popular tourist destination. Alligators were initially used to attract visitors to a small museum and souvenir shop on St. Augustine Beach at the terminus of a tram railway that ran across Anastasia Island. The owners soon discovered the public's fascination with the reptiles and in 1909 incorporated the South Beach Alligator Farm and Museum of Marine Curiosities, which they moved to its present location in 1920. W.I. Drysdale and F. Charles Usina purchased ownership in 1936 and, after a disastrous fire, began at once to rebuild the facilities, expand the collection, and create national publicity for the attraction. Thousands of servicemen who visited the Alligator Farm during World War II helped to broadcast its popularity. The collection of alligators and other animals in a controlled environment has provided a unique opportunity for scientists who have conducted research in cooperation with the institution. The St. Augustine Alligator Farm's role in the development of tourism in the state was recognized in 1992 with its listing on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: The St. Augustine Alligator Farm in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
LINCOLNVILLE HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of MLK Ave & Bridge St.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Once the site of Indian Villages, colonial plantations and orange groves, Lincolnville began as a settlement of emancipated slaves in 1866. African-Americans, who trace their origins to the City’s 16th century founding, played an integral role in the history of St. Augustine for centuries before the forced segregation of the late 1800s led them to create their own community institutions. Here, they built churches, schools, and a vibrant business center surrounded by residences that displayed the ornate architecture of the age. By 1930, Lincolnville had become a major part of the City, encompassing both the African-American community itself and the adjacent white residential areas that had grown up with it. In 1964, civil rights demonstrations organized in Lincolnville attracted attention and influenced Congressional debated that led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Today, the fifty-block Lincolnville neighborhood still contains the Ancient City’s largest concentration of late Victorian Era buildings, most of them private homes. The Lincolnville Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1991.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the City of St. Augustine and the Florida Department of State
SEGUI-KIRBY SMITH HOUSE
Location:12 Aviles Street
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The Segui-Kirby Smith House is one of only 36 Spanish Colonial houses remaining in St. Augustine. The house dates from the late 1700s. The site on which it is situated has been continuously occupied since the late 1500s. In 1786 it became the home of Bernardo Segui, a prosperous merchant of Minorcan descent who was also baker to the garrison and a Spanish militia official. Judge Joseph Lee Smith, first Judge of the Superior Court for East Florida, rented the home about 1823 from Segui's heirs, and in time the family purchased it. Edmund Kirby Smith was born here in May 1824. A West Point graduate, he became at 38 the youngest lieutenant general in the Confederate Army and was the last Confederate general to surrender his command. When General Kirby Smith and his sister sold the home in 1887, it became a boarding house with offices. The small building on the west was the kitchen and dining room. In 1895 John L. Wilson and Frances Wilson, gave the lot and building in trust to a private organization for use as a free public library. Today the St. Augustine Historical Society holds the property under this trust as its historical research library.
Sponsors: The St. Johns County Commission in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
VILLA ZORAYDA
Location:83 King St. LOCATED ON KING STREET (BUS, U.S. 1) BET
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The Villa Zorayda was constructed in 1883 as the winter home of Franklin Smith, a Boston millionaire who was so impressed by the magnificence of the Alhambra Palace which he saw during a visit to Granada, Spain, that he decided to build his house as an exact replica of one wing of the palace at one-tenth of the original size. The 12th century palace had been built by the Moors who ruled Spain for six centuries before being expelled in 1492. Smith, a gifted amateur architect, designed the house himself, using the innovative technique of constructing the building with poured concrete reinforced with crushed coquina stone. Many other materials used in finishing the residence were imported from Spain. In 1913, the building was bought by Abraham S. Mussallem. In 1922, it became a nightclub and gambling casino which closed in 1925 when Florida outlawed gambling. In 1936, it was opened as a tourist attraction called the Zorayda Castle, exhibiting items fitting the architectural theme of the building. The property was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1993.
Sponsors: Zorayda Castle and Florida Department of State
ST. AMBROSE PARRISH
Location:6070 Church Road
County: St. Johns
City: Hastings
Description: The intact buildings and grounds of St. Ambrose Parish reflect the commitment of the Roman Catholic Church to reach small rural communities in Florida. Catholic Mass was first celebrated with settlers in a barn here at Moccasin Branch in the early 1800s. In 1875, St. Ambrose Parish was established when a small wood frame church was built by Father Stephen Langlade. Father Langlade was a skilled carpenter from France who also built a rectory, school, convent, and a larger church by 1907. A second convent was built after the first one burned in 1917, and a new parish hall was built in 1938. Students attended the school from 1881 through 1948 under the tutelage of the Sisters of St. Joseph, who lived in the convent. The early settlers of the area were farmers of Spanish, Irish, Minorcan, Greek, and Italian heritage. Their descendants, with names such as Ashton, Floyd, Lopez, Masters, Ortagus, Pacetti, Pappy, Pellicer, Rogero, Sanchez, Solana, Solano, Triay, Weedman, and others, continue to live in the area and attend the small parish church. The pioneers whose daily lives were intertwined with St. Ambrose Parish are buried in the cemetery nearby.
Sponsors: THE ST. JOHNS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GOVERNOR GRANT'S PLANTATIONS
Location:2690 S. Ponte Vedra Blvd.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: In 1768, James Grant (1720-1806), Governor of British East Florida from 1763 to 1773, established Grant's Villa Plantation at the juncture of the Guana and North Rivers. Enslaved Africans cleared the 1,450-acre tract of land, planted indigo seeds, and processed the plants into blue indigo dye. Indigo dye became East Florida's main export, and Grant's Villa was its most profitable plantation. By 1780, due to declining soil fertility and the disruption of transportation routes during the American Revolution, indigo cultivation was no longer profitable. Ordered to develop a new estate 12 miles north at the headwaters of Guana River, overseer William Brockie and the slaves completed Mount Pleasant Plantation in 1781. Just south of today's Mickler Road, between SR A1A and Neck Road, the slaves built two earthen dams which enclosed a 220-acre rice field. The dam on the south blocked the flow of salty tidal water. The barricade to the north created a fresh water reservoir. In 1784, following the return of East Florida to Spain, both plantations were abandoned and the enslaved Africans were transported to The Bahamas, from where they were sold to rice planters in South Carolina.
Sponsors: ST. JOHNS COUNTY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WILLIAM BARTRAM'S PLANTATION
Location:Near intersection SR 16 & 13
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: In 1766 on the banks of the St. Johns River at Little Florence Cove, William Bartram attempted to farm a 500-acre land grant. Bartram had spent much of the previous year exploring the new British colony of East Florida with his father, John Bartram, the Royal Botanist for America under King George III. When John Bartram returned home, near Philadelphia, the younger Bartram stayed in Florida. He hoped like many other settlers to make a fortune exporting cash crops such as indigo and rice. Using six enslaved Africans, Bartram cleared the forest and planted, but within a year he abandoned his farm and returned home. Bartram was known in England for illustrating his father s botanical specimens. Between 1773-1777 patrons financed Bartram’s further exploration of the American Southeast. In 1791, he published his observations in Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, one of the most influential travel accounts of the American frontier. Rather than write a mere scientific catalog, Bartram produced a joyful and tender portrait of a virgin land with an infinite variety of animated scenes, inexpressibly beautiful and pleasing which inspired the poets of England’s Romantic Movement.
Sponsors: ST. JOHNS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE OLD ST. JOHNS COUNTY JAIL
Location:167 Marco Ave.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Built in 1891, the St. Johns County Jail held prisoners until 1953. The previous county jail was located next to the Hotel Ponce de Leon in downtown St. Augustine, Florida. Henry Morrison Flagler (1830-1913), co-founder of the Standard Oil Company, founder of the Florida East Coast Railroad and major real estate developer, donated $10,000 towards construction of this new jail. It is the oldest surviving government building in St. Johns County. The architecture is Romanesque Revival with elements of Queen Anne Victorian. It was constructed by the Pauly Jail Building and Manufacturing Company of St. Louis, which would later build Alacatraz prison in California along with several other jails throughout North America. Up to 72 inmates could be housed in the building along with living quarters for the sheriff and his family. The conditions were primitive for most of its history with up to four inmates in a cell, no indoor plumbing until 1914 and open barred windows. When the last inmates were transferred out in 1953, the old jail building became a tourist attraction recreating what life was like for prisoners at the turn of the century.
Sponsors: THE OLD JAIL, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
BLACK CATHOLIC HERITAGE
Location:86 Martin Luther King Blvd.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: This block of property owned by the Catholic Church contains three historic buildings that embody an important part of African American heritage of St. Augustine. It was part of “Yallaha” orange grove plantation before the Civil War and was conveyed to the church by the Dumas family in 1890. The first building was constructed in 1898 was the school, originally called St. Cecilia, later St. Benedict. It is the oldest surviving brick schoolhouse in St. Augustine. With a tower and original wraparound porch, it was a landmark of Victorian architecture. It was the gift of Mother Katharine Drexel (1858-1955), a wealthy Philadelphia heiress who founded the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Colored People and established more than 60 parochial schools around the country. On October 1, 2000, Pope John Paul II named Mother Drexel a saint, and two St. Augustinians attended the canonization ceremony at the Vatican. The Sisters of St. Joseph, a teaching order that was brought here in 1866, operated St. Benedict School. They were involved in a celebrated civil rights case when, on Easter Sunday 1916, three of the nuns - Sisters Mary Thomasine Hehir, Mary Scholastica Sullivan, and Mary Beningus Cameron - were arrested for violating a 1913 Florida law that made it a criminal offense for whites to teach in a black school. They were released when a judge ruled the law did not apply to private schools. After serving many generations of students (of several religions) from kindergarten through eighth grade, St. Benedict School was closed in 1964 when local Catholic schools were integrated. St. Benedict the Moor Church, on the north end of the property, was begun in 1909 and completed in 1911. It was designed by the Savannah architects Robinson and Reidy, who designed Orange Street School at the same time. The church was named for a Sicilian friar (1526-1589) who was known as “The Holy Negro” for his charitable work and canonized in 1807. The use of his name here had earlier roots in the St. Benedict Benevolent Society, begun before the Civil War and incorporated in 1872 by St. Augustine’s black Catholics. The red brick rectory building between the church and the school was constructed in 1915, and for many years housed the Josephite Fathers out of Baltimore who pastored here. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. visited the rectory in 1964.
Sponsors: THE DIOCESE OF ST. AUGUSTINE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
ST. AUGUSTINE SEA WALL
Location:Avenida Menendez Near Marine St
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: This portion of the St. Augustine sea wall, extending from King Street to the south end of St. Francis Barracks, was constructed during the period 1833 to 1844. The coquina wall with granite top served as protection for the homes and businesses on the waterfront. Stone for the walls was quarried across the Matanzas River on Anastasia Island. The granite coping came from Pennsylvania and Connecticut. Together with the refurbishing of the Castillo de San Marcos, renamed Fort Marion by the Army, this project was an early example of the work assigned to graduates of the United States Military Academy at West Point, the first engineering school in the United States. This was one of the earliest federally funded projects in the Territory of Florida. The West Point graduates who designed and supervised the work were: 1st Lieutenant Stephen Tuttle (1797-1835; Class of 1820); 1st Lieutenant Francis L. Dancy (1806-1890; Class of 1826), 1st Lieutenant Henry W. Benham (1818-1884; Class of 1837) and 1st Lieutenant Jeremy F. Gilmer (1818-1883; Class of 1839).
Sponsors: THE WEST POINT SOCIETY OF NORTH FLORIDA AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
BELUTHAHATCHEE
Location:S.R. 13 between Wedgewood and Roberts Rd.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: "Beluthahatchee" as defined by noted author Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) is a mythical "Florida Shangri-la, where all unpleasantness is forgiven and forgotten." When Florida author/activist Stetson Kennedy (b. 1916) moved here, the site was named and set aside as a wildlife sanctuary. After WWII, he infiltrated and exposed the KKK and other domestic terrorist groups. Kennedy's books include Palmetto Country (1942), Southern Exposure (1946), Jim Crow Guide (1956), and The Klan Unmasked (1957). The latter two were translated around the world. This site served as headquarters for his pioneering 1950 "total equality" write-in bid for the U.S. Senate. His book, After Appomattox, was completed here in 1995, with the help of his wife Joyce Ann. That year he won the Gustavus Meyer Award for doing the most to combat bigotry in the USA. In April 2005 Kennedy was inducted into the Florida Artist’s Hall of Fame. Beluthahatchee also served as a Florida hangout for America's legendary folk balladeer, Woody Guthrie. Here, Guthrie completed his autobiographical book, Seeds of Man, and over 80 Florida songs, including "Beluthahatchee Bill.” This site was designated a Literary Landmark by Friends of Library-USA in 2003.
Sponsors: THE ST. JOHNS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
PALM VALLEY
Location:148 Canal Blvd.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: This rich hammock land once covered with oaks, magnolias and especially palms was originally known as the Plains of Diego, after Don Diego de Espinosa, who built a small fort nearby in the 1730’s. Around 1900, the community of Diego was renamed Palm Valley after the Sabal Palm. The Sabal or Cabbage Palm, Florida’s state tree, was for many years an important contributor to the local economy, adding hundreds of dollars annually to the meager income of area settlers. Each winter, orders came from the nation’s churches for fresh cut palm buds for the celebration of Palm Sunday. Palm buds were cut by the thousands, packed in bunches of twenty-five or fifty, and taken to Durbin Station on the Florida East Coast Railway where they were picked up by the train. Later, after the Intracoastal Waterway was opened in 1912, stacks of palms were taken to a dock on the canal where they were picked up by the Navajo or the Alamo, two packet boats that hauled freight between Miami and Jacksonville over the new waterway. The completion of the Intracoastal Waterway through Palm Valley, in addition to allowing boat passage, effectively drained much of the area that was formerly marshland.
Sponsors: THE ST. JOHNS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
VILANO BEACH CASINO
Location:Anahama Dr. by Ferrol Rd.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Formerly at this site stood the Vilano Beach Casino, constructed in 1926-27. Casinos of the early 1900s were a source of social entertainment. Gambling was not provided. Big name bands from New York, vaudeville acts, theme parties and dances were hosted here. This unique oceanfront casino had monumental architecture on property 300 feet wide and 250 feet deep, a salt water swimming pool 150 feet long by 50 feet wide, and fine dining. A palm log bridge over the North River provided access to the island by car. The casino was the cornerstone of a major development platted as Vilano Beach by the St. Augustine & Atlantic Corporation headed by New York Philanthropist August Heckscher. Automobile and rail travel brought potential buyers during the 1920s Florida Land Boom, however, the plan failed during the Great Depression, and storms of 1938-1939 washed the casino into the sea. Today Mr. Heckscher’s dream is being revitalized. A public recreation area was built in 2004 on the casino site, and the 1920s era layout is the basis for a sustainable town center master plan by the Vilano Beach Main Street Waterfronts Group, a partnership between North Shores Improvement Association (est. 1939) and St. Johns County.
Sponsors: THE ST. JOHNS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SURFSIDE DANCE HALL AND BATH HOUSE
Location:3072 Coastal Hwy. (SR A1A)
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Here from the early 1900s stood Surfside “Casino.” Casinos did not offer gambling - they were entertainment centers. Surfside was built as part of the Capo family resort destination of 165 acres. The yacht Pauline II ferried visitors from St. Augustine up the North River to Capo's Landing at the west end of Surfside Avenue where they could stay at Capo's Hotel and have a five course meal at a 120-seat restaurant for 25 cents. A horse drawn trolley brought visitors to Capo's Beach where the casino offered an upstairs dance hall, a downstairs bathhouse, and a venue for horse races, organized sports and picnic events. A bathing beauty might have her photo taken in front of a biplane on the beach. The North Shores Improvement Association began meeting here in 1939 to improve the quality of life on this barrier island. During and after World War II, Surfside was popular with military personnel where local bands and jukebox music were enjoyed. The building remained a favorite place for young people to have parties through the 1960s. In the 1970s the aging building was torn down and the site converted to a county oceanfront park.
Sponsors: THE ST. JOHNS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DOUBLE BRIDGES AND OLD KING'S ROAD 1772
Location:Dark Horse Ln, near Pellicer Creek
County: St. Johns
City: Hastings
Description: The King’s Road, an overland highway constructed during Florida’s British Colonial period (1763-1784), once traversed the Double Bridges property at this location. The road spanned Pellicer Creek, Hulett Branch, and swamp wetlands over a system of wooden bridges and raised earthen causeways. This crossing has long been called Double Bridges, named for the unusual combination of the two spans built so close together. Remnants of the King’s Road, marked by road cuts through high sandy bluffs and a short section of a causeway, are visible here. A longer section of causeway can be seen on the south side of Pellicer Creek. The bridges are gone, but remaining piers and extensive earthworks serve as monuments to this historic crossing. The causeways and bridges, spanning some 625 feet of swampland, were once an important part of the 18th century road that connected St. Augustine and New Smyrna. This major project, commissioned in 1772, was built to solidify East Florida as the British Crown’s 14th colony. Double Bridges and the Old King’s Road were recorded to the Florida Master Site File as historic sites 8SJ4892 and 8SJ4893 in 2002.
Sponsors: THE DOUBLE BRIDGES COMMUNITY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SANKSVILLE CEMETERY
Location:2380 Joe Ashton Rd.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: This cemetery was most likely established after the Civil War to serve the settlement of Bakersville. The cemetery was used by both black and white members of the community, with black families buried in the eastern half of the property. The earliest marked death date is 1869, though many graves are unmarked. Originally named Bakersville Cemetery, the cemetery’s present name reflects the legacy of the Sanks family of African-American heritage. The first Sanks to settle in the region was Peter Sanks, born a slave in 1819. Following emancipation, Peter purchased large tracts of land in this area. His son, Tip Harrison Sanks, was born in St. Johns County in 1841. Tip also purchased land in the area following the Civil War including this cemetery, acquired in 1901. Tip’s daughter, Julia, became custodian after his death and the cemetery has remained in the Sanks family. Julia is thought to be the inspiration for the black-inspired works of composer Frederick Delius (1862-1934) who heard her singing when he lived near here in Solano Groves on the St. Johns River. Lewis Sanks, Tip’s grandson, honored his ancestors buried here, by renaming the cemetery and its adjacent land “Sanksville” in 1989.
Sponsors: THE ST. JOHNS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
EVERGREEN CEMETERY
Location:SE. 10th Ave. at Evergreen Cemetary
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Established in 1886 outside the city limits when St. Augustine closed its small urban graveyards due to overcrowding, Evergreen became the region’s largest Protestant cemetery of the late 1800s and early 1900s. The design was strongly influenced by America's Rural Cemetery Movement stressing that burying and commemorating the dead was best done in a tranquil, natural landscape set apart from urban life. These principles are reflected in Evergreen’s garden setting and its winding roads and pathways. Many styles of funerary embellishments popular during the period are evidenced in large monuments, elegant statuary, ornamental plantings and formal landscaping. Grave marker iconography includes reclining lambs, praying angels, broken columns, Celtic crosses, flower motifs, Woodmen of the World "trees", and monuments featuring classical revival designs and shapes. Evergreen is the final resting place of Randolph Caldecott (1846-1886), considered the originator of children's picture books and after whom the national Caldecott Medal for distinguished children’s picture book is named; and Heath Canfield (1849-1913), winner of the Congressional Medal of Honor for gallantry in action as a U.S. Cavalryman in 1870.
Sponsors: THE ST.JOHNS COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
KING’S ROAD
Location:On Palencia Club Drive just east of Highway U.S. 1
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The British laid the original route for King’s Road between 1772 and 1775 in an effort to encourage settlement into this area. Extending from St. Mary’s, Georgia to Andrew Turnbull’s Minorcan colony at New Smyrna, King’s Road intersects Palencia Club Drive at this point. The initial construction of King’s Road included bridges for crossing creeks & wetlands. When the American Colonies declared independence from England in 1776, nearly 7,000 Loyalists used this route to seek asylum in Florida, which remained loyal to the British Crown. When the British left Florida as part of the 1783 Treaty of Paris ending the Revolutionary War, maintenance of King’s Road lagged until Florida became a U.S. territory in 1821. During the early 20th century, oyster shell was added to the road bed & some areas were paved with red brick. Portions of the original course of King’s Road have been incorporated into modern trails and roads, particularly US 1, or are abandoned such as the portion visible here.
Sponsors: THE MARSHALL CREEK COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTAND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DAVIS SHORES
Location:North End, Anastasia Island
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Until the 1920s the northwest corner of Anastasia Island was a swampy lowland with occasional peaks of high ground. In 1925, wealthy Florida land developer D.P. Davis, purchased the lowlands and raised them in a massive 1,500 acre dredge and fill operation. Davis designed and subdivided the new land to provide for 50 miles of streets, 100 miles of sidewalks and curbs, parks, plazas, two 18 hole golf courses, a casino, Roman pool, yacht club, hotel, apartments, residences and business districts. Its distinctive curving street patterns, wide boulevards, unusual triangulated lots in a garden-like setting exhibit key elements of the most influential city planning movements of that time: the City Beautiful, Picturesque and Garden City movements. While many lots were sold, Florida's Land Bust of 1926 ended Davis' dream. Only eleven Mediterranean Revival style structures were built: six houses, four apartments, and a sales office for the Davis Corporation. By 1927, the newly completed Bridge of Lions led to a depressed area. Not until the prosperous post-World War II years did Davis Shores see revived interest and rapid growth. Today, Davis Shores still retains much of the original design and most of its 1920s structures.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF ST. AUGUSTINE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLORIDA EAST COAST RAILWAY-GENERAL OFFICE BUILDINGS
Location:Malaga St. between Oviedo and King St.
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: Henry M. Flagler built the Florida East Coast Railway (FEC) to link his resort empire and establish the east coast of Florida as "The American Riviera." Flagler, partner with John D. Rockefeller in Standard Oil, developed the Atlantic shoreline with a chain of luxury hotels from Jacksonville to Key West. Perhaps Flagler's greatest achievement was construction of the Key West Extension finished shortly before his death in 1913. By 1916, the FEC Railway included 23 railroads, terminals, and bridge companies along 739 miles of track. Steamships linked the railroad at Miami to Nassau, Bahamas, and at Key West to Havana, Cuba. The Florida East Coast Hotel Company owned 14 resorts joined by the rail lines. In St. Augustine, Flagler's 1888 railway station west of downtown was replaced by three office towers built starting from south to north in 1922, 1923, and 1926. They served as the Railway's headquarters until 2006, when the FEC provided a $7.2 million gift-in-equity, making possible the transfer of the property to Flagler College. The College is committed to preservation of the buildings and adapting them for College uses.
Sponsors: Flagler College and the Florida Department of State
FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARK
Location:Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park, by ticket booth
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: The Fountain of Youth Park commemorates the 1513 arrival of Juan Ponce de Leon in Florida and the legend of the Fountain of Youth. People have lived on this site for over 3000 years, since the Archaic Period of Florida’s history. In 1565 Spanish Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles established the first successful European colony in America at St. Augustine and his first settlement was built here on the grounds of the Fountain of Youth Park. At that time it was part of the large Timucua town of Chief Seloy. Within nine months Timucua resistance forced the Spaniards to move the colony across the bay. In 1572 it was moved back to the mainland to its present downtown location. In 1587 the first Franciscan mission to the American Indians was built here and named Nombre de Dios. The Mission remained here until the middle of the 17th century. Archaeological excavations at the Fountain of Youth Park since 1934 have revealed the shell mounds of the Archaic inhabitants, parts of Seloy’s town, remains of the Spanish colony and the church and cemetery of the Nombre de Dios mission. There is probably no other single property in Florida that contains such an array of important archaeological resources for our state’s early history.
Sponsors: The Fraser Family and the Florida Department of State
THE XIMENEZ-FATIO HOUSE
Location:20 Aviles Street
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: This two-story coquina house and detached kitchen was built for Spanish merchant Andres Ximenez ca. 1789 fir use as a general store, tavern and family residence. After Florida became a US Territory in 1821, Margaret Cook bough the property in 1823 and, with Eliza Whitehurst, operated it as “Mrs. Whitehurst’s Boardinghouse.” Sarah Petty Anderson bought the house in 1838 and in 1851 she retained Lousia Fatio to manage it as a boarding house. Fatio bought the property four years later and ran it as a fashionable in for twenty years, proving lodging for Florida’s earliest tourists who came to seek a healthier climate. In 1939, the Fatio heirs sold the house to the National Society of Colonial Dames of America- Florida for use as a house museum. Considered one of St. Augustine’s best preserved Spanish Colonial Dwellings, the Ximenez-Fatio House depicts the boarding house lifestyle of Florida’s territorial/Early Statehood Period. It is one of the first museums in America to interpret 19th century women’s history. Multiple archeological excavations document the properties occupation by the Native Americans, Spanish, and British. A rare Spanish Caravaca Cross (ca. 1650) was found on this site.
Sponsors: The National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in the State of Florida and the Florida Department of State.
30° 8’ NORTH LATITUDE
Location:SR A1A in North Beach Access Parking Lot of GTM Research Reserve
County: St. Johns
City: Ponte Vedra Beach
Description: This site is believed by some historians to correspond with the offshore location where Juan Ponce de León calculated his fleet’s position when he first sighted Florida. Ponce’s fleet of three vessels set sail from Puerto Rico in early March 1513. On Sunday, March 27, the day of the Festival of the Resurrection, they sighted what they thought was an island. After sailing northwest along the coast, the fleet moved close to shore, and at noon on April 2 a sighting of the sun was taken, probably with either a quadrant or mariner’s astrolabe. In his work, "Historia General de los Hechos de Los Castellanos en las Islas Y Tierra Firme del Mar Océan", published in 1601, Spanish historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas recorded that the location was 30° 8’ [north latitude]. Herrera’s appointment by Phillip II of Spain as the major chronicler of the Indies gave him access to authentic sources, including documents made during Ponce’s voyage that would not have been available to other writers. This site has been preserved in its natural condition by the State of Florida and is likely what Ponce de León would have seen as he approached Florida for the first time in 1513.
Sponsors: Guana Tolomato Matanzas Research Reserve and the Florida Department of State
ORANGE STREET SCHOOL
Location:40 Orange St
County: St. Johns
City: St. Augustine
Description: St. Augustine High and Grade School opened on October, with an enrollment of more than 400 students in Grades 1-12. The new public school, billed locally as “the finest school in Florida,” was the inspiration of W.S.M. Pinkham, Mayor of St. Augustine and Superintendant of Public Instruction in St. Johns County. The three-story eclectic-revival style school was designed by Robinson & Reidy, Associate Architects, of Savannah and New York, and was constructed at a cost of $60,000. It features a clay tile work, carved rafter ends, an arched entranceway, stepped gables, hipped roof towers, and decorative tile work. The school’s first floor basement contained lunch and recreation rooms and bicycle storage areas. The second and third floors housed 23 classrooms, a large auditorium, and a library. Two science labs were located on the small fourth floor. Theodore Culp, former principle of the DeLand Schools, was appointed as the school’s first principal. The School’s first graduating class in May 1911 included six students. When the school closed in December 1981, it was known as Orange St. Elementary School. Since 1983, the building has housed the St. Johns County School Board and District Administration Offices.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the St. Johns County School Board and the Florida Department of State.

St. Lucie

ST. LUCIE COUNTY
Location:Indian River Drive at Courthouse
County: St. Lucie
City: Fort Pierce
Description: St. Lucie County was formed in 1844 and recreated in 1905. Named for St. Lucie of Syracuse, the region's original inhabitants were the Tequesta Indians. Ft. Pierce, the county seat, was named for Major B.K. Pierce, brother of Pres. Franklin Pierce. The fort was the headquarters of the Army of the South under Gen. Jesup during the Seminole Indian wars. A settlement about the fort began soon after its establishment about 1838.

Sumter

BATTLE OF WAHOO SWAMP
Location:West of Bushnell on S.R. 48, vicinity of Wahoo.
County: Sumter
City: Bushnell
Description: The Battle of Wahoo Swamp occurred near here on November 21, 1836. The 2nd Seminole War, a seven-year struggle resulting from competition between Seminole Indians and white settlers over central Florida lands, had begun almost a year earlier. By November, 1836, Indian forces had concentrated in Wahoo Swamp to oppose General (and Territorial Governor) R.K. Call's pursuing army. The attack of November 21 began with the advance of a mil-long line of about 2500 men including Tennessee Volunteers, regular army artillery and officers, Florida militiamen, and several hundred Creek Indians. In the fierce engagement fought from tree to tree in mud and water, American troops pushed the Seminoles across the slough south of this marker. The Indians' return fire resulted in the death of Major David Moniac, a Creek regular army officer who led a bold attack across the swamp. Near nightfall, army commanders decided not to pursue the Indians further due to the seemingly impassable terrain and to the lack of supplies. Army casualties were low; the number of Indian losses remains unknown. The Seminoles withdrew southward, but the 2nd Seminole War continued until 1842.
Sponsors: sponsored by sumter county historical society in cooperation with department of state
ROYAL SCHOOL SITE
Location:CR 235 at Public Park
County: Sumter
City: Wildwood
Description: Side 1: Royal Community Park is the site of the former segregated Royal School. Founded in 1865, the community of Royal was originally known as Picketsville, which was named for the white picket fences that marked its 40-acre homesteads. It was settled by former slaves from the Old Green Plantation located on the Withlacoochee River. The settlement was called Royal by the late 1880s and the community's post office was established on June 26, 1891. Royal's first industries were farming, logging, and naval stores. In 1874, the Reverend Alfred Brown built the community's first school, a one-room schoolhouse. Because the school was centrally located, children, staff, and teachers were able to walk to school. Later, a three-room school constructed of wooden planks and board windows was built. Perman E. Williams, the school's first officially appointed principal, served during the 1937-38 school year. Men from the community, along with Principal Williams, served as trustees for the school. During the 1930s, the trustees requested and received approval from the Sumter County School Board to build a new Royal school. Side 2: The last and largest Royal School was built following an agreement that Sumter County would furnish materials and the Royal Community would provide the labor to construct the new school. Richard Smith donated the land for the school, and workers from the Depression-era Works Progress Administration (WPA) joined a group of local volunteers to build the facility. The ten-room school was constructed of wooden planks and accommodated 108 students. In 1947, Alonzo A. Young began his tenure as the school's last principal. In 1954, the Supreme Court's landmark ruling in the Brown vs. Board of Education case ended years of organized segregation in public education. At the time, there were eight black schools in Sumter County. The county, however, did not embrace integration until the 1970-71 school year. Following integration, students from the Royal School transferred to the Wildwood elementary, middle, and high schools. In 1984, the Royal School was torn down and a combination community center and fire station was built on the site. The school's 1945 cafeteria, a separate building, was retained and still stands at its original location.
Sponsors: The Royal Library Association, Sumter Board of County Commissioners, Sumter,LLC, T&D Concrete,Inc., Young Performing Artists,Inc., and the Florida Department of State

Suwannee

SUWANNEE COUNTY
Location:200 Ohio Ave S at County Courthouse
County: Suwannee
City: Live Oak
Description: This region was originally the land of the Timucuan Indians. Suwannee County was created in 1858. The county seat was moved from its original site at Houston to Live Oak in 1868 because of the latter's superior geographical position and railroad facilities. Settled by people from the upper South, the county soon became an important agricultural region. It is bounded on the north, west, and south by the Suwannee River.
STEAMBOATING ON THE SUWANNEE RIVER
Location:intersection of U.S. 27 and Ivey Memorial Park Drive
County: Suwannee
City: Bradford